Edited by Masato Ishiguro

J1. Introduction

SIS receivers with closed-cycle refrigerator have been extensively used for the Nobeyama 45-m telescope and millimeter array in 40 - 150 GHz bands. Both telescopes are open to the astronomers outside Japan as well as domestic astronomers.

A space VLBI satellite (VSOP) will be launched in 1995 by ISAS. Large deployable antenna, receiver system, ground-based facilities are under development for this project.

The second 4-m millimeter telescope was completed at Nagoya University and is planned to be located in the southern hemisphere. The 60-cm telescope for a CO(J=2-1) survey was constructed at Nobeyama by the University of Tokyo and the second telescope is under construction which will be located in La Silla, Chile.

The 64-beam radio telescope of Waseda University was completed and has started test observations.

A site-survey activities has started in northern Chile to test the atmospheric performances (opacity, radio seeing, etc) for the LMA (Large Millimeter Array) project. The LMA will consist of 50 10-m antennas distributed on the baselines of about 2-3 km.

J2. New Instrumentation

J2.1. The Nobeyama Radioheliograph

A new radioheliograph was completed at Nobeyama in 1992. This telescope is a T-shaped array of 84 80-cm antennas, 220 m by 500 m. It is capable of producing two-dimensional images of the sun at 17 GHz for both circular polarizations, with a spatial resolution of 10 arcsec and a temporal resolution of 50 ms [Nakajima et al., 1990a, Enome, 1991, 1992].

J2.2. The Nobeyama 45-m Telescope

The main-reflector surface accuracy of the 45-m telescope has been improved by radio holographic measurements [Ishiguro et al., 1991, Deguchi, H. et al., 1992a]. The surface error is now 65 mm rms. Frequency selective surface (FSS) was developed for simultaneous observations at 40 and 80 GHz bands [Irimajiri and Takano, 1991]. A 2x2-element focal plane array SIS receiver at 115 GHz was developed and is installed for the multi-beam operation. This system is a prototype for the future 5x5-element multi-beam receiver which is under developments at Nobeyama. A seven-element bolometer array is also installed for very high sensitive continuum observations.

J2.3. The Nobeyama Millimeter Array (NMA)

The SIS mixers for the dual frequency (40/100 GHz) receivers [Kawabe et al., 1990] were replaced to tunerless mixers at 100/150 GHz bands and the same type of mixers for 230 GHz are being tested. To extend the maximum bandwidth to 2 GHz, a new XF type correlator system is under developments . A new 10-m antenna is under construction at Nobeyama to expand NMA to 6-element interferometer. The surface panels of 20 mm rms mean accuracy are supported by motorized actuators and can be remotely adjusted. The optics is designed to have high aperture efficiency at 100 - 200 GHz [Ishiguro et al., 1990]. Atmospheric phase fluctuations at millimeter wavelengths have been studied with NMA [Kasuga et al., 1989].

J2.4. Receiver Developments

High quality Nb/Al-AlOx/Nb junctions have been widely used for millimeter wave mixers at Nobeyama [Inatani et al., 1990a]. The radiation pattern of equiangular spiral antenna at 105 GHz was measured with a SIS detector. The measured pattern is consistent with the calculated one based on a four wire approximation [Yamamoto, M. et al., 1991].

A submillimeter flux-flow oscillator has been developed [Inatani et al. 1990b, Sakai et al., 1991]. Array junctions were developed for submillimeter mixing [Kodaira, 1990].

J2.5. VLBI

In Japan, five radiotelescopes are available for a domestic VLBI network. These are, Usuda 64-m, Nobeyama 45-m, Kashima 34-m, Mizusawa 10-m, and Kagoshima 6-m. VLBI observations at 43 GHz have been conducted with Kashima-Nobeyama Interferometer (KNIFE). The 34-m antenna has surface accuracy of 0.17 mm rms and is equipped with receivers from 300 MHz to 43 GHz [Takaba et al., 1990]. A Phase-Stabilized Optical Fiber (PSOF) cable is successfully used for transmitting the 100-520 MHz IF signal and 10 MHz reference signal in Mark III VLBI observations [Sato, K. et al., 1992]. A new advanced 2-bit correlator with 128 Mbps speed and 512 complex lags was developed at Nobeyama for the K-4 VLBI system [Kawaguchi, N. et al., 1991]. The accuracy of an astrometric VLBI system composed of clusters of 4 antennas at both ends of a baseline was estimated [Sasao and Morimoto, 1991] .

A precision large deployable antenna for the space VLBI (VSOP [Hirabayashi, 1990, 1991a,b,c,d,e, Kobayashi, 1991a,b,c, Hirabayashi et al. 1992] )was designed and tested with a one-fourth scale model [Ohkubo et al., 1992]. A near-field measurement of the scale model was performed by eliminating gravity effect [Deguchi, H. et al., 1992b]. A large scale FX type correlator is under development for VSOP [Chikada, 1990, Chikada et al. 1991].

J2.6. Others

An estimator-free information criterion (WIC) is proposed as a stopping rule in the CLEAN procedure of aperture synthesis imaging [Ishiguro et al., 1991]. Application of bispectrum analysis techniques to millimeter interferometry was tested [Morita, 1991].

J3. Solar Radio Astronomy

Unusually high speed type II burst was observed in an intense solar flare on 1984 April 24. Comparison of this type II burst with associated X-ray and gamma-ray emissions suggests that shock acceleration did not play a major role in particle acceleration [Nakajima et al., 1990b].

The interplanetary scintillation technique was used to observe the solar wind. It is shown that very low-speed winds around 0.2 AU emanate from a strong bipolar magnetic region on the sun [Kojima et al., 1991], and that the solar wind is accelerated largely even beyond 0.1 AU [Kojima et al., 1992]. It is suggested from comparison of solar wind speeds with HeI line intensity that the solar wind speed is inversely proportional to the temperature in or above the photosphere [Hakamada et al., 1991]. The solar cycle dependence of solar wind speed distribution is reviewed for the period of 1973 to 1987 [Kojima and Kakinuma, 1990].

J4. Solar System Radio Astronomy

A model for the production of modulation lanes in Jovian Io radiation is proposed to provide a close fit to the observed dynamic spectra, assuming a grid-like interference screen of field-aligned columns of enhanced plasma density downstream from Io [Imai et al., 1992a,b].

The Jovian decametric activities observed with Voyager 1 and 2 are studied to obtain new information on both locations of Jovian decametric Io-related sources and shapes of their emission beams [Maeda and Carr, 1992]. Frequency drift rate due to the combined effect of the Jovian decametric source structure and interplanetary scintillation is quantitatively obtained using the two frequency observations with an 8 element conical log-spiral array [Maeda, 1992].

J5. Galactic Radio Astronomy

J5.1. Galactic Center Region

Sofue [1989a] reviewed radio continuum observations of the galactic center region with a particular regard to large-scale extended feature. The Galactic Center Arc has been mapped with the NMA at 43 GHz. No straight filaments are detected, while thermal features like "sickle" are clearly mapped. The straight arc filaments have a spectral turnover at high frequencies around 40 GHz, which suggests a young age of radio emitting cosmic rays [Sofue et al., 1992c]. Using the Nobeyama 45-m telescope, CS J=1-0 and J=2-1 line observations of the Galactic Center Radio Arc have been made in order to search an interaction between strong magnetic field and molecular clouds [Tsuboi et al., 1990]. An accreting gas disk in a poloidal magnetic field is shown to a sudden change in the direction of rotation axis due to a precession of disk axis [Fujimoto et al., 1990].

A finger-like extension of the 20 km s-1 cloud was mapped in NH3 line with NMA [Okumura et al., 1991a]. It almost reaches to the circumnuclear ring surrounding Sgr A West. High resolution continuum observation of Sgr C complex has been also made at 22.3 GHz using the NMA. The Sgr C complex has a U-shaped ridge comprising several clumpy feature and shell-like features [Tsuboi et al., 1991].

Off-plane radio continuum features in the Galactic Center are more or less associated with symmetrical features with respect to the galactic plane [Seiradakis et al., 1989]. CO line and radio continuum data for the Galactic region has been compared in detail and an anti-correlation in the spatial distribution of the molecular and radio emissions was found [Sofue, 1990c]. The expanding 200-pc molecular ring in the Galactic Center region is shown to be a cylinder of molecular gas [Sofue, 1989b].

J5.2. Star Forming Regions

Filamentary structures extending over 0.5 pc from Orion-KL region were found from aperture synthesis observations of OMC-1 in NH3 (1,1) and (2,2) emission using NMA [Murata et al., 1990]. The NMA observations of Orion-KL in CS(1-0), CS(2-1) and 3mm continuum revealed the presence of rotating disk and shock-compressed shell around Orion-KL [Murata et al., 1991]. From high-resolution and high-dynamic-range images at 3 mm using the NMA, 8 compact clumps have been identified in the Orion-KL region. These dust clumps are candidates for proto-stellar condensations in the dense gas disk around IRc2 [Murata et al., 1992].

HCO+ observations of B335 region were made at JCMT and the data show the presence of warm gas in the central region and a steep excitation gradient [Hasegawa et al., 1991]. The B335 outflow was observed in the J=2-1 and J=1-0 transitions of 12CO and 13CO with single dish telescope and in the J=1-0 transition of 12CO with interferometer [Hirano et al., 1991, 1992]. Sub-mm continuum emission toward B335 revealed the detailed structure of the continuum source in relation to the outflow. The source is a very dense core of dust and gas around the central source in the very primitive star forming stage and is able to collimate the outflow into the bipolar structure [Chandler et al., 1990].

The CO J=2-1 line toward L723 region reveals a striking quadrapolar morphology of the outflow [Avery et al., 1990]. A series of millimeter line images toward a low-mass star-forming region L723 represent remarkable geometry and the central condensation indicates strong interaction between the protostellar disk and the outflow [Hayashi et al., 1991]. Molecular gas distribution toward the L1551 dark cloud exhibits the dissipating cloud during the star formation. The 13CO image resolved a molecular bubble associated with the 12CO shell of the blueshifted outflow [Hayashi et al., 1989]. High resolution images of the CO J=3-2 emission were obtained toward the blueshifted part of the prototypical bipolar outflow in L1551 [Parker et al., 1990]. The isolated dark cloud L1489 was observed in the 13CO(J=1-0) emission. It is found that the elongation for the entire L1489 dark cloud coincides with the smaller scale elongation observed at higher angular resolution [Miyawaki and Hayashi, 1992]. Expanding clumpy shocked shell around the redshited outflow in NGC 2071 was observed with NMA with 10" resolution [Kitamura et al., 1992].

High-spatial-resolution observations of the NGC7538 molecular cloud have been performed with the 45-m telescope, JCMT, and NMA [Kameya 1990a]. Using NMA, H2O maser emission in the NGC7538 molecular cloud has been mapped with very high relative positional accuracy, 0."2 [Kameya et al., 1990b]. The same region was also observed with 45-m telescope, JCMT, and VLA [Kameya et al., 1990c]. Millimeter wave observations of the continuum sources in the NGC 7538 region with the 45m and NMA revealed the new compact source in IRS1 with a small linear size of order of 1015 cm and a high electron density of 107 cm-3 [Akabane et al., 1992].

A clumpy ring of CS emission was found around an infrared cluster embedded in the S140 molecular core with a high resolution observation using NMA [Hayashi et al., 1992]. Observations of various molecular species toward W49A has been carried out with high S/N ratio [Miyawaki et la., 1990]. Observations of CO outflow and a dense molecular cloud associated with the Herbig Ae/Be star LkHa 198 have been carried out at various molecular lines with high spatial resolution [Nakano et al., 1990]. Some pre-main sequence stars associated with cometary nebulae - LkHa 208, LkHa 215, P13, P21, and PV Cep were observed in CO [Nakano 1991]. Molecular line and optical observations have been carried out for the Herbig Be/Ae star MWC 1080 [Yoshida et al., 1991, 1992].

Multi-transition analysis of the observations of CO J=2-1, CO J=3-2 and HCO+ J=4-3 toward the molecular cloud associated with the reflection nebular NGC2023 reveals the complex structure of the quiescent gas and hot-spots [White et al., 1990]. A star formation by radiation-driven implosions in Ori I-2, IC1396 rim E, and L1206 was found using the 45-m telescope [Sugitani 1989]. Using the Nagoya 4-m , POM 2.5-m and KOSMA 3-m telescopes, an extensive multi-line survey of IC1396 has been made in CO an 13CO (J=1-0, 2-1, and 3-2) [Weikard et al., 1991]. A survey of bright-rimmed clouds associated with IRAS point sources has made in the northern hemisphere by using the PSS red prints and IRAS point source catalog [Sugitani et al., 1991].

HB21 was found to be interacting with an extensive wall of atomic and molecular gas, which is part of the warped gas disk of the outer Galaxy [Tatematsu et al., 1990a]. The region of the semicircular supernova remnant G109.1 -1.0 is studied on the basis of CO observations with 45-m telescope and X-ray data from the archive of the Einstein Observatory [Tatematsu et al., 1990b].

The CS(J=2-1) line and 98 GHz continuum observations of 11 protostellar IRAS sources have been made with high spatial resolution of 2."8 - 8."8 using NMA [Ohashi et al., 1991]. Two giant complexes of cold HI clouds well over 120 pc in length have been detected around the HII region W5 from the analysis of the HI absorption features in the data from the Maryland - Green Bank Survey [Sato 1990]. Using the Parkes 64-m telescope, the M17SW giant molecular cloud and the region around the Chameleon I dark cloud in the 21 cm line were mapped [Sato et al., 1991a, b, 1992].

Linear polarization of water-maser emission was measured for 25 star-forming regions of which eight had linearly polarized features [Barvanis et al., 1989].

J5.3. Stars

Strong emission of HCO+ J=1-0 was detected in the molecular envelope of planetary nebula NGC 7027 [Deguchi et al., 1990a] and mapped with a spatial resolution of 4."5 x 3."2 [Deguchi et al., 1992] with NMA. The CO J=1-0 from the planetary nebula IRAS 21282 + 5050 was mapped with NMA with an angular resolution of 4" [Shibata et al., 1989]. CRL2688 was mapped in the CO J=1-0 and 2-1 transitions with the IRAM 30-m telescope [Truong-Bach et al., 1990]. 41 southern IRAS sources have been observed in the CO J=1-0 and SiO J=2-1, v=1 lines with the 15-m Swedish-ESO submillimeter telescope and the CO and SiO emission has been detected in 20 sources [Deguchi et al., 1990b]. Water maser emission in 112 bright, southern IRAS sources has been searched and 27 cases have been detected [Deguchi et al 1989]. Intensities of far-infrared and submillimeter transitions of H2O in circumstellar envelopes of evolved stars are calculated [Deguchi and Nguyen-Q-Rieu, 1990]. The transport of radiation in interacting masers and linearly polarized radiation from masers due to maganetic fields are calculated[Deguchi and Watson, 1989,1990].

J5.4. Interstellar Chemistry

High-resolution mapping observations were carried out toward Taurus Molecular Cloud-1 (TMC-1) with CCS, C3S, CS, C34S, HCS+, HC3N, HC5N, C4H, and NH3. The observed difference in molecular distribution is explained by the difference in chemical evolution [Hirahara et al. 1992]. The J=14-13 rotational spectral lines of five 13C isotopic species of HC5N were detected in TMC-1 and the carbon isotopic ratio was found to be close to that in the solar vicinity [Takano et al., 1990]. The J=5-4 rotational spectral lines of the three 13C isotopic species of HC3N were observed in TMC-1 and a significant difference in their intensities was detected [Takano et al., 1992a]. The distribution of SiC2 in the envelope of the carbon rich star IRC+10216 was observed with NMA using the 404-3-303 rotational transition in 93.06 GHz. The distribution shows a clear shell-like structure [Takano et al., 1992b].

Recently, new molecules H2CCC, H2CCCC, HCCNC, HNCCC which are meta-stable isomers of cyclic-C3H2, diacetylene, and cyanoacetylene, were detected toward TMC-1 with the Nobeyama 45-m telescope. The ortho-para ratios in H2CCC, H2CCCC and H2CCO were determined and compared with those of other species for clarifying the production mechanism [Kawaguchi et al. 1991, Ohishi et al. 1991]. The abundances of HCCNC and HNCCC are determined to be about 1/60 and 1/450 of that of the most stable isomer HCCCN [Kawaguchi et al. 1992a, 1992b]. Another carbon chain molecule CCO has been detected for the first time in TMC-1 [Ohishi et al. 1991]. A silicon-containing carbon chain molecule C4Si was identified in circumstellar envelope of the carbon star IRC+10216 [Ohishi et al. 1989].

Many spectral lines were observed by laboratory microwave spectroscopy. The detailed molecular constants were determined for DCCN, H13CCN, HC13CN, and HCC15N [Brown et al., 1991]. The absorption spectrum of the n3 band of cyclopropenylidene (C3H2) was observed with a high-resolution Fourier transform infrared spectrometer [Hirahara et al., 1991]. Microwave spectrum of the 12CH317OH molecule and its molecular constants are reported for the first time [Hoshino et al., 1991]. Rotational spectral lines of C3H and C3D in their ground and vibrationally excited states were observed [Yamamoto et al., 1990a]. Rotational spectrum of the CCS radical was studied by laboratory microwave spectroscopy and radioastronomical observations [Yamamoto et al., 1990b]. Laboratory microwave spectroscopy of transient molecules is discussed from an astronomical point of view [Saito, 1989, 1991, 1992].

J6. Extragalactic Radio Astronomy

J6. 1. Molecular Lines

Many galaxies have been observed in CO(J=1-0) and/or CO(J=2-1) lines with use of the 45 m radio telescope at Nobeyama and the 30 m one at IRAM and high-spatial resolution observations have been made for some interesting galaxies with NMA.

Circumnuclear molecular gas surveys have been made for starburst and Seyfert galaxies in CO(J=1-0) emission at Nobeyama [Taniguchi et al. 1990a, 1990b, 1990c, Taniguchi 1991]. There is no significant difference in molecular gas contents, and in molecular gas dynamics between the starburst and Seyfert galaxies. Another CO survey has also been made for Arp's interacting galaxies with the same telescope [Sofue et al. 1990d, 1992b]. From the correlation analysis, it has been shown that the star formation efficiency increases significantly with the interaction class. Seven IR luminous galaxies ; Arp220, Mrk231, NGC6240, NGC6090, Mrk331, and NGC828 were observed at high resolution (2"-5") with NMA and the gas distribution and the velocity structure suggest that they have dense molecular gas disks rotating around these nuclei [Okumura et al., 1991b].

CO line observations have been also made for many nearby galaxies. The interacting edge-on galaxy NGC 4631 has been observed with the 45 m telescope [Sofue et al. 1990a, 1990b] and with the IRAM 30-m telescope [Sofue et al., 1990c, 1991a]. The position-velocity diagram along the major axis shows that the molecular gas is distributed either in a rigid-rotating disk or in a ring. The presence of four peaks suggests that the disk may be fissioning. The high-resolution CO(J=1-0) mapping has been made of the edge-on galaxy NGC 3079 with NMA [Irwin and Sofue 1991, 1992, Sofue and Irwin 1992]. The molecular spur was found to be associated with the radio lobes and VLBI jets, suggesting the acceleration by the AGN activity. The nearest edge-on disk galaxy NGC 891 has been mapped with NMA in the CO(J=1-0) line [Handa et al. 1990b, 1992]. The thickness of the molecular gas is estimated at 5 " (=230 pc). A prominent molecular spur structure is also found. This spur emerges from the disk at a distance of 5.5 kpc from the galactic center. The star formation efficiency is found to be significantly high in the inner 10 kpc (diameter) region of NGC 891 [Sofue and Nakai, 1992]. This results suggest the presence of threshold gas density for active star formation. CO(J=1-0) line observations of the southern spiral arm of M83 has been made with the 45 m telescope [Handa et al., 1990a,1991]. The CO emmission is concentrated in the spiral arm while it is much weaker than in the bar. A ridge of CO emission is also found on the leading edge of the bar.

Several kinds of galaxies, nearby late type spiral galaxies, barred galaxies, IR luminous merging galaxies, and a high-z galaxy were observed in CO(1-0) and CS(2-1,3-2) lines with Nobeyama Millimeter Array (NMA) (e.g., Kawabe et al. 1991a; Kawabe et al. 1991b), and high spatial resolution maps were obtained for about 60 galaxies so far. Pairs of narrow ridges of molecular gas, that is molecular bars, was found in the nuclear regions of IC342 (Ishizuki et al. 1990a), NGC6946 (Ishizuki et al. 1990b), Maffei2, and M51 (Kawabe et al. 1991b). A protogalaxy candidate IRAS F10214+4724 was mapped in CO(3-2) using NMA (Kawabe et al. 1992; Sakamoto et al. 1992). It was found that huge amount of molecular gas is just associated with the optical galaxy at z=2.286 and the metal-enriched molecular gas collapsed sufficiently to the galaxy disk scale.

CO(J=2-1) mapping of the proto-type starburst galaxy M82 has been made with the 30 m telescope at IRAM [Loiseau et al., 1990, Sofue et al., 1991a, 1992a]. These data are compared with the CO(J=1-0) data taken at Nobeyama. The ratio of CO(J=2-1)/CO(J=1-0) is as large as about two near the center and at the 200-pc starburst ring while it is about unity in the outer region and the halo. Further, the rotation velocity of the molecular gas in the halo decreases with height from the galactic plane. This is consistent with the idea that the halo gas is ejected from the central region of the galaxy. One more starburst galaxy Markarian 297 with clumpy irregular structures has been observed in the CO(J=1-0) line with the 45 m telescope [Sofue et al., 1990b]. The molecular gas is concentrated in the central region. It is interesting to note that the molecular gas is decoupled from HI gas. CO(J=1-0) emission has been detected in the central region of the proto-type polar ring S0 galaxy NGC 2685 with the 45 m telescop[Taniguchi et al., 1990d]. The obserbed spectrum shows a flat-top profile, suggestion that the molecular gas is distributed in a disc or ring. Another peculiar early-type disc galaxy NGC 7625 has been studied in the CO(J=1-0) line [Yasuda rt al., 1992]. The molecular gas show unusual kinematics, suggesting out-of plane flow or accretion. CO(J=1-0) has been detected in the irregular galaxy NGC 4449 using the 45 m telescope [Sasaki et al., 1990]. Two molecular complexes with mass of ~107 Mo have been detected.

It has been reported that CO observations are useful in measuring distance toward galaxies. First, the diameter of a molecular ring is useful to determine distances of galaxies [Sofue, 1991c]. This idea is based on the observational facts that nuclear molecular rings have radii either around 200 pc or around 700 pc. Second, the advantage of making use of CO line profiles of galaxies instead of those of HI line is proposed in analyses of Tully-Fisher relation [Sofue, 1992].

Recent progress in observational studies of molecular gas and star formation properties of galaxies were reviewed by Sofue (1990b, 1991b).

J6. 2. Quasars and Active Galactic Nuclei

The radio continuum properties of about 40 X-ray luminous blazers have been reported based on 10, 43, and 86 GHz measurements with the 45 m telescope [Okayasu et al., 1992b]. Their preliminary results show that the radio spectra are different between BL Lacs and highly polarized quasars. The radio galaxy 3C 123 has been mapped at 98 GHz with NMA [Okayasu et al., 1992a]. This radio galaxy has the radio core and the extended radio envelope. The core has a flat spectrum between at 15 and 98 GHz. A search for CO(J=1-0) absorption line has been made for the high-redshift (z=2.04) quasar PKS 0458-02 [Tsuboi and Nakai, 1991]. Their negative detection gives an upper limit of the column density of CO molecules of 2.1 x 1015 cm-2.

CO(J=1-0) line survey for Seyfert galaxies has been made with the 45 m telescope [Taniguchi et al., 1990c, Taniguchi 1991]. Among 29 sample galaxies, CO emission has been detected in 15 galaxies. CO emission has also been detected from a peculiar active galaxy NGC 4418, which is one of far-infrared selected AGNs [Kawara et al., 1990a, 1990b]. CO(J=1-0) mapping has been made of the well-known type 2 Seyfert galaxy NGC 1068 with NMA [Kaneko et al., 1992]. Their high-spatial resolution (5."2 x 4."2) study has shown that four distinct molecular complexes are located in the inner ring. However, there is no significant radial motion of molecular gas. Microarcsec-scale structures have been revealed with a millimeter VLBI [Baath et al., 1992].

J6.3. Magnetic Field of Nearby Galaxies

Magnetic fields in spiral galaxies are reviewed based on the data of radio continuum observations [Sofue, 1990a, 1991a]. Special interest is drawn to the vertical magnetic fields in the nuclear regions. Further, vertical jets, loops, and arcs, and magnetic fields are found to emerge from disks of galaxies NGC 253, NGC 7331, and the Milky Way. Optical evidence for the vertical jets are also reported [Sofue et al., 1991b]. These features are discussed in context of disk-halo connection.


The editor is indebted to H. Nakajima, H. Tabara, and Y. Taniguchi for their support in preparing this review article.


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