Edited by Junji Inatani

J1. Introduction

The Nobeyama Radio Observatory (NRO), a radio astronomy facility of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), runs the 45-m Telescope and the Nobeyama Millimeter Array (NMA), in the open-use scheme, for various fields of cosmic observations, as well as the Nobeyama Radioheliograph for solar observations. NAOJ also runs the 10-m telescope in Mizusawa and the 6-m telescope in Kagoshima, the latter in collaboration with Kagoshima University.

The Communications Research Laboratory (CRL), the Ministry of Post and Tele-communications, runs the 34-m telescope in Kashima for geodesy and astronomy. Three NAOJ telescopes, i.e. the 45-m, the 10-m and the 6-m telescopes have been combined to establish a domestic VLBI network (JNET), which often includes the CRL 34-m telescope too.

The Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) and NAOJ are conducting the VLBI Space Observatory Programme (VSOP), which aims at the first space VLBI observations in the worldwide collaboration of radio observatories and space agencies.

Nagoya University and the Institute of Astronomy, University of Tokyo run the 4-m and the 60-cm telescope, respectively, to make large-scale CO survey observations of molecular clouds. Waseda University has completed its 64-element interferometer for monitoring transient radio sources. Radio astronomy on the Solar System has been conducted at the Solar Terrestrial Environment Laboratory in Nagoya University, the Communications Research Laboratory, and the Hyogo College of Medicine.

For the future, NRO has proposed a new project, the Large Millimeter and Submillimeter Array (LMSA), and has been conducting its feasibility study and the atmospheric measurements at the candidate sites. NAOJ has started to promote the VERA (VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry) project, a dedicated VLBI array for radio astrometry. The Department of Physics, University of Tokyo has started the Mt. Fuji Submillimeter Telescope Project in collaboration with the Institute of Molecular Science and NRO.

J2. New Instrumentation

J2.1. NRO 45-m Telescope and NMA

For the 45-m Telescope, a new optical instrument has been built to monitor the geometrical deformation of the main reflector. This is used to make real time estimation of the pointing accuracy and the antenna efficiency in windy conditions. A prototype 4-beam SIS receiver in 100 GHz band has been efficiently used for large scale mapping observations of molecular clouds. Based on this success, the next generation 25-beam SIS receiver has been under development. All major components and the receiver dewar have been almost constructed.

A new 10-m antenna has been constructed as the 6-th element of NMA. This new antenna has shown higher accuracy and higher efficiency than the previous 5 antennas. UWBC, a new digital ultra wideband correlator, has been developed, and the test observation with 512 MHz bandwidth has been demonstrated. 230 GHz receivers have been installed in two antennas of NMA, and the stable fringe has been detected. "Rainbow", a new high-sensitivity millimeter array which is composed of the 45-m Telescope and NMA, has been proposed and successfully demonstrated.

The SIS receiver sensitivity in 100 GHz band has been greatly improved at NRO by the development of the parallel twin SIS junction (PCTJ) technology and the fixed-tuned wideband mixer circuit. Based on this improvement, several SIS mixers up to 500 GHz band have been successfully constructed.

J2.2. VSOP

A VLBI observing satellite MUSES-B, which is dedicated for engineering test and astronomical observations, will be launched by ISAS on September 1996. The expected orbit is 20,000 km in apogee height and 1,000 km in perigee height. VSOP's spatial resolutions are 0.1, 0.4 and 1.2 mas (milliarcsecond) at three observing frequencies: L, C and Ka bands, respectively. A 8-m diameter deployable antenna has been built, whose surface error is to be less than 0.5 mm (rms). The A/D converted data with 1 or 2 bits will be transmitted to the ground tracking stations with 128 Mbps. The phase reference signal, which is referred to a ground hydrogen maser oscillator, will be transmitted from the ground tracking stations.

At the ground radiotelescopes, VLBA, Mark IV, S2 and VSOPT VLBI recording terminals will be used for the observations. VSOPT has been developed by the Japanese VLBI group based on a helical scan tape recorder with 256 Mbps maximum rate. A VSOPT correlator, which has a capacity to deal with 10 station data, has been built at Mitaka, Japan. It includes a tape translation system from VLBA to VSOPT and from S2 to VSOPT.

J2.3. Domestic Ground-Based VLBI

JNET is an expansion of KNIFE (Kashima Nobeyama InterFErometer), which is a VLBI between the Nobeyama 45-m and the Kashima 34-m. KNIFE was effective to show the positional coincidence of the two velocity components of the megamaser in a galaxy NGC4258, which was later found to have a very massive blackhole. NAOJ has started the open-use of JNET at 22 GHz since 1994. The K4 tapes and the NAOCO (New Advenced One-unit COrrelator) are used for recording and correlation. Distribution of the water maser spots has been monitored in several star forming regions.

J2.4. Nobeyama Radioheliograph

The Nobeyama Radioheliograph began routine observations in late June, 1992, and full-disk images of the Sun have been observed for 8 hours every day. This instrument is a 17 GHz radio interferometer dedicated for solar observations, which consists of eighty-four 80-cm diameter antennas arranged in a Tee-shaped array. The spatial resolution is 10 arcsec and the temporal resolution is 1 sec (also 50 ms for selected events). More than 1300 events have been observed with this Radioheliograph. Dual frequency observation at 17 and 34 GHz started in early Nov., 1995. A frequency selective subreflector and a 34 GHz receiver has been installed in each antenna.

J2.5. The 60-cm Telescope at the University of Tokyo

A radio astronomy group at IOA, University of Tokyo has run the 60-cm telescope to make survey observations of the Galactic plane in the CO J=2-1 line. This telescope was designed to have 9 arcmin beamsize, which was used for the Columbia Survey in the CO J=1-0 line, in order to make a direct comparison between these two transitions. An SIS receiver and a 2048-ch AOS with 500 MHz bandwidth has been installed.

The first quadrant survey, in the galactic longitude between 0 and 90 degrees, has been made. The result shows a systematic trend in the intensity ratio of the two CO lines along the galactocentric distance. Large area mappings of nearby GMCs were also carried out. The Orion A and B clouds show a systematic structure in the CO intensity ratio, which indicates the outer envelope of GMC is composed of essentially less dense gas.

J2.6. The 4-m Telescope at Nagoya University

Nagoya University has constructed a new 4-m telescope, to establish a mm and sub-mm radio observatory in the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile. This is based on a collaborative effort between Nagoya University and the Carnegie Institution of Washington. The facility consists of a 4-m radio telescope and a superconducting Nb mixer receiver, which has the receiver temperature of 50 K (SSB) at 110 GHz. Astronomical observations are scheduled to start in the middle of 1996. The scientific projects to be done include the CO J=1-0 survey observations of the galactic plane, the galactic center, southern dark clouds, and the Magellanic clouds. The operating frequency will be extended to the sub-mm region in a few years. The beam size of this telescope is about 3 arcmin, which allows us to survey the CO distribution very efficiently without losing details.

J2.7. The 64-Element Interferometer at Waseda University

The 64-element Interferometer is a direct imaging digital interferometer at Nyquist rate. 20 million images of 8x8 pixels are obtained in 1 sec. The RF is 10.6 GHz. Sixty-four HEMT receivers, whose noise temperature is 50-70 K, have been installed in fall 1995. Gamma-ray quasars, AGN and Galactic transient radio sources are monitored. Present interferometer has the capability of imaging not only ergodic but non-ergodic sources. A new (2+1+2)D FFT system is under development for the interferometric pulsar survey.

J2.8. LMSA Project

NRO has developed the concept of the LMSA project in science, instrument, and site. It aims at the millimeter and submillimeter high quality imaging of faint sources, with remarkable spatial resolution, sensitivity, and dynamic range. Fifty 10-m antennas are assumed to be spread over 2 km up to 10 km baselines, which will realize an extremely high resolution of 0.1 to 0.01 arcsec. Emphasis is put on the submillimeter observations, especially on the dust continuum observations of protogalaxies and protoplanetary disks, and on the spectroscopic observations of CI and CII lines. Several potential sites in the northern Chile have been tested for the weather, the opacity, and the radio seeing conditions. The results show that there are good sites for submillimeter interferometric observations.

J2.9. Mt. Fuji Submillimeter-Wave Telescope Project

A joint group, including the Department of Physics and Research Center for Early Universe in University of Tokyo, the Institute for Molecular Science, and NRO, has started constructing a 1.2-m submillimeter-wave telescope at Mt. Fuji (El.~3700 m). This project aims at survey observations of the neutral carbon atom (492 and 809 GHz), and at high-sensitivity searches for new interstellar molecules related to dust chemistry. According to continuous measurements of the 220 GHz opacity at the summit, Mt. Fuji is found to be an excellent observing site during the winter season: 45 % of the winter time can be used for 492 GHz observations. An SIS mixer receiver for 492 GHz and 345 GHz is now being developed. Observations will start in 1998.

J2.10. VERA Project

NAOJ is promoting the VERA (VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry) project, a dedicated differential VLBI array composed of 4 stations, spread over the islands of Japan, with two medium-sized antennas in each station. The maximum baseline will be 2300 km. Receiving frequency bands will be 8, 22, and 43 GHz. VERA's primary purpose is to make a three-dimensional fine map of our Milky Way Galaxy, by means of measuring annual trigonometric parallaxes and proper motions of thousands of astronomical masers in the simultaneous phase-referenced VLBI observations with adjacent quasars. Unprecedentedly high accuracy of 10 micro-arcsec level is expected. VERA will be used also for phase-referenced imaging of relatively faint radio sources as well as for the high time-resolution Earth-rotation, geodesy and selenodesy observations.

J3. Solar Radio Astronomy

The Sun was still active in 1992 and 1993, although its activity was declining. The Nobeyama Radioheliograph detected many interesting phenomena, which were studied in combination with X-ray data by YOHKOH satellite. Initial results were published in P. A. S. J., Vol. 46, 1994, and presented at the Kofu Symposium (Kofu, September 6-10, 1993) and other meetings [Enome et al., 1993; Enome, 1994]. The research subjects cover faint features in the quiet sun, active regions, and flares. Radio bright points in the quiet sun which coincide with X-ray counterpart were detected [Kundu et al., 1994]. A purely polarized gyroresonance emission was detected from a large sunspot [Shibasaki et al., 1994a]. A prominence eruption and its following flare were detected with optical, radio, and X-ray observations simultaneously. This clearly supports the scenario that the reconnection of anti-parallel magnetic field be produced by the prominence eruption [Hanaoka et al., 1994]. Radio f-f emission, combined with soft X-ray data, was used to study thermal aspect of flares. Gyro-synchrotron emission, combined with hard X-ray data, was used to study nonthermal aspect of flares. Thanks to high spatial and temporal resolution as well as high image quality, many new features of flares were found [Enome et al., 1994; Gary et al., 1994; Hanaoka, 1994; Hanaoka et al., 1994; Nakajima et al., 1994; Nishio et al., 1994; Pogodin and Shibasaki, 1994; Schmieder et al., 1994; Shibasaki et al., 1994b; Takakura et al., 1994; Takano et al., 1994; Yaji et al., 1994].

J4. Solar System Radio Astronomy

The velocity structure and plasma turbulence in the solar wind near the Sun were investigated by observing interplanetary scintillation of quasars at 2, 8, and 22 GHz at Kashima [Tokumaru et al., 1992, 1994a, 1994b, 1994c; Tokumaru, 1994, 1995]. Radar observation of the earth approaching asteroid 6489 was successfully made in 1995 with the 34-m antenna at Kashima [Koyama et al., 1995]. Prominent activity of the 1991 Perseid meteor shower was observed using the MU radar at 46.5 MHz [Watanabe et al., 1992]. The Jovian radiation have been observed at decametric to UHF frequencies to study the emission mechanism and dynamics in the Jovian magnetosphere [Maeda, 1994; Tokumaru, 1995]. Radio emission increases were reported from UHF to microwave frequencies when the SL-9 collided with the Jupiter. Maeda and Watanabe [1995] detected an unusual radio noise increase at 29.98 MHz associated with a low-latitude aurora.

J5. Galactic Radio Astronomy

J5.1. Galactic Center Region

A remnant of the cloud-cloud collision was found in the Sgr B2 region of the Galactic center in the 13CO J=1-0 line using the 45-m Telescope. This suggests that the active star formation was triggered there by the cloud collision [Hasegawa et al., 1993]. A higher resolution map of the region was obtained with NMA in the CS J=2-1 line [Miyawaki et al., 1994]. A wide-area CS J=1-0 mapping was obtained in the central 150' x 30' region with the 45-m Telescope. Several curved filaments were found which extend along the galactic plane. Many expanding shell-like structures were identified. They are probably due to star-burst activity in the Galactic center region in the past. A rotating molecular ring of 120 pc radius was identified in the longitude-velocity diagram of 13CO J=1-0 emission [Sofue, 1995]. In the analysis of three dimensional structure of the 200 pc expanding molecular ring in 13CO J=1-0 emission, a dumbbell-shaped shell was found [Sofue, 1995]. SiO maser emission from the bulge IRAS sources has been searched to investigate the kinematics of the Galactic bulge (see J5.4.).

J5.2. Star Forming Regions

Observations of star forming regions were carried out intensively. Subjects include molecular outflows, protostellar condensations, and the large scale distribution of star forming clouds.

Observations of molecular outflows were reviewed by Fukui et al. [1993], with a list of 163 outflows, establishing that outflow is a common phenomenon of star formation including low mass stars. Individual outflow sources are discussed by the following authors; IC5146 [Dobashi et al., 1993], Haro4-255 FIR [Tatematsu et al., 1993a], L1251 [Sato et al., 1994], IRAS22134+5834 [Dobashi et al., 1994], L1287 [Yang et al., 1995], and Taurus complex [Hirano et al., 1995]. Interferometric observations with NMA toward HL Tau were interpreted as evidence for mass accretion [Hayashi et al., 1993].

Properties of dense clouds/cores were studied extensively in Taurus and Orion. Mizuno et al. [1994] searched for compact condensations in Taurus, and detected more than 10 compact cores in H13CO+ emission. They suggested that the cores without IRAS sources represent protostellar condensations just prior to star formation. Hayashi et al. [1994] surveyed C18O emission toward 32 far infrared compact sources in Taurus, revealing a correlation between far infrared color and gas column density. A large-scale 13CO distribution of the Taurus cloud was mapped in detail with 2' grid spacing by Mizuno et al. [1995], revealing highly filamentary distribution of star forming gas. In Orion, surveys for dense gas were carried out in CS in an unbiased way [Tatematsu et al., 1993b], and in 13CO toward IRAS sources [Chen et al., 1993].

J5.3. Protoplanetary Disks

By 12CO J=1-0 observations of a young T Tauri star, GG Tau, with the NRO 45-m Telescope, a double-peaked emission feature was detected. It may be interpreted that the CO emission arises in an extended circumstellar disk [Strutskie et al., 1993; Kitamura et al., 1993]. Aperture synthesis 12CO (J=1-0) observations of this source were made with NMA, and a gas disk of 500 AU in radius was discovered with the rotation velocity 0.8 km/s/sin(i), which is consistent with the Kepler rotation around the central star [Kawabe et al., 1993]. With the 45-m Telescope the 12CO and 13CO (J=1-0) emissions were detected centered on a young T Tauri star, DM Tau, suggesting the existence of a circumstellar disk around this star [Handa et al., 1995]. By observations of this source with NMA, a circumstellar disk of radius 350 AU was detected, which is in Keplerian rotation around the star [Saito et al., 1995]. Herbig-Haro (HH) 83 was observed with NMA in the CS J=2-1 line, and the main CS cloud was found to have a structure consisting of a bar-like feature and two ridges. This structure is suggested to be a rotating disk around the driving source of the HH jet [Nakano et al., 1994].

J5.4. Stars and Masers

Circumstellar envelopes of late-type stars are rich in molecular lines and they were extensively observed with the 45-m Telescope and NMA. The protoplanetary nebulae, extending a few to 30 arcsec, are one of ideal objects to study with NMA with the spatial resolution of about 4". NGC 7027, IRAS 21282+5050, CRL 618, and CRL 2688 have been studied using CO, 13CO, HCO+, and HCN lines [summarized in Deguchi et al., 1992; Shibata et al., 1992; Shibata et al., 1993; Yamamura and Deguchi, 1994; Yamamura et al., 1995; Deguchi, 1995]. Yamamura et al. [1993, 1995] observed that emission is almost circular in these objects. No elongation to or perpendicular to the bipolar axis was found in the CO J=1-0 transition. Izumiura et al. [1995a, 1995b] surveyed HCN lines in various types of carbon-rich objects and Fukasaku et al. [1994] studied chemical abundance in the envelope of several carbon stars. Yamamura et al. [1993] studied the detached envelope of S Sct in the CO line.

SiO maser is a good probe for the Galactic structure. The large collecting area of the NRO 45-m Telescope makes it possible to detect SiO maser sources in the Galactic bulge at about 8 kpc away. Nakada et al. [1993] found that the color selected samples of IRAS sources often exhibit SiO and H2O maser emission. The unexpected high detection rate (of about 65 %) of SiO masers in this study lead them to perform a further rigorous survey of the bulge objects. The results are summarized by Izumiura et al. [1994], Izumiura et al. [1995c, 1995d], and Jiang et al. [1995].

Masers from various molecular transitions are also a source of rich astrophysical investigations. Sobolev and Deguchi [1994a, 1994b] studied the pumping mechanism of CH3OH masers. Polarization of OH masers are also studied [Deguchi, 1993]. Iwata et al. [1994] studied the H2O maser distribution with the Japanese VLBI network.

J5.5. Astrochemistry

During these years three new molecules, MgNC, HC3NH+, and H2CN, have been detected. Particularly MgNC is the first Mg bearing molecule detected in space. Kawaguchi et al. [1993] succeeded in observing its laboratory spectrum, and assigned the unidentified lines observed in IRC+10216 to MgNC. On the other hand, HC3NH+ and H2CN were discovered in a cold dark cloud, TMC-1. Spectral line survey observations toward IRC+10216 in the 28-50 GHz region have been carried out with the NRO 45-m Telescope. Furthermore, extensive laboratory spectroscopic studies have been performed for a number of molecules with astrochemical interest such as FeCO, HCS+, CH2, CaNC, AlH, and ND.

Several important contributions have been reported in the field of dark cloud chemistry. Suzuki et al. [1992] observed the CCS, HC3N, HC5N, and NH3 lines toward 49 dark cloud cores, and studied chemical evolution of dark clouds in detail. NS was newly detected in dark clouds, TMC-1(NH3) and L134N. An ortho/para ratio of CH3CN was precisely studied by observing its J=2-1 lines. Mikami et al. [1992] detected an intense SiO (J=2-1) emission from the low-mass star forming region in the L1157 dark cloud.

Chemical processes in Ori-KL have been extensively studied in high spatial resolution with NMA. Saito et al. observed CH3OD and NH2D, and discussed grain surface chemistry as a possible origin of these molecules. Minh et al. [1993] found that HCOOCH3 and (CH3)2O concentrate at the southern condensation in Ori-KL.

In the field of circumstellar chemistry, Fukasaku et al. [1994] observed a number of molecular species toward CRL618, CRL2688, CIT6, and CRL3608, and suggested a possible relationship between chemical composition and an evolutionary stage of a central star.

J5.6. Pulsars

The first pulsar VLBI experiments has been done between Usuda and Kashima [1992], and a pulsar VLBI project between Kashima and Kalyazin (Russia) has started since 1995. Usuda and Kashima, each as a single dish, are observing the pulse timing of the millisecond pulsars. Usuda obtains the timing data of PSR1937+21 twice a month, and investigates its short term fluctuation. Kashima is developing a new system of acousto-optic spectrometer for wide-band receiving.

J6. Extragalactic Radio Astronomy

J6.1. Galaxies

The most conspicuous work is the discovery of a strong evidence for a massive black hole in the nucleus of a nearby spiral galaxy NGC 4258 [Miyoshi et al., 1995]. It is noticeable that this discovery would not have been done without the first detection of H2O maser high velocity components, reaching plus and minus 1000 km/s [Nakai et al., 1993]. The latter detection was done with the wide-band spectrometer at the NRO 45-meter Telescope. Searches for high-velocity H2O masers are continuously performed [Nakai et al., 1995].

The millimeter-wave CO lines of high redshifted objects have been observed with NMA and the 45-m Telescope [Kawabe et al., 1992; Sakamoto et al., 1992; Tsuboi and Nakai, 1992, 1994]. Yamada et al. [1995] revealed a good correlation between the X-ray and the CO luminosity for quasars, and they suggested some physical connection between the active nuclei and the huge star formation in quasars. Distribution of interstellar gas in the circumnuclear regions of nearby galaxies has been revealed by observing the CO and HCN lines with NMA [Sakamoto et al., 1995; Khono et al., 1996; Inoue et al., 1996]. The so-called CO-to-H2 conversion factor, the average ratio of the column density of the hydrogen molecule to the CO luminosity, was connected with the metalicity by Arimoto et al. [1996]. This discovery was physically interpreted by Sakamoto [1996].

J6.2. Quasars and Active Galactic Nuclei

Molecular gas in external galaxies is an important probe for the study of galaxy formation, star formation, and gas fueling in AGNs. Molecular gas in the galaxy IRAS F10214+4724, at a cosmological distance (z = 2.286), has been observed [Kawabe et al., 1992; Sakamoto et al., 1992; Tsuboi and Nakai, 1992, 1994]. A huge amount of material exists in low-density gas of n(H2)= 100 cm-3. Molecular gas in AGN at cosmological distances have also been detected for 53W002 at z = 2.39 [Yamada et al., 1995] and Q1235+0857 at z = 2.880 [Yamada et al., 1995].

Bright synchrotron radiation from AGN cores and relativistic jets have been investigated. Okayasu [1992], by means of correlation between radio and X-ray fluxes, found distinctions between high-polarized quasars and BL Lac objects. Tanizuka et al. [1995] found that the spectral index is dependent on the redshift, and that its fluctuations become random as the quasar approaches the beginning of the universe. Interferometric surveys have been conducted for AGN cores. The first mm-VLBI survey has been conducted using the Japanese domestic VLBI for compact flat-spectrum sources [Matsumoto et al., 1994] and compact steep-spectrum sources [Kameno et al., 1994] to measure the size and the spectral indices of the core component.

Tsutsumi et al. [1995] observed the variability and size of 12 objects in the galactic plane, and found that some could be galactic objects.


The editor thanks H. Kobayashi, O. Kameya, M. Nishio, T. Handa, T. Onishi, T. Daishido, S. Yamamoto, T. Sasao, K. Shibasaki, M. Kojima, K. Maeda, M. Tsuboi, T. Nakano, S. Deguchi, Y. Hanado, S. Ishizuki and S. Kameno for their collaboration in preparing this review article.


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