The Communications Research Laboratory (CRL), the Ministry of Post and Tele-communications, runs the 34-m telescope in Kashima for geodesy and astronomy. Three NAOJ telescopes, i.e. the 45-m, the 10-m and the 6-m telescopes have been combined to establish a domestic VLBI network (JNET), which often includes the CRL 34-m telescope too.
The Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) and NAOJ are conducting the VLBI Space Observatory Programme (VSOP), which aims at the first space VLBI observations in the worldwide collaboration of radio observatories and space agencies.
Nagoya University and the Institute of Astronomy, University of Tokyo run the 4-m and the 60-cm telescope, respectively, to make large-scale CO survey observations of molecular clouds. Waseda University has completed its 64-element interferometer for monitoring transient radio sources. Radio astronomy on the Solar System has been conducted at the Solar Terrestrial Environment Laboratory in Nagoya University, the Communications Research Laboratory, and the Hyogo College of Medicine.
For the future, NRO has proposed a new project, the Large Millimeter and Submillimeter Array (LMSA), and has been conducting its feasibility study and the atmospheric measurements at the candidate sites. NAOJ has started to promote the VERA (VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry) project, a dedicated VLBI array for radio astrometry. The Department of Physics, University of Tokyo has started the Mt. Fuji Submillimeter Telescope Project in collaboration with the Institute of Molecular Science and NRO.
A new 10-m antenna has been constructed as the 6-th element of NMA. This new antenna has shown higher accuracy and higher efficiency than the previous 5 antennas. UWBC, a new digital ultra wideband correlator, has been developed, and the test observation with 512 MHz bandwidth has been demonstrated. 230 GHz receivers have been installed in two antennas of NMA, and the stable fringe has been detected. "Rainbow", a new high-sensitivity millimeter array which is composed of the 45-m Telescope and NMA, has been proposed and successfully demonstrated.
The SIS receiver sensitivity in 100 GHz band has been greatly improved at NRO by the development of the parallel twin SIS junction (PCTJ) technology and the fixed-tuned wideband mixer circuit. Based on this improvement, several SIS mixers up to 500 GHz band have been successfully constructed.
At the ground radiotelescopes, VLBA, Mark IV, S2 and VSOPT VLBI recording terminals will be used for the observations. VSOPT has been developed by the Japanese VLBI group based on a helical scan tape recorder with 256 Mbps maximum rate. A VSOPT correlator, which has a capacity to deal with 10 station data, has been built at Mitaka, Japan. It includes a tape translation system from VLBA to VSOPT and from S2 to VSOPT.
The first quadrant survey, in the galactic longitude between 0 and 90 degrees, has been made. The result shows a systematic trend in the intensity ratio of the two CO lines along the galactocentric distance. Large area mappings of nearby GMCs were also carried out. The Orion A and B clouds show a systematic structure in the CO intensity ratio, which indicates the outer envelope of GMC is composed of essentially less dense gas.
Observations of molecular outflows were reviewed by Fukui et al. , with a list of 163 outflows, establishing that outflow is a common phenomenon of star formation including low mass stars. Individual outflow sources are discussed by the following authors; IC5146 [Dobashi et al., 1993], Haro4-255 FIR [Tatematsu et al., 1993a], L1251 [Sato et al., 1994], IRAS22134+5834 [Dobashi et al., 1994], L1287 [Yang et al., 1995], and Taurus complex [Hirano et al., 1995]. Interferometric observations with NMA toward HL Tau were interpreted as evidence for mass accretion [Hayashi et al., 1993].
Properties of dense clouds/cores were studied extensively in Taurus and Orion. Mizuno et al.  searched for compact condensations in Taurus, and detected more than 10 compact cores in H13CO+ emission. They suggested that the cores without IRAS sources represent protostellar condensations just prior to star formation. Hayashi et al.  surveyed C18O emission toward 32 far infrared compact sources in Taurus, revealing a correlation between far infrared color and gas column density. A large-scale 13CO distribution of the Taurus cloud was mapped in detail with 2' grid spacing by Mizuno et al. , revealing highly filamentary distribution of star forming gas. In Orion, surveys for dense gas were carried out in CS in an unbiased way [Tatematsu et al., 1993b], and in 13CO toward IRAS sources [Chen et al., 1993].
SiO maser is a good probe for the Galactic structure. The large collecting area of the NRO 45-m Telescope makes it possible to detect SiO maser sources in the Galactic bulge at about 8 kpc away. Nakada et al.  found that the color selected samples of IRAS sources often exhibit SiO and H2O maser emission. The unexpected high detection rate (of about 65 %) of SiO masers in this study lead them to perform a further rigorous survey of the bulge objects. The results are summarized by Izumiura et al. , Izumiura et al. [1995c, 1995d], and Jiang et al. .
Masers from various molecular transitions are also a source of rich astrophysical investigations. Sobolev and Deguchi [1994a, 1994b] studied the pumping mechanism of CH3OH masers. Polarization of OH masers are also studied [Deguchi, 1993]. Iwata et al.  studied the H2O maser distribution with the Japanese VLBI network.
Several important contributions have been reported in the field of dark cloud chemistry. Suzuki et al.  observed the CCS, HC3N, HC5N, and NH3 lines toward 49 dark cloud cores, and studied chemical evolution of dark clouds in detail. NS was newly detected in dark clouds, TMC-1(NH3) and L134N. An ortho/para ratio of CH3CN was precisely studied by observing its J=2-1 lines. Mikami et al.  detected an intense SiO (J=2-1) emission from the low-mass star forming region in the L1157 dark cloud.
Chemical processes in Ori-KL have been extensively studied in high spatial resolution with NMA. Saito et al. observed CH3OD and NH2D, and discussed grain surface chemistry as a possible origin of these molecules. Minh et al.  found that HCOOCH3 and (CH3)2O concentrate at the southern condensation in Ori-KL.
In the field of circumstellar chemistry, Fukasaku et al.  observed a number of molecular species toward CRL618, CRL2688, CIT6, and CRL3608, and suggested a possible relationship between chemical composition and an evolutionary stage of a central star.
The millimeter-wave CO lines of high redshifted objects have been observed with NMA and the 45-m Telescope [Kawabe et al., 1992; Sakamoto et al., 1992; Tsuboi and Nakai, 1992, 1994]. Yamada et al.  revealed a good correlation between the X-ray and the CO luminosity for quasars, and they suggested some physical connection between the active nuclei and the huge star formation in quasars. Distribution of interstellar gas in the circumnuclear regions of nearby galaxies has been revealed by observing the CO and HCN lines with NMA [Sakamoto et al., 1995; Khono et al., 1996; Inoue et al., 1996]. The so-called CO-to-H2 conversion factor, the average ratio of the column density of the hydrogen molecule to the CO luminosity, was connected with the metalicity by Arimoto et al. . This discovery was physically interpreted by Sakamoto .
Bright synchrotron radiation from AGN cores and relativistic jets have been investigated. Okayasu , by means of correlation between radio and X-ray fluxes, found distinctions between high-polarized quasars and BL Lac objects. Tanizuka et al.  found that the spectral index is dependent on the redshift, and that its fluctuations become random as the quasar approaches the beginning of the universe. Interferometric surveys have been conducted for AGN cores. The first mm-VLBI survey has been conducted using the Japanese domestic VLBI for compact flat-spectrum sources [Matsumoto et al., 1994] and compact steep-spectrum sources [Kameno et al., 1994] to measure the size and the spectral indices of the core component.
Tsutsumi et al.  observed the variability and size of 12 objects in the galactic plane, and found that some could be galactic objects.
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Izumiura, H., N. Ukita, and T. Tsuji, HCN emission from bright carbon stars: the ground state masers and peculiar broad features, Astrophys. J., 440, 728-741 (1995a)
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