Edited by Makoto Ando

B1. Scattering and Diffraction

The "scattering and diffraction" is a classical but very important topic area covered by URSI Commission B for a long time, and there have been extensive developments of analytical and numerical methods for solving wave scattering and diffraction problems related to two- and three-dimensional canonical geometries during 1996-1999. The recent progress in the area of scattering and diffraction will be summarized below with a reference to several important papers published during the last three years.

Hongo [1997] analyzed rigorously the plane wave diffraction by a circular disk and a circular hole using a new method based on the Weber-Schafheitlin discontinuous integrals, and obtained a rapidly convergent solution. Uchida et al. [1998a] employed the Wiener-Hopf technique to derive a rigorous solution to the plane wave scattering by a conducting thin plate in an analytically compact form. It is interesting to note that they have investigated the validity of the ray tracing method by comparing the ray solution with the rigorous Wiener-Hopf solution. There is also a paper published by Uchida et al. [1998b] treating a related scattering problem.

The above-mentioned works belong to a class of well-known classical geometries. The authors of these papers have investigated the canonical scattering problems from new theoretical aspects. There have been a number of papers on the scattering by non-classical geometries such as complex resonant structures. These geometries are important in radar cross section (RCS) and target identification studies. Hinata et al. [1996] considered an axially slotted conducting elliptic cylinder in a homogeneous medium, and solved the plane wave diffraction by means of the modified point matching method. They checked the accuracy of the solution by evaluating the relative errors, and showed that this numerical method is useful in treating scattering problems related to canonical two-dimensional geometries. Cavities are also known as typical resonant structures and are important in the RCS analysis. Koshikawa and Kobayashi [1997a] considered a two-dimensional, material-loaded cavity formed by a semi-infinite parallel-plate waveguide with an interior planar termination, and analyzed rigorously the plane wave diffraction using the Wiener-Hopf technique. They presented numerical examples on the RCS and showed that the Wiener-Hopf solution is valid over a broad frequency range. A related paper has been published by Kobayashi and his colleagues, in which they carried out a comparative RCS study of two-dimensional, material-loaded cavities of rectangular and circular cross sections [Koshikawa et al., 1997b].

The integral equation method is a well-known approach for solving wave scattering problems. Ito and Tokumaru [1996] proposed the source and radiation field solution for dielectrics and showed that this method can be effectively employed in the integral equation method. There is also a contribution to the development of new methods for solving scattering problems related to random media. Tateiba and Meng [1996] presented a general approach for solving the wave scattering from a conducting body of arbitrary shape and size in a random medium by introducing the idea called the current generator. It is important to note that chiral and related complex media have been a hot topic in electromagnetic theory in recent years. Xu and Yasumoto [1997] developed cylindrical vector-wave-function representations of electromagnetic fields in a biaxial omega-medium based on the plane wave spectrum representation of the fields and the Fourier expansion for the unknown angular spectrum amplitude. As an application of the proposed method, they analyzed the plane wave scattering by a biaxial omega circular cylinder.

Here we have summarized the recent developments related to the topic area of scattering and diffraction based on several important papers published during 1996-1999. It is hoped that there will be a further progress on the scattering and diffraction theory in the future.

(K. Kobayashi)

B2. Inverse Scattering

The inverse scattering problem includes quite general area of application. Recently, intensive research have been carried out in the fields such as non-destructive inspection (NDI), medical application and remote sensing including subsurface sensing.

Some theoretical inverse techniques have been discussed and evaluated. Takenaka et al. [1997a] developed an iterative approach for reconstructing electrical parameters of stratified lossy media using time-domain reflection and / or transmission data. In this work, the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is used and numerical simulations are performed to reconstruct the images of lossy dielectric slabs with high-contrast permittivity. Ishida and Tateiba [1997] presented a reconstruction method based on a boundary matching technique. It involves an iterative procedure of matching the scattered wave calculated from a certain refractive-index distribution with the measured scattered-wave.

Harada, H. et al. [1996] presents an efficient reconstruction algorithm for the three-dimensional diffraction tomography. The algorithm is based on minimizing a functional which is defined as the square residual error between the measured radiation pattern and the calculated one for an estimated relative dielectric constant. Applying the conjugate gradient method to the problem, they derived an iterative formula for reconstructing the ideal relative dielectric constant. Takenaka et al. [1997b] developed a genetic algorithm approach to determine the widths and locations of strips by scattering data. The distribution of strips is characterized by the local shape function. Numerical examples show the effectiveness of the approach.

Underground imaging and characterization of buried objects is also gathering interest. Application of ground penetrating radar (GPR) are discussed for various field including buried pipe detection in urban area and archaeological survey. Hiraoka et al. [1996] explored electromagnetic detection of cylindrical buried objects from the measurements of scattered field. An iterative inversion procedure for the reconstruction of a strongly scattering object is presented based on the conjugate gradient method. Computer simulations are performed for a lossy and homogeneous dielectric circular cylinder with a priori information about the outer contour of the object. The simulated results demonstrate that the reconstruction of complex refractive index of the object show good agreement with the true profile even for cases where the Born or Rytov approximation fails. Saito et al. [1998] discussed an evaluation technique for the electrical property (complex permittivity) of the soil on the historic sites for subsurface measurement. In this paper, they used a method using the coaxial dipole antenna inserted to the soil. The permittivity of the soil on site can be estimated by comparing the measured data with the theoretical chart.

The technique of visualization of the electromagnetic wave radiation from electronic devices and wireless communication for LAN is increasing its importance. Kitayoshi and Sawaya [1997] proposed a method to visualize source distribution of electromagnetic wave by hologram, in which the receiving antenna is scanned in a planer area. This method is based on the exact Green's function and any approximation such as the Fresnel approximation or the Fraunhofer approximation is not used. They also expanded visualization techniques for observation system to measure a various actual communication signals such as digital cellular telephones and micro-cellular LANs.

(M. Sato)

B3. Computational Techniques

The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method was employed in solving the problems with complicated boundaries [Ishizaki et al., 1997], [Naka et al., 1998], [Sato et al., 1996], [Uno and Kanda, 1998] and moving boundaries [Kuroda et al., 1998]. The finite-volume time-domain (FVTD) method was applied to examine the wave propagation in a 2-D tunnel [Han et al., 1998]. An improved finite-difference beam propagation method (FD-BPM) was proposed and found to be effective in both computation time and accuracy [Shibayama et al., 1998a], [Yamauchi et al., 1996a, 1997a].

The finite-element method (FEM) was applied extensively to obtain accurate solutions for a variety of vector-field problems [Koshiba et al., 1997a], [Ohkawa et al., 1997], [Saitoh et al., 1998]. The FEM was often combined with other existing techniques in order to widen the range of application [Koshiba and Tsuji, 1996], [Niiyama et al., 1998], [Tsuji, Y. et al., 1997].

A perfectly matched layer (PML) absorbing boundary condition (ABC) for dispersive media was proposed [Uno et al., 1997] and the performance of the PML-ABC for terminating a quasi-TEM mode in a microstrip line was examined in detail [Namiki, 1997].

Integral equation methods were employed in solving the problems of a transmission line [Nakamura et al., 1998], an antenna with a complex geometry [Ochi et al., 1996], and of a wide class of scattering and diffraction.

The modal expansion approaches were utilized for the numerical solution of boundary value problems such as a body of revolution [Kawano et al., 1996], a waveguide with an elliptic geometry [Krasinski et al., 1996], and a multilayer-coated grating [Matsuda and Okuno, 1996].

(Y. Okuno)

B4. High Frequency Techniques

The ray-tracing method has been introduced as an approach to predict the field strength with a relatively high level of accuracy for complex layouts such as in the indoor environment. In the ray-tracing method, rays are launched from a transmitter, and geometrical reflection, transmission, and diffraction are repeated for various components such as walls and pillars. By applying the ray-tracing technique described above the indoor micro cell area prediction system is developed and its system configuration and major performance are examined [Fujii et al., 1996], [Imai et al., 1996]. Generally, it is difficult to determine the exact path through several diffraction. The method is introduced, which predicts the propagation loss along the multiple diffraction path [Imai et al., 1997].

The scattering of dipole waves by the finite size reflector which is composed of strips on a grounded dielectric slab has been studied by applying Physical Optics (PO) [Chen et al., 1996]. The accuracy of PO is verified by comparing calculated results with the experimental ones for vertical and horizontal dipoles over a circular reflector. Field patterns of reflector antennas can accurately be obtained by applying either PO or aperture field integration method (AFIM). Uniform equivalent edge currents of PO and AFIM are analytically compared and their equivalence in high frequency is discussed [Oodo et al., 1996]. It is asymptotically verified that the patterns by AFIM are almost identical to those by PO in full angular region, provided that AFIM uses the equivalent surface currents consisting of the geometrical optics (GO) reflected fields from the reflector and the incident fields from the feed source. The necessary conditions of the integration surface in AFIM for the equivalence to PO are also clarified [Oodo et al., 1997a]. Validity of the conditions is numerically confirmed for various reflectors including the polyhedron approximate reflectors. The basic procedure for PO and some examples are given to provide a better understanding of the practical applications [Ando, 1996]. Also examined are the interpretation of PO approximation by Field Equivalence Theorem and the comparisons of PO with other methods such as GTD and AFIM. PO, originally developed for a perfect electric conductor, is extended to arbitrary impedance surfaces [Oodo et al., 1997b]. Uniform PO diffraction coefficients for the impedance surfaces are derived and their high accuracy is verified numerically. Ando et al. [1998] have also conducted the mechanism extraction of PO based upon accurate diffraction coefficients. The surface-to-line integral reduction of PO proposed there is capable of extracting the mechanism of all the high frequency diffraction analysis methods, such as GTD, AFIM and PTD (Physical Theory of Diffraction).

The diffraction by a smooth convex surface is asymptotically calculated by applying the concept based on the Method of Equivalent Edge Currents (EEC) [Nishimoto et al., 1996]. The equivalent line currents for creeping rays which are derived from the diffraction coefficients of the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) are used. By evaluating the radiation integral containing these equivalent line currents, the creeping ray contribution which is effective within the caustic region is obtained. The validity of this method is confirmed by comparing with the exact solution for a perfectly conducting sphere of radius a. The advantage of this method is the validity of it in the caustic region of the creeping rays where the GTD solution is invalid.

(T. Ishihara)

B5. Transient Fields

B5.1 Scattering and Diffraction

The analysis of the transient scattering has been of great interest in conjunction with the study of target identification, classification and electromagnetic pulse coupling. The research has progressed in the numerical study of the scattering from cavity-shaped scatterers and the analysis of scattering data by using wavelet transforms.

Hosono [1995] has studied the scattering from a circular conducting cylinder with longitudinal slots by combining the modified point matching method (MPMM) with the fast inversion of Laplace transform method (FILT). MPMM is at least by the half order of the simultaneous equations to be solved under the same conditions of accuracy as compared to the conventional point matching method(PMM).

Ohnuki et al. [1996] has investigated the responses of a parallel plate waveguide cavity by the combination of PMM taking into account the edge condition and FILT. Ohnuki et al. [1998] have also applied the same method to the analysis of the scattering by a parallel plate waveguide cavity with the iris. By using wavelet transforms, Nishimoto and Ikuno [1997] have analyzed the scattering data from radar targets; a conducting cylinder, two parallel conducting cylinders, a parallel-plate waveguide cavity, and a rectangular cavity in the underground. In the resulting time-frequency displays, the scattering mechanisms including specular reflection, creeping wave, resonance, and dispersion are clearly observed and identified.

B5.2 Guided Waves and Propagation

Shiozawa et al. have investigated the characteristics of a 2-D Cherenkov laser composed of a planar relativistic electron beam and a parallel plate waveguide loaded with a dielectric grating from the following points of view: (a) grating parameters [Shiozawa, T. and T. Nishimura, 1996a], (b) nonlinear saturation with the aid of the FDTD method [Shiozawa, T. et al., 1996b], (c) feasibility of very compact lasers [Shiozawa, T. and H. Kamata, 1997]. The numerical simulation based upon the FDTD method have shown the efficiency enhancement of a 2-D Cherenkov laser by a proper permittivity variation [Hirata, A. and T. Shiozawa, 1997] and that of a 3-D Cherenkov laser [Hirata, A. and T. Shiozawa, 1998].

(T. Yamasaki)

B6. Guided Waves

B6.1 Microwave and Millimeter Waveguides

The dispersion characteristics of multilayered and multiconductor transmission lines have been investigated by using the couple-mode equations in terms of the overlap integrals between the eigen field and current of each conductor line [Yasumoto, 1996a].

Two non-identical and N identical coupled microstrip lines have been analyzed by using the coupled-mode theory combined with Galerkin's moment method in spectral domain [Yasumoto and Matsunaga, 1997].

Shigesawa et al. [1995] have presented that both bound and leaky dominant modes can propagate simultaneously on most printed-circuit lines, and presence of the nonphysical improper real solution which explains how the simultaneous-propagation effect occurs.

Tsuji, M. et al. [1997] have synthesized the H-plane off-set junction and T-junction components by using the finite element method in which their arbitrary shape is represented by the polar coordinates. The 3D finite-element method have been applied to a design approach for a compact and low-loss transition between metal waveguide and rectangular dielectric one [Mizuno et al., 1996], and a dielectric-waveguide Y branch of open structure [Tsuji, M. et al., 1996]. Return loss properties of microstrip line tapers of linear and raised cosine types have been analyzed by using the mode matching procedure for the waveguide model [Shirasaki, 1996].

B6.2 Dielectric and Optical Waveguides

Yasumoto [1996a] have proposed the coupled-mode approach based on the singular perturbation, and have analyzed the power transfer characteristics of the asymmetric planar nonlinear directional coupler [Yasumoto et al., 1996b], the three-waveguide couplers with Kerr-like medium [Yasumoto et al., 1996c], and the grating-assisted three-waveguide [Watanabe and Yasumoto, 1997].

Yamamoto et al. [1998] have effectively analyzed the characteristics of tilted straight optical waveguides by using the fast-Fourier transform beam propagation method (BPM). The improved finite-difference BPM have been presented to analyze eigen modes of step-index optical waveguides [Shibayama et al., 1998b] and the pure bending loss of a bent step-index slab optical waveguide [Yamauchi et al. 1996b], and the phase adjustment effect of a lensed core fiber [Yamauchi et al. 1998]. Kameda et al. [1997] have analyzed the characteristics of the device length and the bandwidth of coupled optical fibers by using the improved point matching method.

A scalar finite-difference time-domain method have been formulated in order to analysis a circularly symmetric optical waveguide with longitudinal discontinuities [Yamauchi et al., 1997b]. Miyazaki [1996] have proposed the integral equation method using conformal mapping and Green's function and have obtained the optimum tapered junction of optical circular waveguide.

(K. Atsuki)

B7. Antennas

B7.1 Antenna Theory

The antenna theory, improving analysis methods or antenna performances, is still now expanding. Li and Nakano [1998] derived and integral equation for the current distribution of an arbitrarily shaped probe-excited printed wire antenna. The equation has the kernel based on dyadic Green's functions instead of free space Green's functions. The presented integral equation formulated the antenna geometry more precisely and gave efficient numerical results.

B7.2 Antenna Elements

Various antenna elements were developed and designed to achieve the practical system requirements or to enhance the performances of the basic configuration, although these elements can be principally categorized to conventional antennas, such as wire antennas, slot antennas or microstrip antennas.

A new type of circular polarization antennas was proposed by Matsuzawa and Ito [1997] using a coplanar waveguide structure which is suitable to active antennas. The antenna pattern control to reduce the absorbed energy to human body was shown by Yuan and Sawaya [1998] adding a parasitic element to inverted F antenna. A parasitic element applied to inverted F antenna was also effective to wider the frequency bandwidth of a small antenna [ Nakano et al. 1998]. As for the small loop antenna, Muramoto et al.[1997] presented a polarization switching antenna by adopting active devices such as MOSFET. A small slot antenna installed in the belt of a wrist-watch type pager was developed by Okano and Ito [1997]. Ando et al. [1998b] presented a mechanism which can maintain the antenna orientation up-right by using electromagnetically-fed patch antenna and showed effective to reduce the polarization loss due to the inclination of a hand-set telephone. In the field of mobile communications or personal communications, some compact base-station antennas were proposed and analyzed by Ogawa,K. and Uwano [1996]. Conical beam antennas for mobile satellite communications terminals were also developed by Kawakami et al [1997].

An active antenna element for television receivers by Taguchi, M. and Fujimoto [1998] and a cavity-backed slot antenna for the application to spacetenna by Hikage et al.[1998] were also reported. Efficient optical antennas with shaped surfaces were proposed, and characteristics limitation due to mechanical error was clarified by Takano, T. et al. [1997].

B7.3 Arrays and Phased Array

In addition to traditional type of arrays, modern arrays such as active antenna arrays, switching arrays and adaptive arrays have been presented and discussed.

Active integrated antenna arrays for spatial power combining in millimeter wavelength region was presented by Kawasaki [1997]. An active phased array antenna for mobile satellite communication terminals at Ka-band was reported by Tanaka et al.[1998a]. This array consists of 168 microstrip antennas with MMIC phase shifters and MMIC LNAs. Switching antennas with multiple beams for broadband wireless systems in the multimedia era are becoming important, and several practical antennas have been presented by Maruyama et al.[1997], Uehara et al.[1996] and Seki et al.[1996]. The experimental study of adaptive array antennas for land mobile systems was also conducted and its effectiveness was clarified by Fujimoto, M. et al.[1996].

Waveguide arrays and their feeding circuits were studied, and high efficiency antennas or simplified geometries have been developed by Ando et al.[1998b] and Sakakibara et al.[1997]. A low-profile Yagi-Uda antenna with an inverted F element and inverted L elements was proposed for the secondary surveillance radar (SSR) by Taguchi, Y. et al.[1997]. A sequential array with higher order mode patch elements and circular polarization array composed of printed strips and slots have been analyzed rigorously and useful data have been presented by Tanaka [1997a]. An array of aperture antennas was proposed to realize an ultra-large antenna of 100 m diameter, and optimized for microwave power transmission by Murao, Y. and Takano [1998].

B7.4 Reflectors

Although reflector antennas have been playing important role in the field of communications and broadcasting, limited reports have been published. In addition to BS service, CS digital service has been in commercial, multi-beam antennas for customers are required to access the multiple satellites. A deployable antenna of 10m maximum diameter for space-use was developed in the tension truss scheme, and successfully deployed in orbit by Takano, T. et al. [1998]. Kondo et al.[1996] described a reflector design method in the case of a small single offset antenna. Miyahara et al.[1997] analyzed beam deflection characteristics of an off-set parabola using beam mode expansion method which gives very simple formula. Naito et al.[1995] presented the design method of array-fed reflector type reconfigurable beam antennas where feed-array excitation coefficients was efficiently obtained.

B7.5 Measurement

The performances of satellite on-board antennas, such as radiation patterns of S-band active pleased array and system noise temperature of ETS-VI were measured in a satellite orbit by Tanaka et al.[1997b]. Tanaka et al.[1998b] also carried out the measurement of excitation coefficients of the above array in orbit by using the rotating element electric field vector (REV) method.

As for the small antennas, the energy of the handheld antenna absorbed by the human body was measured using the pattern integration method and the good agreement between the measured and numerical results was reported by Chen, Q. et al. [1997]. Kawakami et al.[1998] reported a linear polarized double-wire conical log-periodic spiral antenna for EMC/EMI measurement which is useful above 1GHz, and clarified the site attenuation when this antenna was used.

B7.6 Microstrip and Its Array

Both fundamental research and practical application have been reported in microstrip antenna field. Ogawa, M. et al.[1996] have developed a mobile antenna system for the Direct Broadcasting Satellite at Ku band which has tracking mechanism only in horizontal plane. Minimum gain of 21.2dBi was achieved within the service area. The diameter of the antenna is 400mm and the height is only 29mm. A beam steering flat antenna in both elevation and horizontal plane mechanically has been reported by Mitsumoto et al.[1996] This antenna consists of 16 subarrays and is used for TV program transmitting.

As for the basic research on microstrip antennas, parallel-palate mode suppression in a slot coupled microstrip antenna was analyzed by Yamamoto and Itoh [1997] and the suppression method was also presented. To enhance the input impedance of the above antenna at resonant frequency, Yamamoto et al.[1998b] proposed the configuration of adding parasitic strip and verified its effectiveness. Nakano et al.[1997] analyzed the Crank-Line microstrip antenna to improve its performance and presented the detailed and effective design data.

Basic contribution to the microstrip antenna with elliptical or perturbed circular shape was given by Fujimoto, T. et al.[1996] and [1998], respectively and wall admittance of these antenna were obtained.

(K. Kagoshima)

B8. Propagation in Random, Inhomogenous, Nonlinear and Complex Media

B8.1 Wave Propagation in Random Media/Environmental Propagation

Meng and Tateiba [1996] solve numerically the scattering from a conducting elliptic cylinder embedded in a random medium like turbulence as a boundary value problem and emphasize the importance of the spatial coherence length of incident wave for estimating the RCS. Furutsu [1998] derives several diffuse expressions for a scattered wave from a small point-like scatterer embedded in a layer of turbid medium. Nanbu and Tateiba [1996] show that their method is more valid for evaluating the effective dielectric constants of random media than QCA and QCA-CP and therefore it is now the best.

Tateiba and Matsuoka [1998] evaluate the scattering cross-section of random medium by analyzing a few radiative transfer equations and make clear the difference of the cross section between EFA, QCA, QCA-CP and their method. Ishii et al. [1997] derive the normalized autocorrelation function of time-varying fluctuations of light scattered multiply from a dense disordered medium within the framework of a photon-diffusion approximation. Harada, Y. and Asakura [1998] demonstrate by computer simulations a temporal correlation function of intensity fluctuations of the light scattered by particles for various factors of particle size and power of illuminating laser beams.

B8.2 Nonlinear Electromagnetics and Nonlinear Media

Koshiba et al. [1997b] find that third-order dispersion seriously affects the operations of logic devices. The logic functions can be improved by trapping only the soliton components in the finite gain-bandwidth. Ueda and Shiozawa [1996] show some interesting features for the nonlinear space-charge waves propagating along a relativistic electron beam drifting near the surface of a semi-infinite Kerr-like medium. They also discuss the spatial evolution of the transverse profile of the EM wave beam due to the Kerr-like nonlinearity and the growth effect in the Cherenkov laser with a nonlinear dielectric planar waveguide [Ueda,T. and T. Shiozawa, 1998].

B8.3 Rough Surface Scattering

Ogura et al. clarify scattering characteristics by slightly random rough metallic, dielectric, and grating surfaces [Ogura et al.,1996],[Kawanishi et al.,1997],[Ogura et al.,1998] and also formulate a stochastic integral equation with application to the double Kirchhoff scattering [Ogura et al.,1997]. Nakayama et al. [1997] evaluate statistical properties of scattering of a plane wave from a periodic random surface with small roughness.

B8.4 Bi-isotropic and Bianisotropic Media

Matsumoto et al. [1997] derive a unified matrix equation for analyzing the scattering of electromagnetic waves by a general bianisotropic slab. Kusunoki and Tanaka [1997] point out that a stratified uniaxial chiral slab can be used as an efficient polarization-transformation transmission filter active at some frequency band. Ren and Tateiba [1998] present formulae for calculating the three effective medium parameters of chiral mixtures.

(M. Tateiba)


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