The Akebono (EXOS-D) satellite continues to provide high quality radio wave observation data. Wave normal directions and delay time of Omega navigation signals were measured continuously over one hour. Based on these data and electron density obtained along the trajectory a trial was made to obtain the global plasma distribution using ray tracing and fitting method [Sawada et al., 1993; Kimura et al., 1995]. The rising tone solar radio bursts in the decametric wavelength range have been observed associated with strong solar flares. The detailed analyses showed that a large isolatedly closed loop is formed by magnetic reconnection and is pushed out with a speed of 400-500 km/s toward outer coronal region [Aoyama and Oya, 1994].
Based on GEOTAIL observation Sugiyama et al. [1995b] found that low frequency upstream waves are only excited near the foreshock boundary and attenuate in the far upstream region from the bow shock at a distance of about 60 Re which would imply that there is not a lot of additional free energy in the upstream region. Nakamura et al.  analyzed the Pc 5 pulsation observed in the dayside magnetosphere. Three cases observed at the dawnside, sub-solar, and duskside regions were explained by the magnetic field line standing pulsation. Takahashi et al. [1994a] analyzed the compressional Pc 3 magnetic pulsation and accompanying electric field oscillations, which are consistent with fast magnetosonic waves propagating earthward. Their result strongly supports the view that ULF waves generated near the quasi-parallel portion of the bow shock propagate into the magnetosphere.
Based on a case study of Pc 3 pulsation observed with AMPTE/CCE satellite and five ground stations, Takahashi et al. [1994b] found evidence for the generation of compressional MHD modes in the magnetosphere by bow-shock associated magnetosheath ULF waves and their subsequent propagation across L-shells to field lines conjugate to the ground stations. Compressional magnetic pulsations with irregular waveforms and periods longer than 150 s have been studied by using data from AMPTE/CCE and GEOS 5 and 6 in the dayside magnetosphere and from the Kakioka station. Observations indicate that some nightside pulsations in the Pi 3 band have daytime origins [Matsuoka et al., 1995].
The dayside enhancement of ULF wave activity observed near the polar cusp has been studied by Sakurai et al.  in relation with variations of both the ground and the interplanetary magnetic field. They showed that the cusp might be a source region of magnetic energy penetrating into the magnetosphere, and resonant oscillations of ULF waves are clearly observed at the auroral latitude. Kato et al.  used Pc 5 pulsation observed at three stations in Iceland and three stations in Antarctica to estimate the geomagnetic conjugate point of Syowa Station. Statistical result of the conjugate point concentrates around that calculated from the Tsyganenko model within a distance of one fifth wave length.
Magnetic data from the STEP 210 degree magnetic meridian chain stations have been analyzed. Yumoto et al. [1994a] have investigated if global cavity-mode and localized field-line oscillations can be excited in the inner magnetosphere by interplanetary impulses (Sc/Si). To study the origin of packet structure and phase skips, the phase-time structure of low latitude magnetometer data over the Pc 3 range for a typical equinoctial day has been examined. Preliminary results suggest that local effects are important in determining the detailed phase structure and there is no evidence of phase skips occurring simultaneously at widely spaced stations [Menk and Yumoto, 1994]. The amplitude and phase of H- and D-components recorded at three stations along the chain suggest that Pi 2 pulsations consist of several different modes in the structured magnetosphere [Yumoto et al., 1994b].
A particular type of ELF emission has been observed with multi-band spectral structure around the local gyrofrequency of oxygen ion when the Akebono satellite passes near the equatorial plane of the inner plasmasphere during the main phase [Liu et al., 1994]. Modified Alfven mode emissions are frequently observed by the Akebono satellite around the geomagnetic equator. The wave normal direction is measured to be almost perpendicular to the magnetic meridian plane. By ray tracing, the emissions are interpreted as trapped in the equatorial plane by a sharp density gradient as in the plasmapause [Kasahara et al., 1994].
Quasi-monochromatic waves with an electrostatic nature in the lower hybrid frequency range have been identified in the PSBL by the wave form observations in 0-25 Hz band from the double probe onboard the GEOTAIL spacecraft. Simultaneous measurements of low energy ions also indicate that the wave coincides with the transition of the ion-energy from 0.1 keV/e to 10 keV/e [Okada et al., 1994]. The WFC receiver onboard GEOTAIL was also used for detailed analysis of the frequency-time structure of the low-frequency CR near the lower cutoff. CR in the lobe region, especially in the vicinity of the PSBL, is sometimes accompanied by intense electrostatic electron-cyclotron-harmonic (ECH) (n+1/2) waves. These suggest that such a low-frequency CR in the distant tail region is most likely to be generated from the ECH waves near the PSBL, and trapped within the lobe region [Nagano et al., 1994a].
The different kinds of VLF/ELF emissions (chorus, auroral hiss, periodic emissions), have been reviewed [Hayakawa and Smith, 1993; Sazhin et al., 1993; Sazhin and Hayakawa, 1994]. Also, the generation mechanisms of VLF/ELF emissions have been examined by means of the direction finding [Hayakawa, 1993a]. VLF/ELF radio noise in the inner plasmasphere has been reviewed [Hayakawa, 1993b, 1993c], and the generation mechanism of hiss-triggered emission has been investigated by the combined data of spectral analysis and direction finding [Hayakawa, 1993d; Hattori and Hayakawa, 1994a, 1994b].
The narrow-band plasmapause hiss observed by ISIS-1 and -2 has been analyzed statistically. The occurrence peak variations with latitude and MLT were explained by the plasmapause contraction during the magnetic storm and the inflow direction of energetic electrons drifting from the magnetotail, respectively. The hiss seems to be generated by cyclotron instabilities near the plasmapause [Ondoh, 1993, 1995]. Based on DE-1 data, plasma irregularities scale and density were obtained from the upper limit frequency of the polar hiss. Whistler-triggered hiss was observed in the low-latitude magnetosphere. Its generation mechanism was discussed in terms of linear and nonlinear spectrum broadening. Impulsive VLF waves were observed in association with strong ELF hiss in the night and seem to be electrostatic whistler-mode waves. A chorus with a narrower gap frequency was observed in the recovery phase which implies a reduction by one fifth of the local magnetic field from the quiet time [Ondoh and Nakamura, 1994, 1995]. Wave normal directions of V-shaped hiss and saucers have been measured by the Akebono satellite. The directions are downgoing for hiss and upgoing for saucers with a large wave normal angle close to the resonance angle. The characteristics was reproduced by ray tracing [Kasahara et al., 1995]. Nishino and Tanaka  have analyzed low-latitude VLF hiss observed at Moshiri and Kagoshima associated with the severe magnetic storm during October 19-21, 1989. The hiss exhibited an increase of frequency of maximum energy with local time. Injected 5 keV electrons were estimated to contribute to the generation of hiss at dawn time equatorial region.
Nonlinear wave-wave interactions have been studied in the subauroral ionosphere on the basis of ISIS-2 satellite observations of Siple station VLF signals [Ohnami et al., 1993]. The corresponding theoretical consideration was given [Trakhtengertz and Hayakawa, 1993].
The location and extent of the exit areas at the ionospheric base of Siple VLF signal have been deduced from the wave intensity measured at six ground stations in Canada. The magnetic field intensity and polarization distributions are in close agreement with the results of a mathematical evaluation and a full wave calculation [Ikeda et al., 1995]. The structure of ducts for mid-latitude whistlers and their ionospheric transmission have been studied by Takahashi et al.  based on the direction finding. Subionospheric propagation of low-latitude whistlers has been studied by Ohta et al.  and Hayakawa et al. [1995a], whose characteristics are found to be very close to those of tweek sferics [Hayakawa et al., 1994; Hayakawa et al., 1995b]. Propagation characteristics of whistlers in the Jovian ionosphere and magnetosphere have been examined [Nagai et al., 1993; Hayakawa, 1995].
The radio emissions associated with earthquakes have been observed on the Intercosmos-24 satellite [Molchanov et al., 1993, 1994a]. The ionospheric perturbation associated with earthquakes as detected by subionospheric VLF propagation has been reported by Hayakawa and Sato .
On the occasion of the perihelion passage of Halley's comet in early 1985, the Sakigake spacecraft made observations in the distance close to the comet nucleus. The plasma wave turbulence and the shock wave positions have been studied. A report has been made on the plasma phenomena in the outer regions of the coma [Oya, 1993].
Periodic bursts of very intense electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic waves (ESCH) have been discovered by Sakigake at the PSBL. The bursts are enhanced with the period around 1.5 min suggesting large volume of plasma cloud periodically flowing toward the tail region. There are also periodic ESCH wave of about 300 s suggesting the velocity space modulation in the plasma flow [Oya et al., 1994].
Further studies have been made on the wave distribution function for magnetospheric VLF/ELF waves by means of regularization and generalized cross validation [Hayakawa, 1993a; Yamaguchi et al., 1994] and also by a Bayesian approach [Hirari and Hayakawa, 1995]. Sakamoto et al.  reported a technique to determine the wave normal only from the amplitude of the signals which does not need such a wide band telemerty as required in the usual technique based on the phase information. Rafalsky et al.  have presented a one-site distance-finding technique for locating lightning discharge.
Reflection coefficients and excitation efficiencies of ion acoustic waves have been measured in the multicomponent plasma with negative ions. The reflection coefficient becomes larger for a negative bias of the grid, and is almost constant for a positive bias of the grid as the partial pressure of SF6 gas is increased [Ito and Nakamura, 1994]. Their nonlinear evolution has been studied using a double-plasma device. It was found that the phase velocity of the ion acoustic waves increases with the wave amplitude at a critical concentration of negative ions [Bailung and Nakamura, 1993].
Method of modeling of VLF wave propagation has been proposed taking into account of the amplitude [Molchanov et al., 1995a]. The effect of localized perturbation on subionospheric propagation has been studied by the finite element method [Baba and Hayakawa, 1995], and the influence of layered structure of the lower ionosphere has resulted in non-monochromatic spectrum behavior of ELF atmospheric noise [Molchanov et al., 1994c]. Omid et al.  have calculated the excitation of electromagnetic waves in the ionosphere by a delta function current sheet. The propagation of radio emissions associated with earthquakes from an underground seismic source to the ionosphere has been studied by Molchanov et al. [1994b, 1995b].
Omura and Green  presented an innovative and powerful new technique to be used in the interpretation of GEOTAIL plasma wave data when the spacecraft is in the deep geomagnetotail during potential reconnection events. At precisely the moment of reconnection, the magnetotail structure based on a MHD simulation was used in the ray tracing calculation of various plasma waves expected to be generated in the X point regions.
Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation of electromagnetic pump wave propagation into an overdense, strongly magnetized plasma with a linear density gradient have been investigated. A localized three-wave interaction is observed involving the pump decaying into upper and lower hybrid waves. The results are relevant to stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE) [Goodman et al., 1994]. By computer experiments it was confirmed that the density nonuniformity is important for the excitation of the Broad Upshifted Maximum (BUM). Also, an excitation mechanism of the BUM was proposed by Ueda et al. [1994a].
The gyrophase organization of electron populations linearly couples the eigenmodes of gyrotropic parallel propagation in magnetoplasmas. The interaction, besides intensifying preexisting instabilities, excites new types of wave activity. Solutions of the nongyrotropic parallel dispersion equation and particle simulations illustrate instability enhancements and the stimulation of electrostatic and electromagnetic wave growth in media that are devoid of free energy sources [Brinca et al., 1993].
Both linear and nonlinear interactions between oblique whistler, electrostatic, quasi-upper hybrid mode waves and an electron beam were studied by linear analyses and electromagnetic particle simulations. Growth rates were first calculated. It has been found that there are four kinds of unstable mode waves for parallel and oblique propagation [Zhang et al., 1993].
The competing processes between the quasi-electrostatic whistler mode wave and the upper hybrid waves have been investigated. The results show that generation of the electrostatic plasma wave is mainly controlled by fp / fc and that upper hybrid waves become dominant only at less oblique wave normal angles when fp > fc. The simulation results give interpretation for the observation by the Akebono satellite [Watanabe and Oya, 1993].
Usui et al.  has studied plasma responses to a high potential satellite in the electrodynamic tether system with the aid of two-dimensional electromagnetic particle computer experiments. The transient process of the plasma response and the spatial profiles of plasma density and current as well as the current-voltage characteristics of the satellite were examined. Okada et al.  reported numerical experimental results on the electromagnetic environment around the spacecraft exposed to a high-speed plasma flow.
A review of computer simulations of the Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) instability at the magnetopause has been given. By means of a two-dimensional MHD simulation, it was shown that the observed rotation of the unperturbed magnetic field within the magnetopause leads to significant dependence of the magnetopause K-H instability on the orientation of the magnetosheath magnetic field [Miura, 1995]. The tangential stress due to the K-H instability at the magnetospheric boundary is found to be mostly caused by the Reynolds stress and is large enough for exciting a residual plasma convection inside the terrestrial magnetosphere [Miura, 1993]. Hybrid simulations of the MHD scale transverse K-H instability in a uniform plasma have been conducted. An enhanced mixing of ions across the shear layer was found to occur inside the vortex. The scale of the mixing process is determined by the fluid dynamics parameters and is anomalously quick/large compared to that due to the finite Larmor radius. The low latitude boundary layer just inside the magnetopause is the mixing layer formed possibly by this mechanism [Fujimoto and Terasawa, 1994].
Watanabe et al.  have performed extensive three-dimensional computer simulations of the magnetosphere-ionosphere (M-I) coupling to study self-excitation of auroral arc like structure. It was found that V-shaped parallel potential structure is formed as a result of M-I coupling when an anomalous parallel resistivity is generated by a current-driven instability.
Omura et al.  presented simulations of the ESW as observed by GEOTAIL. They have found that ESW are generated as a result of the nonlinear coalescence of strong electrostatic waves excited by an electrostatic beam instability. This instability is driven by an electron beam drifting relative to the ions and other electrons drifting with the ions. Solitary waves in an ion-beam-plasma system were investigated theoretically by Nakamura and Ohtani  using the pseudo-potential method, including finite temperatures of plasma ions and beam ions and it was found that a smaller solitary wave appears at the leading part of the pulse for the slow beam mode as a result of negative nonlinearity and anomalous dispersion
Alfven waves play important roles in space and astrophysical plasmas. Further understanding of the nature of the nonlinear evolution may be essential in correctly describing micro-processes of these plasmas. While nonlinear development of Alfven waves in a one-dimensional closed system has been studied intensively, effort to study nonlinear Alfven waves in a more realistic plasma has only recently started. Using analytic theory and numerical simulations, Hada et al.  discussed parametric instabilities of Alfven waves in two- (and three-) dimensions, and nonlinear evolution of Alfven waves subject to growth and damping. A set of equations was obtained to describe evolution of finite amplitude, dispersive, elliptically polarized quasi-parallel Alfven waves. The sound wave as well as the right- and left-hand polarized Alfven waves are nearly all degenerated. Modulational instability of a circularly polarized parallel Alfven wave has been discussed [Hada, 1993a]. The evolutionary conditions in the dissipative MHD system have been discussed by Hada . With emphasis on introducing relevant articles to interested readers, several important nonlinear aspects of Alfven waves have been briefly surveyed. In particular, mathematical and physical properties of the derivative nonlinear Schroedinger equation (DNLS), which describes the behavior of quasi-parallel weakly nonlinear and weakly dispersive MHD waves, were discussed [Hada, 1993b]. The properties of the DNLS equation were reviewed by Mjolhus and Hada : its physical significance, the exact solutions, its inverse scattering transform (IST), and the soliton formation processes. The process of dispersive steepening and a combined process of modulational instability and nonlinear Landau damping have been described, and the oblique two-parameter solitons were for the first time exhibited in detail. The IST was proposed to analyze nonlinear Alfven waves in a space plasma. Some numerical examples were given by Hada et al. . The IST describes the long-time evolution of quasi-parallel Alfven waves more efficiently than the Fourier transform.
The development of the fast reconnection mechanism has been systematically studied in a sheared field geometry. It was shown that the thin transition layers standing in the quasisteady fast reconnection configuration are divided into the intermediate wave region and the slow shock region [Ugai, 1993]. The temporal dynamics of magnetic reconnection was studied under a continuous local plasma injection. It was shown that the reconnection process is strongly influenced by the resistivity model [Ugai, 1994]. The temporal dynamics of MHD shocks, from a slow shock to a weak intermediate shock, was studied by one-dimensional MHD simulations with high resolution. It was argued that in a general noncoplanar situation the intermediate shock cannot stand stably [Ugai and Shimizu, 1994a]. The basic physical concept on the fast reconnection mechanism has been reviewed. For the evolution mechanism of fast reconnection, two theoretical models, the externally driven model and the spontaneous fast reconnection model, have been proposed. It was argued that the spontaneous model may be most applicable to catastrophic events observed in space plasmas [Ugai and Shimizu, 1994b]. The spontaneous model has been applied to the plasmoid dynamics. It was demonstrated that a large-scale plasmoid propagates at a speed somewhat less than the Alfven speed; also, along the plasmoid boundaries slow shocks stand [Ugai, 1995a]. Ugai [1995b] made simulations study on the physical mechanism by which magnetic energy is released into plasma energies. It was demonstrated that for the spontaneous fast reconnection mechanism the stored magnetic energy is effectively converted by the resulting large-scale motor effect. For the steady-state three-dimensional reconnection problem in a compressible plasma, Terasawa et al. [1993a] have found a new class of exact solutions, which consist of ideal-MHD regions, MHD singularities (slow shocks and rotational discontinuities), and a neutral line. This solution predicts the existence of plasma jetting parallel to the neutral line, in addition to the usual plasma jetting in the perpendicular direction. The solution has well-behaved velocity fields without any singularity.
Global MHD simulation of interaction between the solar wind and the earth's magnetosphere made clear a role of IMF orientation. The IMF orientation controls much of the interaction processes through magnetic reconnection. During southward IMF the energy inflow from the magnetosheath to magnetosphere increases due to enhancement of reconnection rate in the dayside magnetopause. For northward IMF the reconnection region moves to high latitude tail and the rate becomes small. The magnetic energy which is stored in lobes during southward IMF decreases and the plasma in the magnetosheath penetrates into flank magnetopause. Therefore, the northward turning of IMF gives a recovery of magnetosphere [Walker et al., 1993a, 1993b; Ogino et al., 1994, 1995].
Current-voltage relationship including plasma flow along the mirror field has been investigated by Miura . Plasma structure and potential formation in a plasma flow along a magnetic mirror field have been investigated by a two-and-half dimensional electrostatic particle simulation [Ishiguro et al., 1993, 1995]. A particle simulation with plasma source has been carried out on plasma structures generated by an electron emissive electrode floated in collisionless plasma [Ishiguro and Sato, 1993]. Electrostatic particle simulation has been performed on ion cyclotron oscillations driven by applying a positive potential to a small electrode in a magnetized collisionless plasma [Ishiguro et al., 1994].
An overview of the stochastic ion acceleration process at the terrestrial bow shock and a summary of the remaining problems on the injection, acceleration, and spatial distribution was presented by Terasawa . The interaction between a plasmoid and cold ion beams in the tail lobe region was numerically investigated by Tsubouchi and Terasawa . They found out that the effective energization of ion beams takes place in the passage of a plasmoid, due to the electric field induced by the motion of the plasmoid. Results were successfully compared with the recent GEOTAIL observation. Nonlinear interaction between ions and MHD waves at cyclotron subharmonic frequencies has been studied by Terasawa et al. [1993b].
Plasma physics in a neutron star has been investigated and it was found that Hall current is of importance. Naito and Kojima  calculated evolution of neutron-star magnetic-field with the Hall-current effect. The presence of the Hall current causes the couplings among different modes and the energy is transferred to different modes. It was concluded that the decaying features depend on the configuration of the fields. Since galactic cosmic rays are believed to be created in supernova remnants (SNRs), SNRs are expected to be a source of high energy gamma-ray through the decay of neutral pions produced by p-p collisions. Naito and Takahara  calculated the gamma-ray spectra and showed that SNRs are observable in gamma-ray energy ranges with existing and future instruments.
Using Monte Carlo simulation, the phase-space distribution function of diffusively accelerated particles in shock waves with oblique magnetic field has been calculated. Large-angle scattering (LA) and pitch-angle scattering (PA) were examined as for diffusion process. The spectral index and the acceleration time scale have been obtained [Naito and Takahara, 1995a]. On the basis of Fermi acceleration in oblique shock waves, Naito and Takahara [1995b] obtained the spectral indices of accelerated particles from the average energy gain and the escape probability per cycle. Their results apply to any values of shock speed and obliqueness as far as the shock is subluminal.
Akiba, R., K. Miura, M. Hinada, H. Matsumoto, and N. Kaya, ISY-METS rocket experiment, The Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, 652, 1-13 (1993)
Aoyama, K., R. Hatakeyama, W. Ding, and N. Sato, Electrostatic ion-cyclotron oscillations induced by an emissive disc plate floating in a plasma, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn., 63, 3319-3325 (1994)
Aoyama, T., and H. Oya, Decametric radiations from a large scale magnetic loop in the solar corona, J. Geomag. Geoelectr., 46, 97-105 (1994)
Baba, K., and M. Hayakawa, The effect of localized ionospheric perturbations on subionospheric VLF propagation on the basis of finite element method, Radio Sci., 30, 1511-1517 (1995)
Bailung, H., and Y. Nakamura, Observation of modulational instability in a multi-component plasma with negative ions, J. Plasma Phys., 50, Part 2, 231-242 (1993)
Brinca, A. L., Y. Omura, and H. Matsumoto, Linear coupling effects originated in electron nongyrotropy, J. Geophys. Res., 98, A12, 21071-21076 (1993)
Cattell, C., F. Mozer, K. Tsuruda, H. Hayakawa, M. Nakamura, T. Okada, S. Kokubun, and T. Yamamoto, Geotail observations of spiky electric fields and low-frequency waves in the plasma sheet and plasma sheet boundary layer, Geophys. Res. Lett., 21, 2987-2990 (1994)
Ding, W., R. Hatakeyama, S. Ishiguro, and N. Sato, Electron injections from a floated plate into a collisionless plasma, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn., 63, 3311-3318 (1994)
Fedorov, E. N., N. G. Mazur, V. A. Pilipenko, and K. Yumoto, On the theory of field line resonances in plasma configurations, Phys. Plasma 2, 2, 527-532 (1995)
Fujimoto, M., and T. Terasawa, Anomalous ion mixing within a MHD scale Kelvin-Helmholtz vortex, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 8601-8613 (1994)
Goodman, S., H. Usui, and H. Matsumoto, Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of electromagnetic emissions from plasma turbulence, Phys. of Plasmas (Formerly Phys. of Fluids B), 1, 6, 1765-1767 (1994)
Hada, T., Evolution of large amplitude Alfven waves in the solar wind with beta approximately equal to 1, Geophys. Res. Lett., 20, 2415-2418 (1993a)
Hada, T., Nonlinear evolution of Alfven waves in space plasmas, in Nonlinear Processes in Physics, eds. A. S. Fokas et al., Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 169-174 (1993b)
Hada, T., Evolutionary conditions in the dissipative MHD system: stability of intermediate MHD shock waves, Geophys. Res. Lett., 21, 2275-2278 (1994)
Hada, T., R. L. Hamilton, and C. F. Kennel, The soliton transform and a possible application to nonlinear Alfven waves in space, Geophys. Res. Lett., 20, 779-782 (1993)
Hada, T., M. Nambu, T. Terasawa, C. F. Kennel, and E. Mjolhus, Evolution of finite amplitude Alfven waves in space plasmas, in Research Trends in Physics: Nonlinear Space Plasma Physics, eds. R. Z. Sagdeev et al., 275-283, American Institute of Physics, New York (1994)
Hammond, C. M., G. K. Crawford, J. T. Gosling, H. Kojima, J. L. Phillips, H. Matsumoto, A. Balogh, L. A. Frank, S. Kokubun, and T. Yamamoto, Latitudinal structure of a coronal mass ejection inferred from Ulysses and Geotail observations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 22, 10, 1169-1172 (1995)
Hashimoto, K., H. Matsumoto, H. Kojima, T. Murata, I. Nagano, T. Okada, K. Tsuruda, and T. Iyemori, Auroral myriametric radiation observed by GEOTAIL, Geophys. Res. Lett., 21, 25, 2927-2930 (1994)
Hatakeyama, R., S. Miyakuni, N. Y. Sato, and N. Sato, Cross-field plasma transport induced by electrostatic lower-hybrid waves, Proc. Saha Centenary Symp., 463-466 (1994)
Hattori, K., and M. Hayakawa, Consideration of dynamic spectra and direction finding results of hiss-triggered chorus emissions, Proc. NIPR Symp. Upper Atmos. Phys., 7, 40-52 (1994a)
Hattori, K., and M. Hayakawa, The experimental results of triggering chorus emissions from monochromatic wave components in the hiss band in the outer magnetosphere, in Dusty and Dirty Plasmas, Noise, and Chaos in Space and in the Laboratory, ed. H. Kikuchi, 395-404, Plenum Press, New York (1994b)
Hayakawa, M., Ground-based direction finding of magnetospheric plasma waves and its applications, Inst. Electr. Inform. Comm. Engrs. Japan, 76, 258-264, Technical Survey (in Japanese) (1993a)
Hayakawa, M, VLF/ELF radio noise in the inner plasmasphere, Trends Geophys. Res., 2, 211-231 (1993b)
Hayakawa, M., Ionospheric and magnetospheric VLF/ELF radio noises at lower latitudes, J. Atmos. Electr., 13, 65-93 (1993c)
Hayakawa, M., Study of generation mechanisms of magnetospheric VLF/ELF emissions based on the direction findings, Proc. NIPR Symp. Upper Atmos. Phys., 6, 117-133 (1993d)
Hayakawa, M., Association of whistlers with lightning discharges on the Earth and on Jupiter, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 57, 525-535 (1995)
Hayakawa, M., and H. Sato, Ionospheric perturbations associated with earthquakes as detected by subionospheric VLF propagation, in Electromagnetic Phenomena Related to Earthquake Prediction, eds. Hayakawa, M., and Y. Fujinawa, 391-397 (1994)
Hayakawa, M., and E. K. Smith, Terrestrial and planetary EM noise, Rev. Radio Sci. 1990-1992, ed. W. Ross Stone, Oxford Univ. Press, 293-306 (1993)
Hayakawa, M., K. Ohta, and K. Baba, Wave characteristics of tweek atmospherics deduced from the direction-finding measurement and theoretical interpretation, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 10733-10743 (1994)
Hayakawa, M., K. Ohta, and S. Shimakura, Recent findings on the propagation of low latitude whistlers, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 57, 485-492 (1995a)
Hayakawa, M., K. Ohta, S. Shimakura, and K. Baba, Recent findings on VLF/ELF sferics, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 57, 467-477 (1995b)
Hayashi, K., H. Matsui, H. Kawano, T. Yamamoto, and S. Kokubun, Whistler mode waves observed by MGF search coil magnetometer-- Polarization and wave normal features of upstream waves near the bow-shock, Geophys. Res. Lett., 21, 2907-2910 (1994)
Hirahara, M., M. Nakamura, T. Terasawa, T. Mukai, Y. Saito, T. Yamamoto, A. Nishida, S. Machida, and S. Kokubun, Acceleration and heating of cold ion beams in the plasma sheet boundary layer observed with GEOTAIL, Geophys. Res. Lett., 21, 3003-3006 (1994)
Hirari, M., and M. Hayakawa, Simulation study on ground-based direction finding of VLF/ELF radio waves by wave distribution functions: a Bayesian approach, IEICE Trans. Commun., E78-B, 6, 923-931 (1995)
Iizuka, S., and R. Schrittwieser, Effects of a radial electric field on low frequency instabilities in a magnetized plasma, Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion, 35, 77-91 (1993)
Ikeda, M., I. Nagano, T., Shimbo, and D. L. Carpenter, Intensities and polarization rates of whistler mode VLF signals observed from a ground network near L = 4, J. Geophys. Res., 100, A4, 5691-5703 (1995)
Ishiguro, S., and N. Sato, Plasma structures in front of a floated emissive electrode, Phys. Fluids B, 5, 4237-4243 (1993)
Ishiguro, S., Y. Kishi, and N. Sato, Plasma structure in a plasma flow along a magnetic mirror field, Proc. 4th Int. Conf. on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion, 245-248 (1993)
Ishiguro, S., Y. Suzawa, and N. Sato, Potential-driven ion cyclotron oscillations in a magnetized collisionless plasma, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn., 63, 3651-3656 (1994)
Ishiguro, S., Y. Kishi, and N. Sato, Potential formation due to plasma injection along converging magnetic field lines, Phys. Plasmas, 2, 3271-3274 (1995)
Ito, T., and Y. Nakamura, Reflection and excitation of ion-acoustic waves in a multi-component plasma with negative ions, J. Plasma Phys., 51, Part 2, 185-191 (1994)
Iwata, A., and Y. Tanaka, On the duct propagation of LF whistler-mode signals and their ionospheric transmission as deduced from multi-stationed measurements in the conjugate area at low latitudes, J. Atmos. Electr., 2, 51-65 (1995)
Iwata, A., Y. Tanaka, and M. Nishino, Propagation characteristics of whistler-mode signals from LF Decca transmitter, Trans. IEICE, J78-B-II, 2, 62-70 (in Japanese) (1995a)
Iwata, A., Y. Tanaka, M. Nishino, and K. Yumoto, Magnetic storm-related energetic electrons penetrating into the magnetosphere deduced from ground-based measurements of resonant waves, J. Geomag. Geoelectr., 47, 943-952 (1995b)
Kasahara, Y., H. Kenmochi, and I. Kimura, Propagation characteristics of the ELF emissions observed by the satellite Akebono in the magnetic equatorial region, Radio Sci., 29, 4, 751-767 (1994)
Kasahara, Y., K. Yoshida, T. Matsuo, and I. Kimura, Propagation characteristics of auroral hiss observed by Akebono satellite, J. Geomag. Geoelectr., 47, 509-525 (1995)
Kato, K., N. Sato, and Y. Tonegawa, Estimation of geomagnetic conjugate points using Pc 5 geomagnetic pulsation, J. Geomag. Geoelectr., 46, 363-372 (1994)
Kimura, I., P. Stubbe, M. T. Rietveld, R. Barr, K. Ishida, Y. Kasahara, S. Yagitani, and I. Nagano, Collaborative experiments by Akebono satellite, Tromso ionospheric heater, and European incoherent scatter radar, Radio Sci., 29, 1, 23-37 (1994)
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