Observation of electric and magnetic field waveforms associated with lightning discharges was carried out in Indonesia, and its comparison with Japanese lightning suggests that the waveform parameters of return strokes in summer are nearly the same in both countries (Ishii et al., 1990a). Ishii and Hojo (1991) have observed the cloud-to-ground lightning discharges in Niigata area to find their seasonal variation and the occurrence probability of high return stroke current. Characteristics of winter thunderstorms have been investigated by Kitagawa (1992) and Goto and Narita (1991a,b). Kitagawa (1992) has studied the mechanism of charge separation in winter thunderclouds in which the separation takes place most effectively around the temperature level of -10C. Goto and Narita (1991b) have studied the meteorological conditions for the occurrence of winter thunderstorms. Based on the study of em pulses of lightning return strokes Yamamoto et al.(1991) have found anomalous features of return strokes of winter thunderstorms. Characteristics of lightning flashes with multiple strikes to the ground within one second are studied (Takagi et al., 1991b). Miyazaki et al.(1991b) have proposed a lightning strength parameter. The Fourier spectra of the electric and magnetic fields of lightning discharges have been estimated by Kawasaki et al.(1991c), and VHF/UHF radiation characteristics in lightning return stroke processes are reviewed by Nakano (1992) and Nakano et al.(1991b).
The observation of winter lightning strikes to an isolated tower has been continued using magnetic links, digital recording system, field mills, still camera and video camera systems, and it is found that winter lightning strokes often have a very long duration or continuing current and sometimes have a very large amplitude over 200 kA in positive flashes (Goto et al., 1990, 1991). Rocket-triggered lightning experiments have been continued. The electric and magnetic field changes and UHF radiation are observed during the rocket-triggering experiments in winter and a remarkable discrepancy is noticed between electromagnetic field changes of flashes triggered with a rocket and isolated wire that struck a power tower and flashes with a rocket and a ground wire (Kawasaki et al., 1991a; Kanao et al., 1991). Nakano et al.(1991a) have measured the electromagnetic fields at the distance of 3.6 km from lightning and compared them with those of lightning current waveforms. Nakamura and Horii(1991) have summarized the experiments of artificially triggered lightning in Japan based on eighty four strikes since 1977, and Kawasaki and Mazur (1992) have studied the common physical processes in natural and triggered lightning in winter storms in Japan.
A theoretical model for the calculation of lightning return stroke electric fields above a finite conductive earth is presented by Kawasaki et al.(1990). A stepped leader near the ground surface has been numerically simulated by means of the leader progression model based on the fractal concept (Kawasaki et al., 1989). Takagi et al.(1991a) have represented the leader and return stroke channels in terms of coaxial cylindrical electrodes with a short circuit, and their measured corona sheath currents are compared with those calculations.
Simultaneous observation of lightning current to a tower, induced voltages on a test distribution line and vertical electric field waveforms have been carried out by Ishii et al.(1990b). The simultaneous measurement of vertical and horizontal electric fields associated with return strokes has been done and it is found that the horizontal electric field is related to the vertical electric field by the wavetilt formula (Michishita et a., 1990a,b, 1992).
Sukhorukov et al.(1992b) have made the analytical studies on the propagation in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide for the realistic inhomogeneous and anisotropic ionosphere models, and also Baba and Hayakawa(1993) have utilized the finite element method to solve the influence of localized ionospheric perturbations caused by Trimpi effects on the subionospheric propagation characteristics.
VLF data from the low-altitude Ariel 4 satellite are used to investigate the characteristics of low- and equatorial-latitude VLF radio noises, and it is found that those are originated in lightning discharges (Hayakawa, 1989). Very unusual low-latitude whistlers with the additional traces of the Earth-ionosphere waveguide propagation have been observed by Shimakura et al.(1991a), and their theoretical interpretation is provided by Sukhorukov et al.(1992a). The fading effects observed in whistler spectra are explained in terms of a few wave interference mechanisms (Hagino et al., 1991; Yano et al., 1989a,1991b). Spaced direction finding measurements of very low latitude whistlers are carried out in South China, and it is found that they are attributed to field-aligned propagation (Hayakawa et al., 1991b; Ohta et al.,1990). This field-aligned propagation has been furthermore supported by ray-tracing studies (Ohta et a., 1992). Ohta et al.(1989,1991) have investigated the frequency dependence of arrival direction and wave polarization of low latitude whistlers, which supports their ducted propagation. Shimakura et al. (1991) have studied the formation of whistler ducts based on the analyses of periodicities in whistler occurrence rate. The correlation of occurrence rate of whistlers at Yamaoka with thunderstorm activity near its conjugate region and also with solar activity, has yielded that the ionospheric absorption is of major importance in the long-term variation of whistler occurrence rate, with the duct formation being of secondary effect, while the lightning activity is only a necessary condition (Ohta and Hayakawa, 1990). Hayakawa (1991a) has found from the study of whistler-triggered VLF-emissions observed at Moshiri that triggered emissions take place in two L preferable regions: L=2.1 to 3.4 (electron slot region ) and L=1.6 (inner radiation belt). Whistler diagnostics of magnetospheric parameters have been reviewed by Sazhin et al.(1992).
The off-equatorial direction finding is carried out for spontaneous chorus emissions observed by GEOS 1 satellite, and it is found that chorus (rising-tone) is generated near the equator with small q angles (Hayakawa et al., 1991a; Hattori et al., 1990; Hattori and Hayakawa, 1992). Some chorus emissions are found to be triggered by the hiss considered to be incoherent. Hattori et al.(1991a,b) have found based on the detailed spectral analysis and direction finding on GEOS 1 that a wavelet (coherent wave component )near the upper edge of the hiss band is responsible for triggering a chorus. Further studies have indicated an evidence on the threshold of the intensity of hiss wavelet in triggering chorus (Hattori et al., 1991c). A comprehensive review on chorus is published by Sazhin and Hayakawa (1992).
Ondoh (1990a,b, 1991a,b) has obtained the distribution of broadband auroral hiss in the form of MLT and LAT by using the ISIS observations, and suggested that it is generated by Cerenkov radiation by inverted-V electrons. The electrostatic ion cyclotron emissions have been investigated on the basis of the data observed by ISIS, Kyokko and Akebono satellites, and also their relation to auroral emission is studied (Yoshino, 1991a). Electrostatic impulsive plasma waves (1-9 kHz) are also found in DE-1 wideband electric field data, which are discussed in terms of Landau resonant trapping of magnetospheric electrons by the associated whistler-mode ELF hiss (Ondoh, et al., 1990, 1991).
Hayakawa et al.(1992a) have carried out the extensive study of the polarization of magnetospheric Pc1 pulsations at high latitudes and have discussed the generation mechanism of IPDP pulsations. Further statistical characteristics of the polarization of different kinds of Pc1 pulsations are studied(Hayakawa et al., 1992b).
Kawasaki et al.(1991b) have presented a localization method for the partial discharge by means of the measurement of time difference of arrival. Ohta and Hayakawa (1992) have described an automatic whistler direction finder based on the field-analysis principle. A wave distribution function method is proposed to estimate the wave energy distribution of magnetospheric VLF waves by means of the three field components observed on the ground (Shimakura and Hayakawa, 1991; Shimakura et al., 1992b), and it is applied to the actual whistlers (Shimakura et al., 1992a). The effect of polarization model in the integration kernels in the reconstruction of wave distribution functions is studied by Shimakura and Hayakawa (1992).
Long-gap discharge induction experiments are carried out by using a TEA CO2 laser to investigate the feasibility of laser-induced lightning (Kawasaki et al., 1992).
Recent new findings on the relation between arc and erosion in switching contact are summarized with special attention to the role of electrode temperature (Sone et al.,1991). Breaking arc durations and differences between the mass of a contact before and after an experiment are measured in Ag-Pd alloy contacts (Ishida et al.,1990). Microscopical sliding of electric contact due to the spring thermal deformation is measured by a holographic measurement and the relationship between the contact voltage and the deformation of the contact spring due to current flow is made clear (Taniguchi et al.,1990). Sato et al. (1990) have developed an equipment to measure the optical spectrum of contact arcs in real time, and it enables us to study effectively the generation mechanism of electromagnetic noise due to arcs. The frequency spectra of the arc current due to opening electric contacts in air are measured, and it is found that the frequency spectra of the arc current depends on the length and terminal conditions of the line connected with the contacts (Minegishi et al.,1989).
Masugi et al.(1992) have presented the measurement and analytical results of electromagnetic pulses caused by indirect electrostatic discharges, and it is found that the pulses produced by low discharge voltages may introduce strong electromagnetic interferences.
The algorithm of estimating the position and intensity of reflection sources is proposed by Wang et al.(1990), who have applied this algorithm for the analysis of the reflected waves in an ordinary room based on an EM field pattern by a robotic system.
Kawamata et al. (1989) have proposed an observation system by distributed circuit for fast transients due to the discharge in electric contacts. A measurement method for broad-band and long-duration random signals is described using a spectrum analyzer as a receiver, and the amplitude probability distribution and average crossing rate of urban noises and automotive ignition noises are measured by this system (Ohnuma et al.,1990).
A new distributed signal transmission system is proposed by Kang et al. (1992), which has an immunity against the noisy channel, and this transimission line has an ability to suppress an impulsive interference.
A system is proposed to observe the spectum usage and spectrum pollution, which is a spectrum snalyzer controlled by a personal computer. By modifying the display method of the measured data, the spectrum usage and pollution can be recognized at a glance (Echigo et al.,1992).
Commission D ('93)
Commission F ('93)
Commission E ('96)
Commission E ('99)
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Goto, Y., and K. Narita , The Characteristics of Winter Lightning Strokes to an Isolated Tower Observed with Automatically Driven Video Camera Systems, Res. Lett. Atoms. Electr., 9, 73-80 (1989).
Goto, Y., and K. Narita , The Characteristics of Winter Lightning Strokes Observed with Video Camera Systems, in "Environmental and Space Electromagnetics", Ed. H. Kikuchi, Springer-Verlag, 79-86(1991a)
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Hanai, K., Y. Miyazaki, and K. Sato, Biological Effects of the Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields in MRI Systems, Proc. Int'l Symp. on EMC, Nagoya, 553-538 (1989).
Hattori, K., and M. Hayakawa, A Study of the Periodicity in Occurrence of Natural Magnetospheric Chorus Emissions, Res. Lett. Atmos. Electr., 9, 109-115 (1989).
Hattori, K., K.Ishikawa, and M. Hayakawa , Ray Tracing Intepretation of Wave Normal Directions of Chorus Emission Observed in the Off-equatorial Region of the Outer Magnetosphere, Proc. NIPR Symp. on Upper Atmosphere Phys., 3, 70-78 (1990).
Hattori, K., M. Hayakawa, D. Lagoutte, F. Lefeuvre and M. Parrot, On the Experimental Results of Hiss-triggered Chorus Observed onboard GEOS-1 Satellite in the Outer Magnetosphere, in "Environmental and Space Electromagnetics", Ed. H. Kikuchi, Tokyo, Springer-Verlag, 258-257 (1991a).
Hattori, K., M. Hayakawa, D. Lagoutte, M. Parrot, and F. Lefeuvre, An Experimental Study of the Role of Hiss in the Generation of Chorus in the Outer Magnetosphere, as Based on Spectral Analysis and Direction Finding Measurements onboard GEOS1, Proc. NIPR Symp. on Upper Atmosphere Phys., 4, 20-41 (1991b).
Hattori,K. ,M. Hayakawa, D. Lagoutte, M. Parrot and F. Lefeuvre, Further Evidence of Triggering Chorus Emissions from Wavelets in the Hiss Band, Planet. Space Sci., 39, 1465-1472 (1991c).
Hattori, K., K. Ishikawa and M. Hayakawa, Ray-tracing Study of the Plasmapause Effect on Non-ducted Whistler-mode Wave Propagation, Planet. Space Sci., 39, 425-434 (1991d).
Hattori, K. and M. Hayakawa, Direction Finding Measurements of Magnetospheric Chorus Emissions and Their Generation and Propagation Mechanism, Trans. IEEE Japan, J75-B-II, 217-228 (1992).
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Hayakawa, M., Observation at Moshiri (L=1.6) of Whistler-triggered VLF Emissions in the Electron Slot and Inner Radiation Belt Regions, J. Geomag. Geoelectr., 43, 267-276 (1991a).
Hayakawa, M., Direction Finding of Magnetospheric VLF/ELF Emissions and Their Generation Mechanism, in "Environmental and Space Electromagnetics", Ed. H. Kikuchi, Springer-Verlag, 155-167 (1991b).
Hayakawa, M., F. Lefeuvre, and J. L. Rauch, On the System of Aureol-3 Satellite Dire
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Hayakawa, M., K. Hattori, S. Shimakura, M. Parrot and F. Lefeuvre, Direction Finding of Chorus Emissions in the Outer Magnetosphere and Their Generation and Propagation, PlanetSpace Sci.,38, 135-143 (1991a)
Hayakawa, M., K. Ohta, and S. Shimakura, Direction Finding of Very-low-latitude Whistlers and Their Propagation, in "Environmental and Space Electromagnetics", Ed. H. Kikuchi, Springer-Verlag, 168-171 (1991b).
Hayakawa, M., and S. S. Sazhin, Mid-latitude and Plasmaspheric Hiss; A Review, Planet, Space Sci., 40, 1325-1339 (1992).
Hayakawa, M., S. Shimakura, T. Kobayashi, and N. Sato, A Study of Polarization of IPDP Pulsations and Their Generation Mechanism, Planet. Space Sci., 40, 1081-1091(1992a).
Hayakawa, M., S. Shimakura, T. Kobayashi, and N. Sato, Statistical Characteristics of the Polarization of Pc1 Micropulsations at High Latitudes, Planet. Space Sci., 40, 1353-1362 (1992b).
Hayakawa, M., T. Yoshino and V.A. Morgounov, On a Possible Influence of Seismic Activity on the Propagation of Magnetospheric Whistlers at Low Latitudes, Phys. Planet. Earth Interiors, in press (1993a).
Hayakawa, M., I. Tomizawa, K. Ohta, S. Shimakura, Y. Fujinawa, K. Takahashi, and T. Yoshino, Direction Finding of Precursory Radio Emmissions Associated with Earthquakes, Phys. Planet. Earth Interiors, in press (1993b).
Ishida, H., H. Sone, and T. Takagi, Experiments on Dependency of Metal Mixing Ratio in Ag-Pd Alloy Contacts Breaking Arc Duration, Metal Erosion and Transfer, Trans. IEE Japan, A-110, 505-514 (1990).
Ishii, M., and J. Hojo, Evaluation of Lightning Fault Rate of EHV Transmission Line Based on Lightning Parameters Derived from Electromagnetic Field Observation, Trans. IEE of Japan, 111-B, 535-542 (1991).
Ishii, M., J. Hojo, K. T. Sirait, D. Darwanto, S. Hidayat, and Suwarno , Observation of Lightning Field Waveforms in Bandung, Proc. Int'l Conf. on Lightning Protection, Interlaken, Switzerland, 6.3/1-6.3/5 (1990a).
Ishii, M., K. Michishita, J. Hojo, T. Kawamura, S. Oguma, and S. Yamada, Correlated Measurement of Vertical Electric Field and Lightning Induced Voltage on Test Distribution Line, Trans. IEE Japan, 110-B, 368-36 (1990b).
Ishikawa, K., K. Hattori, and Hayakawa, A Study of Ray Focussing of Whistler-mode Waves in the Outer Magnetosphere, Trans. IEICE Japan, E73, 149-15 (1990).
Ito, Y. and M. Yamada , Efficient Use of the Geostationary Satellite Orbit :Allotment Planning and Its Practical Use, in "Environmental and Space Electromagnetics", Ed. H. Kikuchi, Tokyo Springer-Verlag, 424-43 (1991).
Kami, Y., Mechanism of Electromagnetic Radiation from a Transmission Line, IEICE Trans. Commun. E75-B, 115-127 (1992).
Kami, Y., and R. Sato, Coupling and Radiation Problems for a Pair-wire Line above a Conducting Ground Plane, Proc. 1990 Int'l Symp. EMC IEEE, 662-666 (1990).
Kanao, T., Z. Kawasaki, K. Matsuura, K. Yamamoto, K. Horii, M. Nakano, K. Nakamura, and T. Takeuti,On Electoric Field Charges and UHF Radiation due to Triggered Lightning by the Rocket, Trans. IEE Japan, 111-B, 1079-1085 (1991).
Kang, H., Y. Uh, and T. Takagi, Distributed Signal Transmission System Using Discrete Fourier Transform for High Noise Immunity, IEICE Trans. Commun., E75-B, 188-192 (1992).
Kawamata, K., X. Yang., A. Haga, and R. Sato, Proposition of Observation System by Distributed Circuit for Fast Transients due to Discharge in Electric Contact, Trans. IECE, Japan, J72-B-II, 556-571 (1989).
Kawamata, S., Y. Endo, and K. Wakamatsu, A Magnetic Field Shielding Practice Against the Heavy Lightning Electromagnetics, in "Environmental and Space Electromagnetics", Ed. H. Kikuchi, Tokyo, Springer-Verlag, 453-462 (1991).
Kawamata, S., S. Sato, M. Hoshi, Y. Edano, T. Yamamoto, and K. Wakamatsu , Error Evaluation in Measuring the Lightning Current by the Use of Magnetic Link, Proc. Int'l Conf. on Lightning Protection, Interlaken, Switzerland (1990).
Kawasaki, Z., K. Matsuura, T. Hasegawa, T. Takeuti, and M. Nakano, Fractal Model for the Leader of Lightning, Res. Lett. Atmos. Electr., 9, 63-71 (1989).
Kawasaki, Z., K. Matsuura, and S. Israelsson, Calculations of Lightning Return Stroke Electric Fields above Ground with Finite Conductivity, Res. Lett. Atoms. Electr., 10, 69-79 (1990).
Kawasaki, Z., T. Kanao, K. Matsuura, K. Horii, and K. Nakamura, The Electric Field Changes and Radiations Caused by the Triggered Lightnings in Japan, Geophys. Res. Lett., 18, 1711-1714 (1991a).
Kawasaki, Z., J. M. Li, K. Matsuura, M. Kawasaki, and O. Sugimoto, Localization of Partical Dischages Using Time Difference of Arrival of Radiation Fields, Proc. the 3rd Int'l Conf. on Properties and Application of Dielectric Materials, Tokyo, 910-914 (1991b).
Kawasaki, Z., K. Matsuura, M. Nakano, and T. Takeuti, Fourier Spectra of Lightning Electromagnetic Fields from 100 kHz to 1 MHz and the Conductivity of the Ground, Res. Lett. Atmos. Electr., 11, 11-22 (1991c).
Kawasaki, Z., K. Matsuura, K. Yamamoto, M. Nagatani, H. Nakada, M. Nakano, and T. Takeuti , Design of the Transient Memory of Extremely Large Size of Electric Field Changes due to the Lightning Discharge and Obserbation Results during Summer and Winter Thunderstorms, Trans. IEE Japan, 111-B, 521-528 (1991d).
Kawasaki, Z-I., and V. Mazur, Common Physical Process in Natural and Triggered Lightning in Winter Storms in Japan, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 12,935-12,945 (1992).
Kawasaki, Z., K. Matsuura, E. Fujiwara, Y. Izawa, K. Nakamura, and C. Yamanaka, Long Laser-induced Discharge in Atmospheric Air, Res. Lett. Atoms. Electr., 12, 139-142 (1992).
Kitagawa, N., Charge Distribution of Winter Thunderclouds, Res. Lett. Atmos. Electr., 12, 143-153 (1992).
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Masugi, M., K. Murakawa, N. Kuwabara and F. Amemiya, Measurement and Analysis of Electromagnetic Pulses due to Indirect ESD, Trans. IEICE Japan, J75-B-II, 647-654 (1992).
Michishita, K., M. Ishii, J. Hojo, M. Komatsubara, T. Kawamura, S. Oguma, and Y. Hongo, Horizontal Electric Field Waveform Associated with Cloud-to-ground Stroke, Trans. IEE Japan, 110-B, 986-987 (1990a).
Michishita, K., M. Ishii, J. Hojo, M. Komatsubara, T. Kawamura, S. Oguma, and Y. Hongo, Measurement of Electric Field Waveform Associated with Remote Cloud-to- ground Strokes, Res. Lett. Atmos. Electr., 10, 57-60 (1990b).
Michishita, K., M. Ishii, and T. Kawamura, Analysis of Lightning-induced Voltage Taking Account of Horizontal Electric Field, Trans. IEE of Japan, 111-B, 628-634 (1991a).
Michishita, K., M. Ishii, and T. Kawamura, Analysis of Lightning-induced Voltage on an Overhead Wire over Lossy Ground, Proc. of 7th Int'l Symp. on High Voltage Engineering, Dresden, Germany, 8, 183-186 (1991b).
Michishita, K., and M. Ishii, Lightning-induced Voltage on Overhead Wire over Perfectly Conducting Ground Associated with Tilted Lightning Strokes, Trans. IEE Japan, 112- B, in press (1992).
Michishita, K., M. Ishii, and T. Kawamura , Lightning-induced Voltage Waveform on an Overhead Wire over Finitely Conducting Ground, Trans. IEE of Japan, 112-B, 101-107 (1992).
Michishita, K., M. Ishii, J. Hojo, H. Komuro, and S. Oguma, Influence of Propagation on Measured Electric Field Waveforms Associated with Return Strokes, Proc. 9th Int'l Conf. on Atmospheric Electricity, St. Petersburg, Russia, 9.15 (1992).
Minamisono, K. and G. Satoh, An Interference Cancellation Method for Small Earth Stations, Trans. IEICE Japan, J75-B-II, 129-137 (1992).
Minegishi, S., Echigo, H., and R. Sato, Frequency Spectra of the Arc Current due to Opening Electric Contacts in Air, IEEE Trans. Electromagnetic Compatibility, 31, 342-345 (1989).
Minegishi, S., H. Echigo and R. Sato, Transients due to Interrupting Current on a Transmission Line Terminated in Its Characteristic Impedance, Proc. Int'l Symp. on EMC, Beijing, 1-4 (1992).
Miyazaki, T., Y. Nishida, S. Kokubu, and S. Kawamata, Measurements of Electrostatic Component of Lightning Discharges, Trans. IEE Japan, 111-B, 57-62 (1991a).
Miyazaki, T., Y. Nishida, S. Kokubu, and S. Kawamata, Relationship between the Energy Distribution of Electromagnetic Field Change and Lightning Activity, Trans. IEE Japan, 111-B, 63-68 (1991b).
Miyazaki, Y., Electromagnetic Compatibility Characteristics of Information Transmission in Power Lines, Proc. Int'l Symp. on EMC, Nagoya, 475-480 (1989).
Miyazaki, Y., and W. Asano, Electromagnetic Wave Scattering by Buildings and Objects in Radio and Mobile Communication, Proc. IEEE 1991 Int'l Symp. on EMC, Cherry Hill (1991).
Miyazaki, Y., and W. Asano , Electromagnetic Compatibility Problem of Wave Propagation and Scattering in Mobile Communication and Broadcasting Systems, Proc. 1992 Int'l Symp. on EMC, Beijing (1992).
Miyazaki, Y., and K. Tanoue, Tapered and Graded Index Type Electromagnetic Absorbers Using Inhomogeneous Lossy Dielectric Layers, Proc. of Int'l Symp. on EMC, Nagoya, 803-807 (1989).
Miyazaki, Y., and K. Tanoue, Electromagnetic Absorption and Shield Properties of Lossy Composite Multilayers, Proc. 1990 Int'l Symp. on EMC, Washington, DC., 370 (1990).
Molchanov, O.A., O.A. Mazhaeva, A.N. Goliavin, and M. Hayakawa, Observation on the "Intercosmos-24" Satellite of ELF-VLF Electromagnetic Emissions Associated with Earthquakes, Ann. Geophysicae, in press (1993).
Nakamura, K., and K. Horii, Artificially Triggered Lightning Experiments for Winter Thunderclouds, in "Environmental and Space Electromagnetics", Ed. H. Kikuchi, Springer-Verlag, 102-112 (1991).
Nakano, M., Electrromagnetic Radiation from Lightning and Its Application, Proc. Inst. Electrostatics Japan, 16, 3-11 (1992).
Nakano, M., K. Horii, S. Katuragi, M. Yokota, and Z-I. Kawasaki, Simultaneous Mesurements of the Current and the E.M. Field in Rocket-triggered Lightning, Proc. 1991 Japan-France Workshop on Lightning, Kanazawa, Japan (1991a).
Nakano, M., Z-I. Kawasaki, T. Takeuti, T. Shirai. and Y. Kawamata, VHF/UHF Radiation from Positive and Negative Lightning, in "Environmental and Space Electromagnetics", Ed. H. Kikuchi, Springer-Verlag, 95-101 (1991b).
Nakano, M., N. Takagi, I. Arima, Z-I. Kawasaki, and T. Takeuti, The Electric Field Change Caused by a Ground Flash with Multiple Channels, Proc. 1991 Int'l Aerospace and Ground Conference on Lightning and Static Electricity, Cocoa Beach, Florida, USA, 55.1-55.8 (1991c).
Nishikata, A., Y. Yamanaka, K. Ohgami, and H. Niwata, Study on the Response of a Digital IC Exposed to Electromagnetic Field(2)-Simulation of IC Signal Disturbance, Seasonal Report of CRL, 37, 469-478 (1991).
Ogawa, T., Generation and Propagation of Earth's Electric Fields, Proc. Inst. Electrostatics Japan, 13, 790-801 (1989).
Ogawa, T., S. Yano, K. Oike, and A.C. Fraser-Smith, Radio Emissions from Rock, Iron, and Wood and an Example of Radio Noises Associated with Earthquake, in "Environmental and Space Electromagnetics", Ed. H. Kikuchi, Tokyo, Springer-Verlag, 520-527 (1991).
Ohnuma, K., and R. Sato, A Statistical Measurement Method for Wide-band Random Signals Utilizing Time-sharing Signal Processing Technique, Trans. IEICE Japan, J73- B-11, 67-75 (1990).
Ohnuma, K., and R. Sato, An Estimation Method of Non-continuous Noise Characteristics Converted into TV Picture Degradation Equivalent, Proc. Int'l Symp. on EMC, Beijing, 483-486 (1992).
Ohta, K., and M. Hayakawa, The Correlation of Whistler Occurrence Rate at a Low Latitude with Thunderstorm Activity at Its Conjugate Region and with Solar Activity, Pure Appl. Geophys., 133, 167-178 (1990).
Ohta, K., and M. Hayakawa, An Automatic Whistler Direction Finder, Geomag. Aeronomy, 32, 34-41 (1992).
Ohta, K., M. Hayakawa, K. Baba and H. Eguchi, Frequency Dependence of the Direction of Arrival of Low-latitude Whistlers, Res. Lett. Atmos. Electr., 9, 43-52 (1989).
Ohta, K., M. Hayakawa, S. Shimakura, and H. Eguchi, Drection Finding of Nighttime Whistlers at Very Low Latitudes in China, Trans. IEICE Japan, J73-B-II, 182-189 (1990).
Ohta, K., M. Hayakawa, and S. Shimakura, Frequency Dependence of Ionospheric Exit Points and Polarization of Daytime Whistlers at Low Latitude, in "Environmental and Space Electromagnetics", Ed. H. Kikuchi, Springer-Verlag, 172-178 (1991a).
Ohta, K., M. Hayakawa, S. Shimakura, and T. Tomomatsu, Correlation of Whistlers at a Low Latitude with Causative Lightnings at Conjugate Regions, Trans. IEICE Japan, J74-B-II, 276-284 (1991).
Ohta, K., T. Tomomatsu, O. Takahashi, and M. Hayakawa, Propagation Characteristics of Very Low Latitude Whistlers by Ray Tracing, Trans. IEICE Japan, J75-B-II, 309-31 (1992).
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