Two-dimensional plane wave scattering problems can be treated by the modified point-matching method [Yamasaki et al., 1989], or other methods [Ogura et al.,1989; Yoshitomi et al.,1989]. Scattering from vari-ous gratings can be analyzed by using the Wiener-Hopf technique [Kobayashi et al.,1991], the spectral domain method [Noda et al., 1990], the Singular integral equation method [Matsushima et al.,1991], the boundary element method [Nakata et al., 1990], the Yasuura method [Matsuda et al.,1990], or other methods [Shimoda et al.,1991; Asai et al.,1992; Saga et al.,1992]. Numerical studies on scattering of a Gaussian beam can be carried out in references [Kojima et al.,1990; Miyazaki et al., 1991].

Theoretical researches on the electromagnetic wave theory are found in references [Hayashi,1989;Kusunoki et al.,1989; Tokumaru, 1990; Tanaka et al.,1992; Kobayashi et al.,1992].

(H. Ikuno)

References

Asai,M.,A.Ozaki,J.Yamakita and S.Sawa [1992], "Scattering from strip gratings with surface resistance: In the case of general anisotropic substrates," Trans. IEICE, J75-C-I,74-84 (in Japanese).

Fujino,Y.,K.Sawaya and S.Adachi [1989], " Analysis of slot antennas on a rectangular conducting box by using the Fourier series expansion and the Galerkin's method," Trans. IEICE, J72-C-I,781-786 (in Japanese).

Hayashi,Y. [1989], " Mathematical theory and numerical method analyzing electromagnetic scattering caused by an open boundary, " IEICE Trans., J72-C-I, 683-688 (in Japanese).

Ikuno,H. and M.Nishimoto [1989], "Numerical analysis of three-dimensional scattering problems by the Yasuura method," Trans. IEICE., J72-C-I, 689-698 (in Japanese).

Ikuno,H. and M.Nishimoto [1991], "Calculation of transfer functions of three dimensional indented objects by the physical optics approximation combined with the method of stationary phase, " IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., AP-39,585-589 .

Ikuno,H., M.Gondoh and M.Nishimoto [1991], "Numerical analysis of electromagnetic wave scattering from an indented body of revolution, " IEICE Trans., E74, 2855-2863.

Ji,Y. and K.Hongo [1991], "Analysis of electromagnetic waves refracted by a spherical dielectric interface, " J. Opt. Soc. Am., A, 8, 541-548.

Kobayashi,K. and T.Eizawa [1991], "Plane wave diffraction by a finite sinusoidal grating, " IEICE Trans., E74, 2815-2826.

Kobayashi,K. and A.Sawai [1992], "Plane wave diffraction by an open-ended parallel plate waveguide cavity," J. Electromag. Waves Appl., 6, 475-512.

Kobayashi,O.,Y.Matsuzaka and H.Hirosawa [1990], "Measurement of polarimetric backscattering characteristics of random media, " Trans. IEICE , J73-B-II, 148-156 (in Japanese).

Kojima,S. and S.Matsuba [1990], "Scattering of a H-polarized Gaussian beam by a conducting cylinder with an irregular surface," Trans. IEICE , E73, 454-456 .

Kusunoki,M. and T.Takenaka [1989], "Analysis of surface current on a circular cylinder with a large radius by boundary element method conbined with FFT, " Trans. IEICE , J72-C-I, 593-598 (in Japanese).

Matsuda,T. and Y.Okuno [1990], "Computer-aided algorithm based on the Yasuura method for analysis of diffraction by a grating," J. Opt. Soc. Am., A, 7, 1693-1700.

Matsushima,A. and T.Itakura [1991], "Singular integral equation approach to electromagnetic scattering from a finite periodic array of conducting strips," J. Electromag. Waves Appl., 5, 545-562.

Miyazaki,Y. and K.Manabe [1991], "Scattered near-field and induced current of a beam wave by pits on optical disks using boundary element analysis," Radio Sci., 26, 281-289.

Nakata,Y. and M.Koshiba [1990], "Boundary-element analysis of plane wave diffract-ion from groove-type dielectric and metallic gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Am., A, 7, 1494-1502.

Noda,T., K.Uchida and T.Matsunaga [1990], "Scattering of electromagnetic plane wave by infinite double gratings on a dielectric slab with oblique incidence and arbitrary polarization," IEICE Trans.E73, 1198-1206.

Obata,T. and J.Chiba [1991], "Direct sum representation theory for H-plane symmetrical T-junctions and its application to a T-junction having a fin," IEICE Trans. , E74, 369-377.

Ogura,T. and S.Kozaki [1989], "Electromagnetic scattering by a perfectly conducting rectangular cylinder located near the conducting plane," Trans. IEICE, J72-C-I, 711-716 (in Japanese).

Saga,N., T.Tanaka and T.Takenaka [1992], "Scattering of TE and TM waves by a finite periodic array of perfectly conducting cylinders," IEICE Trans., J75-C-I, 119-125 (in Japanese).

Sakai,K. and M.Koshiba [1991], "Analysis of electromagnetic field distribution in tunnels by the boundary-element analysis," IEE Proc.,Pt.H, 137, 202-208.

Sawaya,K., S.Tanabe and S.Adachi [1992], "Exterior moment method analysis of conducting scatterers by using the interior Green's function and the method of least square," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., AP-40, 563-565.

Shimoda,M. and T.Itakura [1991], "Scattering of electromagnetic plane waves by a grating composed of two arbitrarily oriented conducting strips in one period," IEICE Trans., E74, 2398-2409 .

Tanaka,M. and H.Sueyoshi [1992], "Scattering of electromagnetic plane waves by a chiral slab," Trans.IEICE, J75-C-I, 126-133 (in Japanese).

Tateiba,M. and K.Fujita [1990], "A simple simulation of the pulse train scattered from three-dimensional ocean waves in satellite altimetry," Trans. IEICE, E73, 462-464.

Tokumaru,S. [1990], "On the energy flux densities of electromagnetic waves," Trans. IEICE, J73-B-II, 905-909 (in Japanese).

Toyoda,I. and M.Matsuhara [1990], "Boundary element analysis of three-dimensional scattering problems by extended integral equation," Trans. IEICE, J73-C-I, 398-403 (in Japanese).

Tsuji,M., H.Shigesawa and M.Nishimura [1991], "Theoretical and experimental study of three dimensional scattering problems," IEICE Trans., E74, 2848-2854.

Tsusima,T., S.Kuwano and K.Kokubun [1991], "A simple and rigorous analysis of the transmission properties of a sector horn junction in a rectangular waveguide," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., MTT-39, 287-293.

Uchida,K., T.Noda and T.Matsunaga [1991], "Electromagnetic wave scattering by an infinite patch array on a dielectric slab," IEICE Trans., E74, 4165-4171.

Yamasaki,T., T.Hinata and T.Hosono [1989], "Scattering of plane waves by a conducting rectangular cylinder - point matching method considering edge condition -," Trans. IEICE, J72-C-I, 703-710 (in Japanese).

Yoshitomi,K. and K.Aoki [1989], "Analysis of scattering of an electromagnetic wave by a power line," Trans. IEICE, J72-C-I, 787-794 (in Japanese).

A reconstruction algorithm for two-dimensional tomography based on the modified Newton-Kantorovich method was proposed [Takenaka et al., 1992]. With a priori knowledge of the shape of scatterer, a refractive index was numerically reconstructed. Harada et al. [1992] improved the convergence behavior of the above method.

Regarding a borehole radar imaging, Sato and Thierbach [1991] investigated the transient characteristics of a dipole antenna in a borehole. A shielded loop array antenna was proposed as a directional borehole radar. It was theoretically and experimentally demonstrated that the incident angle of the wave can be estimated from the arrival times and amplitudes at the probe antennas attached on a conducting cylinder [Sato and Tanimoto, 1992].

Tateiba et al. [1990] analyzed the turbulence effects on the satellite holographic imaging by using wave theory in turbulent media.

(T. Uno)

References

Adachi, S., A. Ohashi and T. Uno [1990], "Iterative radar target imaging based on modified extended physical optics method, " IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., AP-38, 847-852.

Harada, H., T. Takenaka and M. Tanaka [1992], "An efficient reconstruction algorithm for diffraction tomography," IEICE Trans. Electron., E75-C, 1387-1394.

Sato, M. and R. Thierbach [1991], "Analysis of a borehole radar in cross-hole mode, " IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., GE-29, 899-904.

Sato, M. and T. Tanimoto [1992], "A shielded loop array antenna for a directional borehole radar," Geological Survey of Finland, 16, 323-328.

Suda, K., T. Uno and S. Adachi [1989], "Radar target imaging of axially symmetric smooth conducting scatterers by electromagnetic waves," Trans. IEICE, J72-C-I, 768-773 (in Japanese).

Takenaka, T., H. Harada and M. Tanaka [1992], "On a simple diffraction tomography technique based on a modified Newton-Kantorovich method," Microwave Opt. Tech. Lett., 5, 94-97.

Tateiba, M. and K. Fujisaki [1990], "Analysis of the intensity fluctuation of reconstructed images due to the atmospheric and ionospheric turbulence in satellite holographic imaging," Trans. IEICE, E73, 459-461.

Uno, T., Y. Miki and S. Adachi [1991], "One-dimensional radar target imaging of lossy dielectric bodies of revolution," IEICE Trans., E74, 2915-2921.

Some finite element analysis solutions of ferrite loaded resonators were obtained by means of field assigned points at an edge of the ferrite [Yoneda et al., 1989, 1990].

Based on the Yasuura's theory of mode matching, improved techniques were applied to practical problems [Okuno et al., 1990a]. The Yasuura's technique was proved to be numerically efficient for a wide class of problems by employing the concept of QR decomposition calculation [Okuno et al., 1990b; Matsuda et al., 1990].

The time domain finite difference technique was developed for the full wave analysis of high frequency semiconductor devices characterized by space charges [Kimura et al., 1991]. The finite difference techniques also were extensively applied to the three dimensional analyses of electromagnetic waves in waveguides [Ko et al., 1990, 1991; Maeda et al., 1991].

A mutual admittance matrix in an exterior moment method analysis was obtained by using a Green's function in the interior region of a conducting scatterer [Sawaya et al., 1990, 1992].

A new type of the spectral domain method based on the generalized sampling theorem was reported. The method was demonstrated to the problem of scattering by a plane metallic grating [Uchida, 1990].

(M. Hashimoto)

References

Kimura, H., N. Yoshida and I. Fukai [1991], "Electromagnetic field analysis of a system including space charge by combined equivalent circuit of scalar and vector wave equations," Trans. IEICE, J74-C-I, 7-13 (in Japanese).

Ko, Y., N. Yoshida and I. Fukai [1990], "Three-dimensional analysis of a cylindrical waveguide converter for circular polarization by the spatial network method," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., MTT-38, 912-918.

Ko. Y., N. Yoshida and I. Fukai [1991], "3-dimensional electromagnetic analysis of rectangular waveguide containing high permittivity anisotropic dielectric," Trans. IEICE, J74-C-I, 1-6, (in Japanese).

Maeda, S., T. Kashiwa, and I. Fukai [1991], "Full wave analysis of propagation characteristics of a through hole using the finite difference time-domain method," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., MTT-39, 2154-2159.

Matsuda, T. and Y. Okuno [1990], "Computer-aided algorithm based on the Yasuura method for analysis of diffraction by a grating," J. Opt. Soc. Am., A, 7, 1693-1700.

Matsuhara, M. [1990], "Three dimensional finite element analysis of electromagnetic fields excited by electric current," Trans. IEICE, J73-C-I, 501-505 (in Japanese).

Matsuhara, M., and K. Nakamura [1991], "Integral equation solution method of two-dimensional electromagnetic fields--- A method to employ the transverse field components---," Trans. IEICE , J74-C-I, 199-204 (in Japanese).

Okuno, Y. and H. Ikuno [1990], "The Yasuura method for solving two-dimensional scattering problems (I) Theory, "Trans. IEICE, J73-C-I, 95-103 (in Japanese).

Okuno, Y. and H. Ikuno [1990], "The Yasuura method for solving two-dimensional scattering problems (II) Method of numerical analysis," Trans. IEICE, J73-C-I, 104-112 (in Japanese).

Sawaya, K., S. Yatabe and S. Adachi [1990], "Exterior moment method analysis of conducting scatterers by using the interior Green's function," Electron. Lett., 26, 631-632.

Sawaya, K., S. Yatabe and S. Adachi [1992], "Exterior moment method analysis of conducting scatterers by using the interior Green's function and the method of least square," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., AP-40, 563-565.

Uchida, K. [1990], "Spectral domain method based on generalized sampling theorem," Trans. IEICE, E73, 357-359.

Yoneda, N. and T. Yoneyama [1989], "Improved finite element analysis of axisymmetrical resonators," Trans. IEICE, J72-C-I, 862-868 (in Japanese).

Yoneda, N. and T. Yoneyama [1990], "Finite element analysis of ferrite disk resonators by introducing field assigned points," Trans. IEICE, J73-C-I, 658-664 (in Japanese).

Intensive studies in the method of equivalent edge currents have been conducted, not only to eliminate the defects of classical Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) but also to grasp the physical understanding of high frequency diffraction phenomena. The total GTD equivalent edge currents (EECs) consist of two components, that is, PO and fringe wave (FW) components. EECs for observer outside the Keller cone generally suffer from false singularities. These singularities depend upon the coordinate for inner integration in the surface to edge integral reduction. A new coordinate for inner integration that maximized the phase variation of the integrand was proposed [Ando et al., 1991]. Consistent use of this coordinate leads us to novel expressions for not only FW-EECs but also PO-EECs or GTD-EECs without any singularities. This concept was also extended to wedge diffraction [Natsuhara et al., 1992]. Accuracy of these currents are numerically demonstrated for diffraction from flat plates and conical cylinders, provided the source is not too close to the scatterer.

A basically different approach of fictitious edge which satisfies the diffraction law was introduced to overcome the singularities of EECs at general points. A novel strip representation of flat plate is proposed for the bistatic radar cross section analysis [Ando et al., 1990]. Direction of every strip is determined so that the Keller corn at any point may include the observer. A unique set of strip are determined for given directions of incidence and observer. This method is capable of covering all the directions of observer including that of specular reflection. Second-order diffraction was also included elegantly [Todoroki et al., 1991]. The high accuracy of this method is demonstrated by comparing it with the exact or the moment method solutions for diffraction from a flat disk and a square plate.

These works for far zone scattering have stimulated the concepts of fictitious edge for general illumination [Murasaki et al., 1992]. By adopting the fictitious edge, EECs at general edge points are expressed in terms of classical Keller's diffraction coefficients. Uniform and accurate fields are predicted everywhere without any change in diffraction coefficients. This is in contrast with conventional approaches of improving diffraction coefficients, that is, Uniform Theory of Diffraction (UTD), Michaeli's diffraction coefficients etc.

Intensive studies were conducted to establish the geometrical optics wave-normal rays. The evanescent refracted wave associated with a totally reflected spherical wave on a plane interface is obtained by means of analytic continuation [Hashimoto, 1990]. The reflected spherical wave is described by a shift of source location at an interface [Hashimoto, 1992]. This concept is extended to a general class of reflection in inhomogeneous media [Hashimoto, 1992]. The magnitude and phase of the source are also discussed [Hashimoto, 1992]. Lateral wave excited on a plane interface had been known to be a diffracted wave which cannot be described in terms of geometrical optics. This theory succeeded in describing the lateral wave as well by extending the reflection coefficient of a plane wave to that of a spherical wave [Hashimoto, 1991].

The above concept was applied to calculate geometrical optics fields in dielectric tapered waveguides excited at the input ends by a monochromatic Gaussian beam light is presented. The field distributions expected at the output ends of waveguides can be determined without calculating fields at intermediate steps of propagation between the input and output ends. Illustrative examples are given [Hashimoto, 1991].

Closed form solution for the Gaussian beam wave propagation in layered media is obtained. Formulas for the spotsizes of an undulating beam at focal points are given [Hashimoto, 1992].

(M. Ando)

References

Ando, M., T. Murasaki and T. Kinoshita [1991], "Elimination of false singularities in GTD equivalent edge currents," IEE Proc. H, 138, 289-296 .

Ando, M. and T. Kinoshita [1989], "Accuracy comparison of PTD and PO for plane wave diffraction from a large circular disk," Trans. IEICE, E72, 1212-1218.

Ando, M, H. Yoneda and T. Kinoshita [1990], "A modified strip representation of a flat plate for a plane wave diffraction analysis," Trans. IEICE, E73, 2028-2035.

Ando, M., R. Okada and T. Kinoshita [1992], "Comparison of PO and PTD analyses of offset reflector antenna patterns," IEICE Trans. Commun. , E75-B, 76-81.

Hashimoto, M. [1990], "The geometrical optics of wave-normal rays for totally reflected electromagnetic waves," Trans. IEICE, J73-C-I, 738-740 (in Japanese).

Hashimoto, M. [1991], "On the wave-normal rays and the reflection coefficients," Trans. IEICE, J74-C-I, 97-99 (in Japanese).

Hashimoto, M. and X. -J. Zhou [1991], "Geometrical optics analysis for the beam propagation in dielectric tapered waveguide," IEICE Trans. , E74, 2938-2940.

Hashimoto, M. [1992], "Spotsizes of the beam waves propagating along a two-dimensional inhomogeneous medium," Trans. IEICE , J75-C-I, 1-7 (in Japanese).

Hashimoto, M. [1992], "The geometrical law of total reflection for wave-normal rays on the discontinuous interfaces in inhomogeneous media," Trans. IEICE, J75-C-I, 197-199 (in Japanese).

Hashimoto, M. [1992], "On the magnitude of the image sources of a spherical and nonspherical wave reflected upon an interface," Trans. IEICE , J75-C-I, 561-563 (in Japanese).

Murasaki, T. and M. Ando [1992], "Equivalent edge currents by the modified edge representation: Physical optics components," IEICE Trans. Electron., E75-C, 617-626.

Natsuhara, K., T. Murasaki and M. Ando [1992], "Equivalent edge currents for arbitrary angle wedges using paths of most rapid phase variation," IEICE Trans. Electron., E75-C, 1080-1087.

Todoroki, A. and M. Ando [1991], "Equivalent edge currents of second-order diffraction for far scattering from flat plates," IEICE Trans., E74, 4157-4164.

The transient fields of dipole antennas scattered by an infinite conducting cylinder were investigated theoretically and experimentally [Suzuki et al., 1989]. It was shown the geometrical optics method is a very good approximation in backscattering region when the dipole is parallel to the cylinder.

Itoh et al. [1989, 1992] analyzed the transient scattering of a pulsed plane wave from a conducting sphere in detail. The current density and the energy flow on the sphere were also calculated.

Hosono [1991] analyzed the transient backscattering field from a slotted circular cylinder using the modified point matching method and the numerical inversion of Laplace transform.

Characteristics of transient responses between two dipole antennas were investigated theoretically and experimentally for the case where one dipole is located above an interface of a lossy ground half-space and another is buried underground. It wad demonstrated that the refracted field can be interpreted by the sum of the direct wave and the lateral wave depending on the positions of these antennas [He et al., 1991].

(T. Uno)

References

He, Y., M. Maruyama, T. Uno, S. Adachi and T. Mashiko [1991], "Dipole antenna reception of transient electromagnetic fields refracted from a dipole antenna buried in a lossy half-space," IEICE Trans. E74, 2870-2876.

Hosono, H. [1991], "Transient responses of electromagnetic waves scattered by a circular cylinder with longitudinal slots -The case of backscattering with a slot in the forward direction-," IEICE Trans. E74, 2864-2869.

Ikuno, H. and M. Nishimoto [1991], "Calculation of transfer functions of three-dimensional indented objects by the physical optics approximation combined with the method of stationary phase," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., AP-39, 585-590.

Ikuno, H., M. Gondo and M. Nishimoto [1991], "Numerical analysis of electromagnetic wave scattering from an indented body of revolution," IEICE Trans. E74, 2855-2863.

Itoh, A., T. Hosono and Y. Hirao [1992], "Transient electromagnetic fields on a conducting sphere excited by a pulsed plane wave," IEICE Trans. Electron., E75-C, 107-112.

Itoh, A., K. Yuda and T. Hosono [1989], "Transient electromagnetic waves scattered by a perfectly conducting sphere," Trans. IEICE, J72-C-I, 755-760 (in Japanese).

Suzuki, T., T. Uno, S. Adachi and T. Mashiko [1989], "Transient electromagnetic fields due to dipole antennas located near an infinite perfectly conducting cylinder, " Trans. IEICE, J72-C-I, 761-767 (in Japanese).

(E. Yamashita)

References

Nakajima, M. and E. Yamashita [1990], "Quasi-TEM wave characterization method for tightly coupled microstrip line with conductor overlay," Trans. IEICE, E73, 959-967.

Ohshima, S., K. Okuyama, K. Sawaya and K. Noguchi [1992], "Surface
resistance of Bi_{2}Sr_{2}Ca_{1}Cu_{2}O_{y}
strip lines made from green sheet, " Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., L539-542.

Qian, Y. and E. Yamashita [1991], "Characterization of nonsymmetrically shielded suspended stripline with thick conducting strip," IEICE Trans., E74, 1256-1263.

Qian, Y. and E. Yamashita [1991], "Phase compensation and waveform reshaping of picosecond electrical pulses using dispersive microwave transmission lines," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., MTT-39, 924-929.

Qian, Y. and E. Yamashita [1992], "Modal dispersion control and distortion suppression of picosecond pulses in suspended coplanar waveguides," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., MTT-40, 1903-1909.

Shigesawa, H., M. Tsuji and A.A. Oliner [1991], "Dominant mode power leakage from printed-circuit waveguides," Radio Sci., 26, 559-564.

Takasu, H. and E. Yamashita [1992], "Impedance characterization of GaAs FET switches," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., MTT-40, 1422-1429.

Tefiku, F. and E. Yamashita [1992], "Capacitance characterization method for thick-conductor multiple planar ring structures on multiple substrate layers," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., MTT-40, 1894-1902.

Tsuji, M., H. Shigesawa and A.A. Oliner [1991], "Theory and experiments of mode coupling and power leakage on coplanar waveguides of finite width," IEICE Trans., E74, 1264-1269.

Zhu, L. and E. Yamashita [1992], "Accurate analysis of various planar transmission lines with finite metallization thickness using eigen-function weighted boundary integral equation method," IEICE Trans. Electron., E75-C, 259-266.

(E. Yamashita)

References

Kodama, M. [1991], "An analysis of wave propagation in linearly tapered dielectric slab waveguides considering reflected waves," Trans. IEICE, J74-C-I, 267-275 (in Japanese).

With the purpose of applying to optical devices, Yamasaki et al. [1991] have employed the Fourier series expansion method for analyzing wave guiding properties of two-dimensional dielectric waveguides having a periodic grating of arbitrary profile. Inoue and Koshiba [1990, 1991] have studied axisymmetric waveguides loaded with an inner periodic structure for microwave circuit components, and developed a numerical technique to evaluate their propagation characteristics based on the finite element method. Matsumoto [1989] has also applied the finite element technique along with an improved perturbation method for calculating leakage constants of dielectric image guides with a periodic corrugation on their top or side walls. The complex propagation constant inherent to a periodically perturbed dielectric waveguide of infinite length has also been calculated for a given frequency based on the finite element method [Maruta et al., 1992]. The mode-matching procedure has been applied to obtain the complex propagation constant of the axisymmetric TE mode in a cylindrical dielectric waveguide with a sinusoidally varying cross section [Yasumoto and Kubo, 1990]. A TE02 to TE01 mode converter with a stepwise surface modulation has also been designed at 41 GHz based on the mode-matching technique for use in the ECRH experiment and a power conversion efficiency higher than 99.3 % can be achieved theoretically [Kiwamoto et al., 1991].

References

Inoue, K. and M. Koshiba [1990], "Finite-element solution of periodic waveguides with circular symmetry," Trans. IEICE, J73-C-I, 7, 517-523 (in Japanese).

Inoue, K. and M. Koshiba [1991], "Finite-element analysis of periodically dielectric loaded axisymmetric waveguides," Int. J. Electronics, 71, 2, 349-361.

Kiwamoto, Y. T. Honda, A. Kasugai, T. Saito, S. Miyoshi, O. Wada, and M. Nakajima [1991], "Analysis and optimization of stepwise modulated TE00 mode converter," Rev. Sci. Instrum., 62, 1, 178-188, .

Maruta, A. and M. Matsubara [1992], "A finite-element analysis of infinite periodic waveguides," Trans. IEICE, J75-C-I, 2, 101-103 (in Japanese) .

Matsumoto, M. [1989], "Analysis of leakage properties of periodic dielectric image guides," Electron. Lett., 25, 1568-1569.

Yamasaki, T., T. Hosono and J.A. Kong [1991], "Propagation characteristics of dielectric waveguides with periodic surface-relief," IEICE Trans., E74, 9, 2839-2847.

Yasumoto, K. and H. Kubo [1990], "Numerical analysis of a cylindrical dielectric waveguide with a periodically varying circular cross section," J. Opt. Soc. Am., A, 7, 2069-2074.

A beam expanding fiber for embedding optical devices has been fabricated by utilizing thermally induced Ge-diffusion in silica single-mode fibers [Shiraishi et al., 1990]. Kishi and Yamashita [1990] have proposed an axially nonsymmetrical W-type optical fiber for the use of broad-band phase devices. Cai et al. [1990a] have proposed a new efficient method for coupling a single-mode optical fiber with a thin-film waveguide. The reflection method, in which a single-mode optical fiber and a multi-mode optical fiber are used for a launcher and a receiver, respectively, has been applied to measure refractive index profiles of ion-exchanged glass waveguides supporting few modes [Sawa et al., 1990].

Cai et al. [1991b] have proposed a simple and accurate method for analyzing rectangular dielectric waveguides.

Many reports have appeared on the finite element method (FEM) and its applications to guided wave problems. Koshiba and Inoue [1992a] have formulated a vector FEM with mixed-interpolation-type triangular elements for microwave and optical waveguides. A simple approach based on the scalar FEM has been formulated for the evaluation of the effective index, modal field profile, and far-field pattern of the guided modes of an optical rib waveguide and of the coupling efficiency of a butt-joint structure of two single-mode rib waveguides [Koshiba et al., 1992b]. Kumagami and Koshiba [1991] have proposed an FEM with Hermitian line elements for planar diffused optical waveguides. Matsuhara et al. [1990] have proposed a new mapping technique for open-type waveguides. Limitations of the scalar FEM for nonlinear optical waveguides have been investigated by comparing with results of the vector FEM [Hayata and Koshiba, 1992]. Hirayama and Koshiba [1992a] have formulated a combined method of the FEM and the boundary element method (BEM) for the discontinuities in an asymmetric slab waveguide. This approach has been applied to evaluate bending losses of a new low-loss structure of abrupt bends in dielectric waveguides [Hirayama and Koshiba, 1992b]. Maruta and Matsuhara [1992] have proposed a simple BPM based on the Galerkin method for optical bent waveguides. Matsumoto [1991] has presented an improved perturbation method using the FEM and the BEM for investigating radiation properties of three-dimensional channel-waveguide gratings. Hayata et al. [1990] have proposed a split-step FEM to solve nonlinear guided-wave problems in planar or coaxial optical waveguides. The reliability of numerical analysis techniques for a nonlinear Schrodinger equation which predicts soliton propagation in optical fibers has been investigated, and the FEM and the BEM have been used for this purpose [Eguchi et al., 1992].

Mizumoto and Naito [1990] have investigated the dependence of output
phase differences on the asymmetry of 3-dB directional couplers.
Optical integrated switching systems using collinear acousto-optic
interactions for wavelength division multiplexers have been studied
[Goto and Miyazaki, 1990]. Goto et al. [1991] have proposed an
integrated optical matrix-vector multiplexer using multifrequency
acousto-optic Bragg diffraction. An inverted slot line has been used to
achieve velocity matching in a Ti-diffused LiNbO_{3} waveguide
optical modulator [Yoneyama et al., 1991]. Miyazaki and Taki [1989]
have studied isolation properties of mono-sectional optical isolator
with Bi:YIG thin-films. Isolation properties of mono-sectional optical
isolators with magneto-optic guided layers and substrates have also
been investigated [Miyazaki and Taki, 1990]. Kaewsuriyathumrong et al.
[1990] have studied the TE-TM mode conversion based on the
nonreciprocal Faraday effect in double-layered magneto-optic channel
waveguides.

(M. Koshiba)

References

Cai, Y., T. Mizumoto, E. Ikegami and Y. Naito [1991a], "An effective method for coupling single- mode fiber to thin-film waveguide," J. Lightwave Technol., 9, 577-583.

Cai, Y., T. Mizumoto and Y. Naito [1991b], "Improved perturbation feedback method for the analysis of rectangular dielectric waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol., 9, 1231-1237.

Eguchi, M., K. Hayata and M. Koshiba [1992], "Analysis of a nonlinear Schrodinger equation with numerical techniques," J. Appl. Phys., 72, 3255-3257.

Furukawa, S., M. Kashima, T. Hinata and T. Hosono [1991], "A design method for low dispersion polarization-maintaining optical fibers with two hollow pits," IEICE Trans., E74, 2902-2909.

Goto, N. and Y. Miyazaki [1990], "Integrated optical multi-/demultiplexer using acoustooptic effect for multiwavelength optical communications," IEEE J. Selected Areas Commun., 8, 1160-1168.

Goto, N., Y. Kanayama and Y. Miyazaki [1991], "Integrated optic matrix-vector multiplier using multifrequency acoustooptic Bragg diffraction," Appl. Opt., 30, 523-530.

Hayata, K., A. Misawa and M. Koshiba [1990], "Split-step finite-element method applied to nonlinear integrated optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, 7, 1772-1784.

Hayata, K. and M. Koshiba [1992], "Self-localization and spontaneous symmetry breaking of optical fields propagating in strongly nonlinear channel waveguides: Limitations of the scalar field approximation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, 9, 1362-1368.

Hirayama, K. and M. Koshiba [1992a], "Analysis of discontinuities in an asymmetric dielectric slab waveguide by combination of finite and boundary elements," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., MTT-40, 686-691.

Hirayama, K. and M. Koshiba [1992b], "A new low-loss structure of abrupt bends in dielectric waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol., 10, 563-569.

Ikuno, H. [1990], "Vectorial wave analysis of a dual shape core optical fibre with a parabolic centre core," IEE Proc., Part J, 137, 163-170.

Ikuno, H., S. Mori and A. Yata [1992a], "Uniform asymptotic solutions of the scalar wave equation for guided modes in inhomogeneous optical fibers with even polynomial profile cores and its error estimation," Trans. IEICE, J75-C-I, 397-405 (in Japanese).

Ikuno, H., S. Mori and A. Yata [1992b], "Uniform asymptotic analysis of the vector wave equation for guided modes in inhomogeneous optical fibers with even polynomial profile cores," Trans. IEICE, J75-C-I, 406-414 (in Japanese).

Kaewsuriyathumrong, S., T. Mizumoto, H. Mak and Y. Naito [1990], "Double-layered magnetooptic channel waveguide for waveguide isolator application," J. Lightwave Technol., 8, 177-182.

Kishi, N. and E. Yamashita [1990], "Realization of broad-band phase devices by using W-type eccentric-core optical fibers," J. Lightwave Technol., 8, 1207-1211.

Koshiba, M. and K. Inoue [1992a], "Simple and efficient finite-element analysis of microwave and optical waveguides," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., MTT-40, 371-377.

Koshiba, M., H. Saitoh, M. Eguchi and K. Hirayama [1992b], "Simple scalar finite element approach to optical rib waveguides," IEE Proc., Part H, 139, 166-171.

Kumagami, H. and M. Koshiba [1991], "Finite-element method using Hermitian line elements for planar diffused optical waveguides," IEE Proc., Part J, 138, 218-220.

Maruta, A. and M. Matsuhara [1992], "Analysis of lightwave propagation in a bent waveguide by the Galerkin method," IEICE Trans. Electron., E75-C, 736-740.

Matsuhara, M., H. Yunoki and A. Maruta [1991], "Finite-element method for open-type waveguides," IEEE Microwave Guided Wave Lett., 1, 376-378.

Matsumoto, M. [1991], "Analysis of radiation properties of channel-waveguide gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 8, 434-442.

Miyamoto, T.[1991], "Accurate numerical analysis of polarisation-preserving optical fibre with three-layer elliptical cross-section," IEE Proc., Part J, 138, 1-6.

Miyazaki, Y. and K. Taki [1989], "An analysis of isolation properties of mono-sectional optical isolators using Bi:YIG thin-films," Trans. IEICE, E72, 742-750.

Miyazaki, Y. and K. Taki [1990], "An analysis of isolation properties of mono-sectional optical isolators consisting of magnetooptic guide layers and substrates," Trans. IEICE, E73, 695-704.

Mizumoto, T. and Y. Naito [1990], "Dependence of the output phase difference on the asymmetry of 3 dB directional couplers," J. Lightwave Technol., 8, 1571-1576.

Sawa, S., K. Ono and T. Nomoto [1990], "Refractive index measurement of ion-exchanged glass waveguides by reflection method," Trans. IEICE, J73-C-I, 19-24 (in Japanese).

Shiraishi, K., Y. Aizawa and S. Kawakami [1990], "Beam expanding fiber using thermal diffusion of the dopant," J. Lightwave Technol., 8, 1151-1161.

Yamauchi, J., M. Ikegami and H. Nakano [1992], "Analysis of bent step-index optical fibres by the beam propagation method," IEE Proc., Part J, 139, 201-207.

Yoneyama, T., K. Niinuma and S. Kanno [1991], "Velocity-matched LiNbO_{3}
waveguide optical modulator using slot line," IEEE Microwave Guided
Wave Lett., 1, 192-194.

Yoshikawa H., Y. Yamamoto and Y. Ohno [1991], "Analysis of asymmetric two-core single-mode optical fibers for subscriber lines," Trans. IEICE, J74-C-I, 307-312 (in Japanese).

Ishida et al. [1991] have presented a hybrid diplexer using directional couplers with ridged main and auxiliary waveguides. To investigate waveguide discontinuities, Maruta and Matsuhara [1989] have proposed a combined method of the FEM and the eigenmode-expansion method. Hirokawa et al. [1991] have analyzed a waveguide T-junction with an inductive post by taking its diameter into account. A waveguide p-junction with an inductive post has also been studied [Hirokawa et al., 1992]. Tsuji et al. [1990] have proposed a new type of evanescent-mode waveguide filters consisting of two parallel cutoff waveguide paths. A combined method of the FEM and the boundary element method has been applied to dielectric posts in a rectangular waveguide and the equivalent circuits have been derived [Ise and Koshiba, 1989]. Ise et al. [1990] have presented a combined method of the FEM and the analytical solution for three-dimensional obstacles in a rectangular waveguide. To suppress spurious solutions in the three-dimensional finite element analysis of waveguide discontinuities, edge elements have been introduced [Ise et al., 1991]. Matsunaga et al. [1990] have investigated an electromagnetic-wave excitation problem in a rectangular tunnel with impedance walls.

Mirtaheri et al. [1989] have discussed frequency characteristics of an electromagnetic wave absorber composed of rubber, carbon, and ferrite powder. Shielding effects of this composite material have been investigated [Mirtaheri et al., 1990a], and dispersion characteristics of the permittivity and permeability have also been investigated [Mirtaheri et al., 1990b].

Many reports have appeared on the nonradiative dielectric (NRD) waveguides. Yoneyama [1990] has reviewed various NRD-guide circuit components such as terminations, directional couplers, circulators, beam-lead diode mounts, and Gunn oscillators. A HEMT amplifier for millimeter-wave use has been designed and fabricated by using NRD-guide techniques [Artuzi and Yoneyama, 1991]. A novel technique for mounting a beam-lead diode in the NRD-guide has been proposed to fabricate a detector, a balanced mixer, and a pulse modulator [Kuroki and Yoneyama, 1990]. Based on NRD-guide techniques, 3-port and 5-port circuits have been fabricated and their performances have been tested at 50 GHz [Kuroki and Yoneyama, 1992]. A 4-stage Butterworth bandpass filter has been fabricated in the NRD-guide by using low-loss ceramic resonators [Miyashita and Yoneyama, 1989]. Transmission characteristics of the NRD-guide with high permittivity materials have been analyzed using the FEM [Shinohara and Yoneyama, 1990].

Orthogonality properties of generalized Gaussian beam functions have been studied [Yokota et al., 1991]. Hosono [1992] has presented explicit and physical expressions for the energy part of a newly defined energy flux density vector called the T-vector.

Hayata et al. [1990a] has proposed a method for enhancing guided-wave second-harmonic generation (SHG) phase matched by a Cerenkov radiation scheme by means of tailoring the transverse nonlinear susceptibility profile in an optical channel waveguide. A modal analysis of the SHG by the Cerenkov effect in an optical channel waveguide has been presented [Hayata et al., 1990b]. A numerical modeling of second-order nonlinear-optical parametric processes in guided-wave structures has been studied [Hayata and Koshiba, 1991]. To achieve efficient wavelength conversion in the form of Cerenkov radiation, a new waveguide structure has been proposed and its optimal design procedure has been presented [Yanagawa et al., 1991]. Yanagawa et al. [1992] have proposed a three-dimensional nonstationary analysis method for quasi-phase-match SHG in a nonlinear optical waveguide with periodically domain-inverted structures.

(M. Koshiba)

References

Artuzi, W. A. Jr. and T. Yoneyama [1991], "A HEMT amplifier for nonradiative dielectric waveguide integrated circuits," IEICE Trans., E74, 1185-1190.

Artuzi, W. A. Jr. and T. Yoneyama [1992], "Laterally shielded coplanar waveguide for millimeter wave," IEEE Microwave Guided Wave Lett., 2, 370-371.

Hayata, K., K. Yanagawa and M. Koshiba [1990a], "Enhancement of the guided wave second-harmonic generation in the form of Cerenkov radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett., 56, 206-208.

Hayata, K., T. Sugawara and M. Koshiba [1990b], "Modal analysis of the second-harmonic electromagnetic field generated by the Cerenkov effect in optical waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron., QE-26, 123-134.

Hayata, K. and M. Koshiba [1991], "Numerical study of guided-wave sum-frequency generation through second-order nonlinear parametric processes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, 8, 449-458.

Hirokawa, J., K. Sakurai, M. Ando and N. Goto [1991], "An analysis of a waveguide T junction with an inductive post," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., MTT-39, 563-566.

Hirokawa, J., M. Ando and N. Goto [1992], "Waveguide p-junction with an inductive post," IEICE Trans. Electron., E75-C, 348-351.

Hosono, T. [1992], "T-vector and generalized optical theorems," Trans. IEICE, J75-B-II, 56-61 (in Japanese).

Ise, K. and M. Koshiba [1989], "Equivalent circuits for dielectric posts in a rectangular waveguide," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., MTT-37, 1823-1825.

Ise, K., K. Inoue and M. Koshiba [1990], "Three-dimensional finite-element solutions of dielectric scattering obstacles in a rectangular waveguide," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., MTT-38, 1352-1359.

Ise, K., K. Inoue and M. Koshiba [1991], "Three-dimensional finite-element with edge elements for electromagnetic waveguide discontinuities," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., MTT-39, 1289-1295.

Ishida, O., M. Miyazaki and Y. Isoda [1991], "Wideband hybrid diplexer using ridged waveguides," Trans. IEICE, J74-B-II, 667-678 (in Japanese).

Kiwamoto, Y., F. Kira, T. Saito, S. Miyoshi, O. Wada and M. Nakajima [1991], "Analysis of multimode microwave in oversize waveguide using an infrared camera image of radiated power distribution," Rev. Sci. Instrum., 62, 3075-3081.

Koshiba, M. and Y. Long [1989], "Finite-element analysis of magnetostatic wave propagation in a YIG film of finite dimensions," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., MTT-37, 1768-1772.

Kubo, H., K. Yasumoto and K. Shigeta [1991], "Numerical analysis of power divider using multiple waveguides," IEICE Trans., E74, 2883-2889.

Kubo, H., K. Yasumoto and T. Miyamoto [1992], "Numerical analysis of three channel waveguides arranged two-dimensionally," IEICE Trans. Electron., E75-C, 339-347.

Kuroki, F. and T. Yoneyama [1990], "Nonradiative dielectric waveguide circuit components using beam-lead diodes," Trans. IEICE, J73-C-I, 71-76 (in Japanese).

Kuroki, F. and T. Yoneyama [1992], "Millimeter-wave junction circuits using nonradiative dielectric waveguide," Trans. IEICE, J75-C-I, 35-41 (in Japanese).

Maruta, A. and M. Matsuhara [1989], "Finite-element analysis of waveguide transfer problems: Field connection by using the Galerkin method," Trans. IEICE, J72-C-I, 577-582 (in Japanese).

Matsunaga, T., K. Uchida and T. Noda [1990], "Electromagnetic wave excitation in a rectangular tunnel with impedance walls," Trans. IEICE, J73-B-II, 390-396 (in Japanese).

Mirtaheri, S. A., J. Yin, H. Seki, T. Mizumoto and Y. Naito [1989], "The characteristics of electromagnetic wave absorber composed of rubber, carbon and ferrite," Trans. IEICE, E72, 1447-1452.

Mirtaheri, S. A., T. Mizumoto and Y. Naito [1990a], "The shielding effect of composite material of rubber, carbon and ferrite on microwave oven leakage," Trans. IEICE, E73, 873-875.

Mirtaheri, S. A., T. Mizumoto and Y. Naito [1990b], "The electromagnetic and dispersion characteristics of materials composed of rubber, carbon and ferrite," Trans. IEICE, E73, 1746-1752.

Miyashita, T. and T. Yoneyama [1989], "50 GHz nonradiative dielectric waveguide filter using low loss ceramic resonators," Trans. IEICE, J72-C-I, 659-664 (in Japanese).

Shinohara, S. and T. Yoneyama [1990], "Some interesting transmission characteristics of nonradiative dielectric waveguides using high permittivity material," Trans. IEICE, J73-C-I, 716-723 (in Japanese).

Tsuji, M., H. Deguchi, H. Shigesawa and K. Takiyama [1990], "Two-path cutoff-waveguides for filter applications," Trans. IEICE, E73, 705-711.

Yanagawa, K., K. Hayata and M. Koshiba [1991], "Enhancement of Cerenkov-radiation-type wavelength conversion with domain-inverted structure," Trans. IEICE, J74-C-I, 119-125 (in Japanese).

Yanagawa, K., K. Hayata and M. Koshiba [1992], "Three-dimensional nonstationary calculation of quasi-phase-matched guided-wave second-harmonic generation using weighted-index method," Trans. IEICE, J75-C-I, 27-34 (in Japanese).

Yokota, M., S. Aono and O. Fukumitsu [1991], "Relations and orthogonality properties for the generalized Gaussian beam functions," IEICE Trans., E74, 2935-2937.

Yoneyama, T. [1990], "Millimeter wave integrated circuits using nonradiative dielectric waveguide," Trans. IEICE, J73-C-I, 87-94 (in Japanese).

(T. Shiozawa)

References

Horinouchi, K. Y. Ishido and T. Shiozawa [1989], "Propagation of space-charge waves along a circular hollow relativistic electron beam," Trans. IEICE, J72-C-I, 869-871 (in Japanese).

Horinouchi, K. and T. Shiozawa [1991], "Characteristics of an open-boundary Cherenkov laser with applied magnetostatic field of finite strength, "Trans. IEICE, J74-C-I, 245-254 (in Japanese).

Horinouchi, K., I. Hirakawa and T. Shiozawa [1992], "Characteristics of an open-boundary circular Cherenkov laser immersed in infinite magnetostatic field," Trans. IEICE, J75-C-I, 188-196 (in Japanese).

Ishido, Y. and T. Shiozawa [1990], "Transient properties of the Cherenkov-type submillimeter wave oscillator," Trans. IEICE, E73, 1827-1829.

Okita, M., T. Tanaka, K. Tanaka and K. Yasumoto [1992], "Numerical analysis of spontaneous emission and stimulated emission by a relativistic electron beam propagating parallel to a dielectric grating," Trans. IEICE, J75-C-I, 515-522 (in Japanese).

Several papers have been published for special applications. A coaxial-slot antenna as an interstitial applicator in microwave hyperthermia has been discussed by Terakawa et al. [1992]. Two-dimensional finite-element method has been performed for ion-cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) antennas for RF plasma heating [Nojima et al., 1989]. Basic characteristics of a cutoff waveguide aperture antenna for ICRF plasma heating have also been studied by Sawaya et al. [1992].

Slot antennas on a rectangular conducting box have been analyzed using the Fourier series expansion and the Galerkin's method [Fujino et al., 1989]. A wide slot antenna has been proposed to expand the frequency bandwidth of a cavity backed slot antenna [Hirokawa et al., 1989] The UTD has been used for the H-plane analysis of slot antenna and rectangular patch antenna with finite ground plane [Zhang et al., 1989].

A number of papers have been published on various types of patch and flat antennas. A flat diversity antenna, consisting of a disk loaded monopole antenna and four notch antennas constructed in the same disk, has been proposed as a vehicular antenna [Arai et al., 1991]. Two-layer self-diplexing antenna using a circularly polarized ring patch antenna has been presented by Chujo et al. [1991].

Other types of small antenna for mobile communications have been studied. Impedance characteristics of the normal mode helical antenna with a nearby conducting plane have been analyzed by the improved circuit theory [Cho et al., 1990]. Chao et al. [1991] have analyzed the performance of an adaptive array antenna with two inverted-F elements. Experimental results with mobile antenna having cross-polarization components in urban and rural areas have been reported by Kuboyama et al. [1990].

There have also been numerous papers concerning diversity techniques. Nagashima et al. [1990] have discussed an interference canceler based on least mean square (LMS) algorithm for dual polarized communications. The LMS adaptive array antenna for frequency-selective fading reduction has been studied by Ogawa et al. [1992]. Ebine [1990] has investigated a compartment-mounted diversity antenna for land mobile radios. Analysis for mean effective gain for mobile antennas in land mobile radio environments has been made by Taga [1990]. Diversity antennas for base and mobile stations have been described by Yamada et al. [1991]. Ohmori [1991] has reviewed system requirements, design, performances, research activities and future prospects on vehicle antennas.

(H. Nakano)

References

Arai, H., H. Iwashita and N. Goto[1991], "Vehicular diversity flat antenna at 900 MHz, "IEICE Trans., E74, 10, 3222-3226.

Cai, M. and M. Ito [1991], "New type of printed polygonal loop antenna," IEE Proc. H, 138, 389-396.

Cho, K. and Y. Yamada [1990], "Impedance characteristics of the normal mode helical antenna with a nearby conduction plate," Trans. IEICE, J73-B-II, 5, 250-256 (in Japanese).

Chao, R.-Y., K. Fujimoto and K. Hirasawa [1991], "Three-dimensional performance of an LMS adaptive array with inverted-F elements," IEEE Trans. Vehicular Tech., VT-40, 575-583.

Chujo, W., M. Fujise, M. Nakano, H. Arai and N. Goto [1991], "A two-layer self-diplexing antenna using a circularly polarized ring patch antenna," IEICE Trans. E74, 10, 3261-3267.

Ebine, Y. [1990], "Investigation of a compartment-mounted diversity antenna for land mobile radios," Trans. IEICE, J73-B-II, 9, 455-463 (in Japanese).

Endo, K., H. Arai and M. Toki [1991], "Analysis of disc-loaded antenna with matching posts by diakoptic theory," Trans. IEICE, J74-B-II, 11, 594-598 (in Japanese).

Fujino, Y. K. Sawaya and S. Adachi [1989], "Analysis of slot antennas on a rectangular conducting box by using the Fourier series expansion and the Galerkin's method," Trans. IEICE, J72-C-I, 781-786 (in Japanese).

Hirokawa, J., H. Arai and N. Goto [1989], "Cavity-backed wide slot antenna," IEE Proc. H, 136, 29-33.

Jin, Y.-S., S. Adachi and K. Sawaya [1990], "Monopole antenna on radial-wires over flat earth," J. Electromag. Waves Appl., 4, 49-59.

Kuboyama, H., Y. Tanaka, K. Sato and K. Fujimoto [1990], "Experimental results with mobile antennas having cross-polarization components in urban and rural areas," IEEE Trans. Vehicular Tech., VT-39, 150-160.

Nagashima, Y., Y. Ogawa, M. Ohmiya and K. Itoh [1990] , "Interference cancellation in dual polarized digital land mobile communications," Trans. IEICE, J73-B-II, 745-754 (in Japanese).

Nakano, H., H. Takeda, T. Honma, H. Mimaki and J. Yamauchi [1991], "Extremely low-profile helix radiating a circularly polarized wave," IEEE Trans Antennas Propag., AP-39, 754-757.

Nakano, H., Y. Saura, H. Mimaki and J. Yamauchi [1991], "Circularly polarized conical beam formation by backfire helical antennas," IEICE Trans., E74, 3246-3252.

Nojima, A., K. Sawaya and S. Adachi [1989], "Two-dimensional finite-element method analysis of various antennas for ICRF plasma heating," IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., PS-17, 880-883.

Ogawa, Y., Y. Nagashima and K. Itoh [1992], "An adaptive antenna system for high-speed digital mobile communications," IEICE Trans. Commun., E75-B, 413-421.

Ohmori, S. [1991], "Vehicle antennas for mobile satellite communications," IEICE Trans., E74, 3210-3221.

Sakitani, A. and S. Egashira [1991], "Analysis of coaxial collinear antenna: Recurrence formula of voltages and admittances at connections," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., AP-39, 15-20.

Sawaya, K. and S. Adachi [1992], "A cutoff waveguide aperture antenna with Faraday shield," J. Electromag. Waves Appl., 6, 865-880.

Taga, T. [1990], "Analysis for mean effective gain of mobile antennas in land mobile radio environments, " IEEE Trans. Vehicular Tech., VT-39, 117-131.

Taguchi, M., S. Egashira and K. Tanaka [1991], "Sleeve antenna with ground wires," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., AP-39, 1-7.

Takeuchi, K. , M. Yasunaga and T. Shiokawa [1991], "Radiation characteristics of SBF antenna applicable to mobile communications," IEICE Trans., E74, 10, 3253-3260.

Terakawa, T., K. Furuya, K. Ito and H. Kasai [1992], "Experiments on interstitial applicator made of thin coaxial cable for microwave hyperthermia," Jpn. J. Hyperthermic Oncol., 8, 107-114.

Yamada, Y., K. Kagoshima and K. Tsunekawa [1991], "Diversity antennas for base and mobile stations in land mobile communication systems," IEICE Trans., E74, 10, 3202-3209.

Zhang, X., N. Inagaki, N. Kikuma and K. Kasugai [1989 ], "A use of UTD in H-plane pattern analysis of slot antenna and rectangular patch microstrip antenna with finite ground plane," Trans. IEICE, J72-C-I,774-780 (in Japanese).

Many papers appeared on the design of radial line slot antennas. The equivalent circuit of a slot in radial line slot antennas were derived by Takada et al. [1991]. Takahashi et al. [1992] proposed a theoretical method to synthesize uniform aperture illumination of a single-layered radial line slot antennas.

A low-profile array antenna composed of 2-turn helices was designed for a frequency band of 11.7-12.0 GHz by Nakano et al. [1992]. The feed wire of each helix is inserted into a radial waveguide through a small hole and excited by a TEM mode.

A cavity-backed annular slot antenna with one point shorted which radiates circularly polarized waves was analyzed numerically by Morishita [1991]. Arai et al. [1990] proposed planar 4-directional antennas for antenna pattern diversity reception. The array consists of four sectoral patch antennas and two 3 dB hybrid couplers

A new H-shaped feed network for circularly polarized printed array composed of strip dipoles and slots was reported by Naito et al., [1990]. An array antenna consisting of a dual-loop slot element was realized by Hirose et al. [1990]. Each element is fed by a single triplate transmission line. Iwasaki et al. [1992] investigated the electric field distribution and the leakage power of parallel plate waveguide modes in a slot-coupled microstrip antenna by a time-domain Spatial Network Method. A wide beamwidth and broad bandwidth microstrip antenna was designed by Ebine et al. [1991] which consists of a rectangular patch antenna and a pair of parasitic short circuited patches placed over the radiating edges of the rectangular patch.

Chiba et al.[1992] proposed a phase controlling method to improve the gain or provide the low cross polarization level in circularly polarized phased arrays. Measured active element patterns of left- and right-handed circular polarizations are used to find exciting phase distribution by a non-linear programming method. Spherical array antennas using novel digital beam forming techniques for mobile-satellite communications were studied by Chujo et al. [1991]. Ueno et al. [1992] derived an adaptive antenna model based on the dynamical system model and an equivalent steering signal concept was defined as an extended version of the steering signal of an MSN array. Fujimoto et al. [1991] obtained a rapidly-converging and well-conditioned algorithm based on the nonlinear least square method (Marquardt method) for the CMA adaptive array to suppress multipath waves.

The characteristics of the first airborne phased array antenna was reported by Taira et al. [1990]. The antenna is installed on a commercial aircraft and the performance is evaluated by using the Engineering Test Satellite V. Two types of airborne phased array was described by Yasunaga et al. [1990] where multipath fading due to sea surface reflection in aeronautical satellite communications was discussed.

(K. Hirasawa)

References

Arai, H., H. Teramoto and M. Toki [1990 ], "Planar 4-directional antenna for antenna pattern diversity reception," Trans. IEICE, J73-B-II, 796-803 (in Japanese).

Chiba, I., M. Ohtsuka, S. Matsumoto and T. Katagi [1992], "Phase controlling for providing the gain or the low cross polarization level in circularly polarized phased array antennas," Trans. IEICE, J75-B-II, 456-463 (in Japanese).

Chujo, W. and K. Kashiki [1991], "Spherical array using digital beam forming techniques for mobile satellite communications," Trans. IEICE, J74-B-II, 515-522 (in Japanese).

Ebine, Y., T. Matsuoka and M. Karikomi [1991], "A wide beamwidth and broad bandwidth microstrip antenna with a pair of short circuit patches," IEICE Trans., E74, 3241-3245.

Fujimoto, M., N. Kikuma and N. Inagaki [1991] , "Performance of CMA adaptive array optimized by Marquardt method for suppressing multipath waves," Trans. IEICE, J74-B-II, 599-607 (in Japanese).

Hirokawa, J., M. Ando and N. Goto [1992], "Waveguide-fed parallel plate slot array antenna," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., AP-40, 218-223.

Hirokawa, J., M. Ando and N. Goto [1992], "A single-layer multiple-way power divider for a planar slotted waveguide array," IEICE Trans. Commun., E75-B, 781-787.

Hirose, K., H. Horiuchi and H. Nakano [1990], "Dual-loop slot array antenna radiating circularly polarized wave" Electron. Lett., 26, 179-180.

Iwasaki, H., H. Shoki and K. Kawabata [1992], "Analysis of parallel plate mode in slot-coupled microstrip antenna," Trans. IEICE, J75-B-II, 171-178 (in Japanese).

Morishita, H, K. Hirasawa and K. Fujimoto [1991], "Analysis of a cavity-backed annular slot antenna with one point shorted," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., AP-39, 1472-1478.

Naito, M. and K. Ito [1990], " Improved feed-system for a printed antenna composed of strip dipoles and slots," Electron. Lett., 26, 1228-1229.

Nakano, H., T. Takeda, Y. Kitamura, H. Mimaki and J. Yamauchi [1992], "Low-profile helical array antenna fed from a radial waveguide," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., AP-40, 279-284.

Taira, S., M. Tanaka and S. Ohmori [1991], "High gain airborne antenna for satellite communications," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., AES-27, 354-360.

Takada, J, M. Ando and N. Goto [1991], "An equivalent circuit of a slot in radial line slot antennas, " IEICE Trans., E74, 2922-2928.

Takahashi, M., J. Takada, M. Ando and N. Goto [1991], "A slot design for uniform aperture field distribution in single-layered radial line slot antennas, " IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., AP-39, 954-959.

Ueno, M., K. Kawabata and T. Morooka [1992] , "A dynamical system model and equivalent steering signal concept in adaptive arrays," Trans. IEICE, J75-B-II, 760-769 (in Japanese).

Yasunaga, M., F. Watanabe, T. Shiokawa and M. Yamada [1990], "Airborne array antennas for satellite communication," Space Communication and Broadcasting, 7, 11-17.

In designing feed horns for reflector antennas, Ebisui and Ishida [1990, 1991] presented double-flare type and low cross polarization type triple-mode horn antennas. Shogen [1991] determined the corrugation depth of elliptical corrugated horns and analyzed their velocity dispersion characteristics.

Other contributors include Zhang et al. [1991] who derived an approximate formula for the hollow corner diffraction based on the asymptotic evaluation of UTD-combined equivalent current integration along the finite wedge edge. Miyake et al. [1991] studied the high power millimeter-waves radiated by a quasi-optical antenna system. Yamauchi et al. [1989] analyzed the focusing properties of fresnel zone-plates and applied them to a helix radiating a circularly polarized wave.

(K.Kagoshima)

References

Ebisui, T. and O. Ishida [1990], "12/14GHz bands double flare type triple-mode horn, " Trans. IEICE, J73-B-II, 10, 546-553 (in Japanese).

Ebisui, T. and O. Ishida [1991], "Optimum mode conversion coefficients of a low cross polarization type triple-mode horn antenna," Trans. IEICE, J74-B-II, 5, 294-299 (in Japanese).

Hanayama, E. and T. Takano [1992], "Investigation of radiation characteristics of large deployable antennas using a model antenna," Trans. IEICE, J75-B-II, 5, 285-292 (in Japanese).

Itanami, T., T. Kobayashi and K. Ohata [1991], "Antenna performance evaluation with reflector distortion data using Akima's interpolation scheme, " Trans. IEICE, J74-B-II, 11, 581-586 (in Japanese).

Itanami, T., H. Kumazawa, A. Kondo and K. Ohata [1991], "On-orbit electrical performance evaluation of large on-board antenna, " Trans. IEICE, J74-B-II, 12, 707-713 (in Japanese).

Makino, S., I. Naitoh, S. Urasaki and T.Katagi, "Determination method of the exciting coefficients for the feed array on the array-fed reflector type shaped beam antennas," Trans. IEICE, J74-B-II, 10, 531-537 (in Japanese).

Miyake, S., O. Wada, M. Nakajima, T. Idehara and G.F. Brand [1991], "Focusing of high power millimeter-wave radiation by a quasi-optical antenna system," Int. J. Electronics, 70, 5, 979-988.

Shogen, K. and K. Ohmaru, "Contoured-beam antenna using shaped offset-fed dual-reflectors for broadcasting satellites, " Trans. IEICE, J73-B-II, 10, 528-535 (in Japanese).

Shogen, K. [1991], "Design of corrugation depth and velocity dispersion characteristics of elliptical corrugated horn," Trans. IEICE, J74-B-II, 5, 309-316 (in Japanese).

Shogen, K. and H. Nishida [1992], "Contoured-beam antenna using smoothly shaped dual-reflectors for broadcasting satellites," Trans. IEICE, J75-B-II, 7, 447-455 (in Japanese).

Shogen, K., H. Nishida and N. Toyama [1992], "Single shaped reflector antennas for broadcasting satellites, " IEEE Trans. Antenna Propagate., 40, 2, 178-187.

Yamauchi, J., S. Honma, T. Honma and H. Nakano [1989], "Focusing properties of fresnel zone-plate and its application to a helix radiating a circularly polarized wave, " Trans. IEICE, J72-B-II, 12, 648-654 (in Japanese).

Zhang, X., N. Inagaki and N. Kikuma [1991], "Geometrical theory of diffraction including corner diffractions with application to radiation pattern analysis of major angle corner reflector antenna," Trans. IEICE, J74-C-I, 4, 109-118 (in Japanese).

(K.Kagoshima)

References

Purwanto, Y., Y. Ogawa, M. Ohmiya and K. Itoh [1992], "A continuous measurement of G/T for satellite broadcasting receiving systems," IEICE Trans. Commun., E75-B, 8, 767-774.

Yamada, H., M. Ohmiya, Y. Ogawa and K. Itoh [1991], "Superresolution techniques for time-domain measurements with a network analyzer," IEEE Trans. Antenna Propagate., AP-39, 2, 177-183.

Hashimoto[1991, 1992] has presented the geometric optics of wave-normal rays, made clear the geometrical law of total reflection for the rays on the discontinuity of media and also analyzed the beam wave propagation in layered media. Kudou, et al., [1991] have investigated the reflection and transmission of a Hermite-Gaussian beam at a curved dielectric layer by using the complex ray technique.

Hayata and Koshiba[1991] have presented a physical concept of optical instanton and also obtained approximate solutions of self-trapped laser beams in arbitrary intensity-dependent media. Hayata, et al., [1992] have obtained a formulation of electron pulse propagation in quantum wire structures and shown numerical results for the propagation through the rectangular wire guides.

Ohnuki and Adachi[1992] have calculated the radiation power patterns of the beam antenna for the whistler wave and the X-wave near the lower hybrid frequency. Shioya and Adachi[1989] have calculated the radiation patterns of a circular aperture hyperthermia antenna in the Fresnel region. Yasumoto, et al., [1990] have presented accurate dispersion curves for the eigenmodes that govern the Smith-Purcell radiation by a relativistic sheet electron beam propagating parallel to a reflection grating.

(M.Tateiba)

References

Furutsu, K. [1991], "Random-volume scattering: Boundary effects, cross sections, and enhanced backscattering," Phys. Rev. A, 43, 2741-2762.

Ito, S. and T. Oguchi [1989], "Approximate solutions of the vector radiative transfer equation for linearly polarized light in discrete random media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 6, 1852-1858 .

Oguchi, T., and S. Ito [1990], " Multiple scattering effects on the transmission and reflection of millimeter pulse waves in rain," Radio Sci., 25, 205-216 .

Tateiba, M. [1991], "The Lorentz reciprocity in random media -The derivation from Maxwell's equations-," Radio Sci., 26, 499-503 .

Tateiba, M. and Y. Nanbu [1991], "The condition for the distribution of dielectric cylinders to be random -The derivation from the analysis of coherent fields-, " IEICE Trans., E74, 1055-1058 .

Tateiba, M. and E. Tomita [1992], "Theory of scalar wave scattering from a conducting target in random media," IEICE Trans. Electron., E75-C, 101-106.

Tateiba, M. and E. Tomita [1991], "Coherent electromagnetic waves scattered from a conducting cylinder surrounded by turbulent media," IEICE Trans., E74, 1288-1292 .

Hashimoto, M. [1992], "The geometrical law of total reflection for wave-normal rays on the discontinuous interfaces in inhomogeneous media," Trans. IEICE, J75-C-I, 173-178 (In Japanese).

Hashimoto, M. [1991], "On the wave-normal rays and the reflection coefficients," Trans. IEICE, J74-C-I, 97-99 (In Japanese).

Hashimoto, M. [1992], "Spotsizes of the beam waves propagating along a two-dimensional inhomogeneous medium," Trans. IEICE, J75-C-I, 1-7 (In Japanese).

Kudou, T., M. Yokota and O. Fukumitsu [1991], "Reflection and transmission of a Hermite-Gaussian beam incident upon a curved dielectric layer, " J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 8, 718-723.

Hayata, K. and M. Koshiba [1991], "Optical instantons as the utmost limit to ultrafast nonlinear coherent processes," Trans. IEICE Japan, E74, 3946-3948.

Hayata, K. and M. Koshiba [1992], "Solution of self-trapped multidimensional optical beams by Galerkin's method," Opt. Lett., 17, 841-843.

Hayata, K., Y. Tsuji and M. Koshiba [1992], "Ballistic pulse propagation in quantum wire waveguides: Toward localization and control of electron wave packets in space and time, " J. Appl. Phys., 72, 2912-2918.

Ohnuki, S. and S. Adachi [1992], "Electromagnetic wave radiation in lower hybrid frequency range from modulated charge particle beams in space," Trends in Plasma Sci., 1, 119-129.

Shioya, H. and S. Adachi [1989], "Concentration effects of microwave power by hyperthermia antenna," Trans. IEICE, J72-D-II, 1757-1759 (in Japanese).

Yasumoto, K., T. Tanaka and T. Aramaki [1990], "Numerical analysis of radiation by a relativistic electron beam propagating parallel to a reflection grating," IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., 18, 699-707.