COMMISSION K: Electromagnetics in Biology and Medicine (November 2007 – October 2010)

Edited by Ikehata Masateru, Jimbo Yasuhiko, Watanabe Soichi, and Tsukasa Shigemitsu

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Introduction

The research activities on the biological effects of electromagnetic fields in Japan from 2007 to 2010 are reviewed. In vivo, in vitro, dosimetrical studies on DC electric and magnetic fields, extremely low frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields, intermediate frequency (IF) magnetic fields, radio frequency (RF) and microwaves are discussed. Biomedical applications including magnetic stimulation, hyperthermia, thermal ablation, MEG, MCG, current distribution MRI, fMRI and radiometry, contactless power transmission, and electromagnetic interference (EMI) are also introduced.

This report does not describe every paper of the member of Japanese Commission K that has been carried out during 2007-2010. It begins with a section describing the recent published papers of the biological effects of electro- magnetic fields. Next section reviews the results of electromagnetic field measurement, dosimetry and exposure assessment. Third and forth sections provide a state-of-the-art review of biomedical applications using thermal therapy, hyperthermia with soft-and inductive-heating, MRI, and current distribution MRI, and further discuss some of the EMI issue on implantable medical devices.

 

K1 Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields

 

K1.1 Static magnetic field

K1.1.1 In vivo study

Kimura et al [2008] reported the effect of high strength static magnetic fields and ionizing radiation on gene expression and DNA damage in Caenorhabditis elegans. They demonstrate that genes involved in motor activity, actin binding, cell adhesion, and cuticles are transiently and specifically induced following exposure to 3 or 5 T SMF They suggest that the response of C. elegans to high SMFs is unique and capable of adjustment during long exposure, and that this treatment may be less hazardous than other therapeutic tools.

Nakaoka et al [2010] reported about orientation of Paramecium swimming in a static magnetic field in a static magnetic field (0.78 T). Results of measure- ments of membrane lipid fluidity obtained using fluorescence image analysis with the lipophilic dye, laurdan (6-lauroyl-2-dimethylaminonaphtalene), showed that the degree of membrane lipid fluidity was correlated with the differences in magnetic orientation between syngens. That is, the syngens with decreased membrane fluidity showed an increased degree of magnetic orientation. Therefore, the membrane lipid order is a key factor in the magnetic orientation of Paramecium swimming.

Furuno, et al., investigated effects of strong magnetic fields on amphibian. Oocyte maturation, fetal development and gene expression were affected by exposure to over 10 T static magnetic field of Silurana tropicalis [Furuno, et al., 2007, 2010 and Kashiwagi, et al., 2010].

Xu, et al., reported recovery effects of static magnetic field on bone mineral density in ovariectomized rats. 180 mT static magnetic field enhanced recovery of bone mineral density of osteoporotic lumbar vertebrae in the rats [Xu, et alL., 2011].

 

K1.1.2 In vitro study

Egami et al [2010] reported the effect of static magnetic fields on the budding of single yeast cells, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The budding angle was clearly affected by the direction of the homogeneous and inhomogeneous magnetic fields strong magnetic field. In the homogeneous magnetic field, the budding direction of daughter yeast cells was mainly oriented in the direction of magnetic field B at 2.93 T.

Ikehara et al. reported that Effects of exposure to a time-varying 1.5 T magnetic field on the neurotransmitter-activated increase in intracellular Ca (2+) in relation to actin fiber and mitochondrial functions in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. They measured the physiological functions of ER, actin protein, and mitochondria with respect to a neurotransmitter-induced increase in Ca(2+) in chromaffin cells exposed to the time-varying 1.5 T magnetic field for 2h.Results show the magnetic field-exposure influenced both the ER and mitochondria, but the inhibition of Ca(2+) release from ER was not due to mitochondria inhibition. The effect of eddy currents induced in the culture medium may indirectly influence intracellular actin and suppress the transient increase in [Ca(2+)] [Ikehara, et al., 2010, 2011].

Research group of Railway Technical Research Institute (RTRI) (Ikehata and Yoshie) investigated mutagenicity of strong static magnetic field up to 13T in various in vitro test systems. In bacteria, SOD defective Escherichia coli was exposed to up to 13T static magnetic field for investigating effects of magnetic field on super oxide [Yoshie, 2007, 2008a]. In addition, plumbagin (super oxide producer) was treated during exposure period in the test system to investigate effect of magnetic field on mutagenesis by super oxide. In this test system, no effect was observed both experiments and concluded SOD related mutagenesis was not affected by exposure strong magnetic field. These results also indicated that mutagenic effect of strong static magnetic field in SOD deficient E. coli that was reported by Zhangfs results did not confirmed in similar test system [Yoshie, 2008b]. In yeast cells, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used to examine the effect of static magnetic field in various mutagenesis. In this system, point mutation was not induced but gene conversion/recombination was slightly increased by exposure to 5T magnetic field for 72 hr [Ikehata, 2007a, 2008b]. In culture cells, mouse lymphoma assay (MLA) conducted up to 5T magnetic field but no mutagenicity was observed in L5178Y tk+/- 3.7.2c cells that was generally used in this assay [Ikehata, 2009]. Ikehata also reported evaluation of biological effect by exposure to combined magnetic field with static and 50Hz [Ikehata, 2007c, 2008c, 2008d]. No synergetic effect to combine magnetic field was found in their study.

In Prof. Miyakoshifs group, Monzen et al [2009] reported that effect of static magnetic field on human placental and umbilical cord blood. Results suggest that the 10 T SMF exposure may change gene expressions and result in the specific enhancement of megakaryocytic/erythroid progenitor (MEP) differentiation from pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells and/or the proliferation of bipotent MEP. Sakurai et al reported effect of strong static magnetic field on several secreting systems. Enhanced secretion of prostaglandin E2 from osteoblasts [Sakurai, 2008a], enhance of responsiveness to glucose stimulation and enhanced insulin secretion (only by exposure to gradient magnetic field) [Sakurai, 2009a, 2009f] were reported. Sakurai et al [2009c] also reported the effects of strong static magnetic fields on astrocyte differentiation. Terashima et al [2007] reported morphological changes of cultured cells by the medium convection under strong static magnetic fields.

Nakamichi et al [2009] reported the effects of static magnetic field on the functionality of neural progenitor cells. Static magnetism not only significantly decreased proliferation of neural progenitor cells without affecting cell viability, but also promoted differentiation into cells immunoreactive for MAP2 with a concomitant decrease in that for an astroglial marker in fetal rat brain.

Okano et al have been investigating effects of magnetic field on behavior, hypertension, angiogenesis, etc. They reported promotion of tubule formation by applying the peak gradient/force (1428 mT/m) using moderate magnetic field (120 mT) in endothelial tubular formation in vitro (Okano, 2008a).

K1.1.3 Other study

Effect of gradient static magnetic field on unstirred Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction was investigated by Okano et al [Okano, 2008b, 2009] The ferroin- catalyzed BZ medium was exposed to the SMF for up to 16 min at 25 degrees C. The experiments demonstrated that the wave velocity was significantly accelerated primarily by the magnetic gradient. The propagation of the fastest wave front indicated a sigmoid increase along the peak magnetic gradient line, but not along the peak magnetic force product line. The underlying mechanisms of the SMF effects on the anomalous wave propagation could be attributed primarily to the increased concentration gradient of the paramagnetic iron ion complexes at the chemical wave fronts induced by the magnetic gradient.

Yanamoto, et al., investigated repeated application of an electric field. The field increases BDNF in the brain, enhances spatial learning and induced infarct tolerance [Yanamoto, et al., 2008].

 

K1.2 Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) magnetic field

K1.2.1 In vivo study

Negishi et al. [2008] belong to Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), reported the promotion effects of 0 (sham-exposed), 7, 70, or 350 ƒÊT (rms) circularly polarized 50 Hz magnetic fields on 7, 12-dimethylenz (a) anthracene-induced malignant lymphoma/ lymphatic leukemia in mice. There is no evidence to support the hypothesis that power frequency MFs is a significant risk factor for hematopoietic neoplasia.

Nishimura et al. [2010] investigated the behavioral responses of a diurnal agamid lizard (Pogona vitticeps) to a sinusoidal ELF electromagnetic field (EMF; 6 and 8 Hz, peak magnetic field 2.6 ƒÊT, peak electric field 10 V/m). The average number of the tail lifts per individual per day was greater in the EMF group than in the control group. The tail-lifting response to the ELF-EMF disappeared, when the parietal eye of the lizards was covered with a small round aluminum 'cap' which could block light. These results suggest that lizards perceive the EMFs, and that the parietal eye may be involved in light-dependent magnetoreceptive responses.

Tanaka K., et al. [2010] reported the effect of power frequency MF (60-Hz, 0.05 ƒÊT - 60 mT) on acute, chronic, and genetic toxicities of fruit flies. Statistical analysis of the results showed that there was no obvious evidence that magnetic field level affects the behavior, longevity, and mutation of fruit flies.

 

K1.2.2 In vitro study

From Prof. Miyakoshifs group, four reports of the biological effect of the extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields (MFs) were published. Koyama et al. [2008a] studied the effects of the ELF MFs on the number of apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites in human glioma A172 cells. The results showed no difference in the number of AP sites between the cells exposed to the ELF MF and sham controls. Exposure to the ELF MF in combination with a genotoxic agents (MMS or H2O2) increased AP-site levels compared with the genotoxic agents alone. The results suggest that such exposure can enhance the activity or lengthen the lifetime of radical pairs. Sakurai et al. [2008b] reported the effect of ELF MFs (a sinusoidal magnetic field at a frequency of 60 Hz, 5 mT) on beta-cell survival and function of a hamster- derived insulin-secreting cell line (HIT-T15). The results showed the increase in cell number under apoptotic culture conditions by exposure to the ELF MF. Sakurai et al. [2008d] also investigated the effects of the ELF MF on cytokine- mediated dysfunction of insulin-secreting cells, RINm5F cells. Three days of continuous exposure at 5 mT enhanced cell dysfunction and insulin content. These results indicated that the increase in intracellular insulin concentration by the ELF MF would be useful for cell transplantation to cure diabetes mellitus. Sakurai et al. [2009d] studied the effects of extremely low frequency magnetic fields on adipogenesis in a preadipocyte cell line, 3T3-L1. The exposure to ELFMFs does not affect adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells and hence has no effect on patients suffering from obesity.

Soda et al. [2008] reported the effect of exposure to ELF MF (3 mT, 60 Hz) on differentiation of mouse osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells. The results showed the exposure to the MF increased significantly the collagen, a marker of the differentiation, in the cells. Treatment with PD98059, an inhibitor of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activation, did not prevent the increase in the collagen caused by ELF-EMF exposure. The insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) increased the collagen in the presence of the inhibitor. When phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway was inhibited by LY294002, the increase in collagen induced by ELF-EMF exposure was accelerated, however, the increase in collagen observed by IGF-I addition was suppressed. Treatment with SB203580, an inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), suppressed the increase in the collagen induced by ELF-EMF exposure, whereas IGF-I addition increased the collagen in the presence of the inhibitor. These results suggested that collagen synthesis stimulated by ELF-EMF exposure was carried out by the participation of p38 MAPK pathway, and that PI3K pathway may have the role to suppress the collagen synthesis induced by ELF-EMF exposure, and that the suppression of the PI3K pathway may allow the acceleration of the collagen synthesis.

From Prof. Jimbofs group, five reports of the biological effect of the ELF MFs were published. Saito A., et al. [2008] studied the effects of ELF MF (1 mT, 50 Hz, sinusoidal) exposure on differentiation and spontaneous activity of P19 embyonal carcinoma (P19EC) -derived neuronal cells. This report showed the changes of the size of EBs and spontaneous activities by long-term cultivation of P19EC-derived neuronal networks. At the 14 days after plating, the spontaneous activity and neuronal differentiation rate of exposed P19EC-derived neuronal networks were drop down compared to non-exposed one. Saito A., et al. [2009] [2010a] also reported the effects of the ELF MFs (1 mT or 10 mT, 50 Hz, sinusoidal) on the neuronal differentiation process of P19 embryonal carcinoma cells (P19 cells). The results showed the percentage of MAP2 positive cells and the spike frequencies were increased by 10 mT ELF-MF, and then the percentage of GFAP positive cells were reduced. However, these effects were not seen in 1 mT exposed cells. Saito et al. [2010b] studied the neuronal differentiation of P19EC cells by exposure to AC magnetic fields (50 Hz sinusoidal and the strength used 1, 5, 10, and 20 mT). The results showed that a slight rise (1, 5 mT) or reduction (10, 20 mT) of the spike firing rate were observed by repeated exposure to the MF for 60 sec. Saito et al. [2010c] also investigated the effects of AC magnetic fields on neuronal differentiation and network activities of P19EC cells. The results showed the neuronal marker (MAP2) positive cells and spike frequency recorded by microelectrode array (MEA) were increased by 10 mT AC-MFs (50 Hz, sinusoidal) exposure. And the percentage of positive cells and the size of embryoid bodies (EBs) which formed in the neuronal induction were correlated with intensities of induced current.

 

K1.2.3 Epidemiological study

Saito T. et al. [2010] reported the effect of power-frequency MF on childhood brain tumors. The population-based case-control study encompassed 54 % of Japanese children under 15 years of age. After excluding ineligible targeted children, 55 newly diagnosed brain tumor cases and 99 sex-, age-, and residential area- matched controls were included in the analyses. The result showed a positive association between high-level exposure-above 0.4 ƒÊT and the risk of brain tumors. This association could not be explained solely by confounding factors or selection bias.

 

K1.2.4 Other study

Mizuki et al. [2010] reported the activity of an enzyme immobilized on super- paramagnetic particles in a rotational MF of 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 30 Hz. The results showed that the activity of the enzyme molecules immobilized on super- para- magnetic particles increases in the rotational magnetic field and reaches maximum at a certain frequency (5 Hz). Enzyme reactions are enhanced even in a tiny volume of solution using the present method, which is very important for the development of efficient micro reactors and micro total analysis systems (mu- TAS).

 

K1.3 Intermediate Frequency (IF) magnetic field

K1.3.1 In vivo study

From CRIEPI group, Nishimura et al. [2009] investigated the chick embryo- toxicity after 20 kHz, 1.1 mT magnetic field exposure. White Leghorn fertile eggs (60/group) were either exposed to a 20 kHz, 1.1 mT (rms) sinusoidal magnetic field or sham-exposed during the first 2, 7, or 11 days of embryogenesis. Lower dose exposures at 0.011 and 0.11 mT (rms) for 2 days were also conducted to elucidate possible dose-response relationships. Additional eggs given all-trans- retinoic acid, a teratogen, were exposed to the 1.1 mT (rms) magnetic field for the same periods to investigate the modification of embryotoxicity. No exposure- related changes were found in any of the endpoints in intact embryos exposed to 1.1 mT (rms) or to the lower doses of 0.11 and 0.011 mT(rms) magnetic fields. Retinoic acid administration produced embryotoxic responses, which were embry- onic death and developmental abnormalities, in 40-60% of embryos in the sham- exposed groups. The magnitude of these responses was not changed significantly by the magnetic field exposures. Under the present experimental conditions, exposure to 20 kHz magnetic field up to 1.1 mT (rms) was not embryotoxic in the chick and did not potentiate the embryotoxic action of retinoic acid.

Sakai H et al. [2010] studied the effect of radiofrequency radiation at 40 kHz on the liver hepatic injury in Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats, an animal model for human Wilson disease. The activities of ALT and AST in serum of LEC rats exposed to the RF radiation for 2 weeks were approximately 3.8-fold and 2-fold higher than those in serum of sham-exposed rats, respectively. The result showed that the RF radiation at 40 kHz induced hepatic injury in LEC rats.

 

K1.3.2 In vitro study

From RTRIfs group, six reports of the biological effect of the intermediate frequency magnetic fields (IF-MFs) were published. Ikehata et al. [2008a] [2008e] reported the mutagenicity of IF-MF of 2, 10 and 20 kHz at 0.8mT by mouse lymphoma assay (MLA) using L5178Y tk+/-3.7.2c cells. The result shows that no significant difference by exposure to any IF-MFs was observed in mutation frequency between unexposed control and exposed cells. Ikehata et al.[2009b] [2010] [2010] also reported the effect of 2 mT, 21 kHz IF-MFs on growth in various DNA repair deficient cells (such as Ku86, DNA-PK, XRCC1), frequency of micronucleus in CHL/IU cells, and gene mutation frequency at hprt locus in CHO-K1 cells. The results showed no significant effect by exposure to 2 mT, 21 kHz IF-MF in all every experimental indexes. Additionally, Ikehata et al. [2010] studied the development of novel exposure system of IF-MFs for in vitro test systems, which is capable of generating 20 kHz, up to 3.9 mT IF-MF within exposure space (150mm~150mm~150mm) within } 5% deviation. From the same group, Yoshie et al. [2010] investigated the effect of a IF-MF (20 kHz, 2 mT (rms)) on growth rate of various cell lines, which are deficient in DNA repair, and mutagenicity by HPRT mutation assay using CHO-K1 cells. The results showed that the IF-MF exposure does not affect cell growth regardless of the ability of DNA repair. In the HPRT mutation assay, the results indicated that the IF-MF exposure does not cause mutation.

Fujita et al. [2010] have developed novel exposure system for in vitro research, which can generate an IF MF of 6.25 mT (rms) at 23 kHz with a uniformity within } 5 %. The authors examined the harmonics, coil shape, and heat generated in the medium by the high-strength MF. They confirmed the system can be used to evaluate the biological effects of the IF MF.

From Prof. Miyakoshifs group, four reports of the biological effect of the IF-MFs published. Miyakoshi et al. [2007] reported the effects of IF magnetic fields of 532 } 20ƒÊT at 23 kHz on growth, mutation and DNA strand break. The results showed the exposure to the IF MF for 2 h did not affect the growth of CHO-K1 cells or cellular genotoxicity in both bacteria and Chinese hamster cells. From the same group, Kiyokawa et al. [2008] [2009] reported the effect of an IF MF of 23kHz at 6 mTrms for 2 hours on cell growth, micronucleus formation, DNA strand breaks, HPRT gene mutation and expression of heat shock proteins. As a result, there was no significant difference between exposure and sham-exposure group in the experiments of each cellular criterion. Sakurai et al. [2009e] investigated the effects of the IF MF on cellular genotoxicity and stress responses. The authors did not detect any effects of the IF magnetic fields on cell growth, comet assay, micronucleus formation, HPRT gene mutation, expression of phosphorylated Hsp27, or nuclear translocation of Hsp27, 70 or 105. Overall results indicate that the exposure to an IF MF at 6.05 mT (rms) for 2 h does not cause detectable cellular genotoxicity, and does not induce detectable cellular stress.

From CRIEPIfs group, six reports of the biological effect of the intermediate frequency magnetic fields published. Nakasono et al. [2008b] [2010a] [2010b] used bacterial mutation tests and yeast genotoxic test to evaluate the effects of intermediate frequency (IF) magnetic fields (MFs) on mutagenicity, co-mutageni- city and gene conversion. For the in vitro research, the authors constructed a Helmholtz type exposure system which can generate vertical and sinusoidal MFs, such as 0.91mT at 2 kHz, 1.1mT at 20 kHz and 0.11 mT at 60 kHz. The assays of mutagenicity, co-mutagenicity and gene conversion were carried out for the three MF exposure conditions. For the mutagenicity tests, four strains of S. typhimurium (TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537) and two strains of E. coli (WP2 uvrA, WP2 uvrA/pKM101) were selected to cover a wide spectrum of point mutation. For co-mutagenicity tests, the authors used four sensitive test strains (TA98, TA100, WP2 uvrA, WP2 uvrA/pKM101), and five chemical mutagens, BH (hydroxyl radical precursor), AF2 and ENNG (DNA reactive reagents), BaP and 2AA (DNA reactive promutagens which were activated metabolically by rat S9mix). For the gene conversion tests, the authors used the yeast test strain, S. cereviciae XD83. The effects on the repair system of DNA damage caused by UV radiation were also tested. In statistical analysis for all above genotoxicity tests, neither significant nor reproducible difference was found between exposed and unexposed control groups. These results indicate that the IF MFs did not have mutagenic or co-mutagenic potentials for the chemical mutagens in the experi- mental conditions. These results also indicate that the IF MFs did not induce gene conversion and did not affect DNA damage repair system in eukaryotic cells. Nakasono et al. [2008a] [2010a] [2010b] also investigated the effects of the intermediate frequency (IF) magnetic fields (MFs) on micronucleus formation in a mammalian cell line. The Chinese hamster V79 cell was chosen to estimate the effects of the MF exposure on micronucleus formation and DNA damage repair caused by mitomycin C (MMC). The V79 cells were exposed to MFs of 0.91 mTrms at 2 kHz, 1.1mTrms at 20 kHz or 0.11mTrms at 60 kHz, for 24h in 5% CO2. In statistical analysis, neither significant nor reproducible difference was found between the micronucleus formation rates for all MF exposure conditions. To examine the effect on DNA damage, V79 cells were exposed to MMC with/without above three MF conditions, which potentiate micronucleus formation. Some statistically significant differences were found between the rates for all MF exposure conditions, however, no reproducible difference was found. These results suggested that the strong IF MFs used in this study did not induce micronucleus formation and did not affect DNA damage by MMC or DNA damage repair system in mammalian cells. Nakasono et al. [2009] [2010a] [2010b] investigated the effects of the IF MFs on genotoxicity in Mouse Lymphoma Assay (MLA). The L5178Y tk+/- -3.7.2c cells were exposed the IF MF of 0.91mT at 2 kHz, 1.1mT at 20 kHz or 0.11 mT at 60 kHz. In statistical analysis, neither significant nor reproducible difference in the mutation frequencies was found between exposure and control groups under the all MF exposure conditions. To examine the effects on DNA damage, the cells were exposed to each MF with MMS that potentiates mutation. In statistical analysis, neither significant nor reproducible difference in the mutation frequencies was found between exposure and control groups under the all MF exposure conditions. The strong, sinusoidal IF MFs at 2 kHz (0.91 mT), 20 kHz (1.1 mT) or 60 kHz (0.11 mT) did not have genotoxic or promotion potentials by in vitro tests.

 

K1.4 RF Electromagnetic Field and Microwaves

K1.4.1 In Vivo Studies

Masuda et al. studied whether albumin leakage and dark neurons were present in rat brains 14 and 50 days after a single 2-h exposure to a 915 MHz electro- magnetic field [Masuda, 2009]. The whole-body average specific absorption rates of 0, 0.02, 0.2 and 2.0 W/kg in TEM cells for 2 h were studied. No albumin immunoreactivity was observed in the exposed groups. Dark neurons were rarely present with any statistically significant difference between exposed and sham exposed animals. This study thus failed to confirm the results of Salford et al. (Environ. Health Perspect. 111, 881-883, 2003).

Ogawa et al. studied whether gestational exposure to an EMF targeting the head region, similar to that from cellular phones, might affect embryogenesis in rats [Ogawa, et al., 2009]. A 1.95 GHz wideband code division multiple access (W- CDMA) signal, which is one applied for the International Mobile Telecommuni- cation 2000 (IMT-2000) system and used for the freedom of mobile multi- media access (FOMA), was employed for exposure for gestational days 7-17. The exposure was performed for 90 min/day in the morning. The spatial average SAR for individual brains was designed to be 0.67 and 2.0 W/kg with peak brain SARs of 3.1 and 7.0 W/kg for low and high exposures, respectively, and a whole-body average SAR less than 0.4 W/kg so as not to cause thermal effects due to tem- perature elevation. There were no differences in maternal body weight gain. No adverse effects of EMF exposure were observed on any reproductive and embryo- toxic parameters such as number of live, dead or resorbed embryos, placental weights, sex ratios, weights or external, visceral or skeletal abnormalities of live fetuses.

Takahashi, et al., investigated effects of whole-body exposure to 2.1 GHz radio frequency EMF on the rat fetus. The data did not reveal any adverse effects of exposure to a 2.14 GHz W-CDMA signal for 20 h/day. Thus none of the experimental findings demonstrated any consistent adverse biological effects of whole body exposure to the electromagnetic field on gestation and lactation in either dams or F1 rats or in the F2 offspring [Takahashi, et al., 2009].

Salama et al. investigated the effect of exposure to electromagnetic radiation emitted from the mobile phone on sperm motility using the adult rabbit as a model [Salama, 2009]. Rabbits were exposed to radio frequency emitted from a mobile phone (900 MHz) kept in standby mode and positioned adjacent to the genitalia for 8 h daily for 12 weeks. A significant drop in both fructose levels and number of motile sperms was observed in the phone group at the 10th week. However, no correlation was found between the two values. The stress control animals showed a similar but significantly less decline in motility. In conclusion, the pulsed radio frequency emitted by the mobile phone kept in the standby position longitudinally affected sperm motility and fructose but not citrate levels in rabbit semen.

Salama et al. studied the accumulating effects of exposure to electromagnetic radiation emitted by a conventional mobile phone (standby position) on the testicular function and structure [Salama et al., 2010]. Rabbits were exposed to radio frequency emitted from the mobile phone (800 MHz) in a standby position opposite to that of testes for 8 h daily for 12 weeks. A drop in the sperm concentration appeared in the phone group at week 6. This became statistically significant at week 8, compared with the two control (stress and ordinary) groups. Motile sperm population showed similarity amongst the three study groups until week 10 when it declined significantly, and thereafter in the phone and stress control groups, with more significant decline in the phone animals. Histological examination showed also a significant decrease in the diameter of seminiferous tubules in the phone group vs. the stress and ordinary controls. In conclusion, low intensity pulsed radio frequency emitted by a conventional mobile phone kept in the standby position could affect the testicular function and structure in the adult rabbit.

Yamashita et al. elucidated the possible effects of short-term exposure to a 1439 MHz electromagnetic field employing time division multiple access (TDMA), which is the basis of the Japanese Personal Digital Cellular system, on estrogenic activity in rats [Yamashita et al., 2010]. Rats were exposed for 4 h per day on three consecutive days to the 1439 MHz TDMA signal that produced 5.5-6.1 and 0.88-0.99 W/kg average SARs in the brain and the whole body, respectively. The uterine wet mass and serum estradiol level significantly increased in the 17 beta- estradiol injected group, while there were no differences among the other groups. Although negative effects of long-term electromagnetic field exposure must be thoroughly investigated before a final conclusion can be reached, our results do not support the assumption that the high frequency electromagnetic field used in cellular phones exerts estrogenic activity.

Tanaka et al. investigated the effect of pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) current on mechanical allodynia induced with resiniferatoxin (RTX) in rats [Tanaka, 2010]. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received a single intraperitoneal injection of RTX (200 microg/kg). Rats in group S(2) were assigned to receive PRF current to the right sciatic nerve for 2 minutes 1 week after RTX treatment; rats in group M(2), PRF current for 2 minutes 3 weeks after RTX treatment; rats in group L(2), PRF current for 2 minutes 5 weeks after RTX treatment; rats in group S(4), PRF current for 4 minutes 1 week after RTX treatment; rats in group S(6), PRF current for 6 minutes 1 week after RTX treatment; and rats in group S(0), no PRF current was delivered. In groups S(2), S(4), S(6), and M(2), the ipsilateral paw withdrawal thresholds significantly increased. A statistically significant difference was detected between the PRF-treated and PRF-untreated hindpaws. The ipsilateral-contralateral paw withdrawal thresholds after PRF procedures in group S(2) were significantly higher than those in groups M(2) and L(2). Between groups M(2) and L(2), significant differences were found 1, 2, 4, and 5 weeks after PRF procedures. The ipsilateral-contralateral paw withdrawal thresholds in group S(6) were significantly higher than those in groups S(2) and S(4) 5 weeks after PRF procedures. No significant difference was found between groups S(2) and S(4) at any time. After PRF procedures, no difference in the withdrawal latency after heat stimulation and no motor disturbance were observed at any time in all groups. In conclusions, PRF treatment was more effective when applied in the early stages of mechanical allodynia (1 week) in rats. Increased exposure time to PRF current from 2 to 6 minutes showed a significant anti- allodynic effect without motor impairment. They propose the application of PRF current for 6 minutes adjacent to the nerve as soon as possible when allodynia appears.

A 1.95 GHz wide-band code division multiple access (W-CDMA) signal, which is used for the freedom of mobile multimedia access (FOMA), was employed for whole body exposure for 5 hours per day, 7 days a week for 5 weeks. Whole-body average specific absorption rates (SAR) for individuals were designed to be 0.4 and 0.08 W/kg respectively. There were no differences in body weight gain or weights of the testis, epididymis, seminal vesicles, and prostate among the groups. The number of sperm in the testis and epididymis were not decreased in the electromagnetic field (EMF) exposed groups, and, in fact, the testicular sperm count was significantly increased with the 0.4 SAR. Abnormalities of sperm motility or morphology and the histological appearance of seminiferous tubules, including the stage of the spermatogenic cycle, were not observed. Thus, under the present exposure conditions, no testicular toxicity was evident.

Hirota, et al., investigated direct observation of microcirculatory parameters in rat brain using cranial window technique to estimate effects of local exposure to radio-frequency electromagnetic field [Hirota, et al., 2009a].

 

K.1.4.2 In Vitro Studies

Hirose et al. studied the effects of low-level radiofrequency (RF) fields from mobile radio base stations employing the International Mobile Telecommunication 2000 (IMT-2000) cellular system to test the hypothesis that modulated RF fields act to induce phosphorylation and overexpression of heat shock protein hsp27 [Hirose, 2007]. Human glioblastoma A172 cells were exposed to Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (W-CDMA) radiation at SARs of 80 and 800 mW/kg for 2-48 h, and continuous wave (CW) radiation at 80 mW/kg for 24 h. Human IMR-90 fibroblasts from fetal lungs were exposed to W-CDMA at 80 and 800 mW/kg for 2 or 28 h, and CW at 80 mW/kg for 28 h. No significant differences in the expression levels of phosphorylated hsp27 at serine 82 (hsp27 [pS82]) were observed between the test groups exposed to W-CDMA or CW signal and the sham-exposed negative controls, as evaluated immediately after the exposure periods by bead-based multiplex assays and no noticeable differences in the gene expression of hsps were observed between the test groups and the negative controls by DNA Chip analysis. Our results confirm that exposure to low-level RF field up to 800 mW/kg does not induce phosphorylation of hsp27 or expression of hsp gene family.

   Koyama et al. examined the effects of 2.45 GHz electromagnetic fields at SARs from 5 to 200 W/kg on bacterial mutations and the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) gene mutations [Koyama et al., 2007]. Bacteria were exposed to high-frequency electromagnetic fields (HFEMF) for 30 min in Ames test and CHO-K1 cells were exposed to HFEMF for 2 h in exami- nation of mutations of the HPRT gene. In Ames test, there was no significant difference in the frequency of revertant colonies between sham exposure and HFEMF-exposed groups. In examination of mutations of the HPRT gene, we detected a combination effect of simultaneous exposure to HFEMF and bleomycin at the respective SARs. A statistically significant difference was observed between the cells exposed to HFEMF at the SAR of 200 W/kg. Cells treated with the combination of HFEMF at SARs from 50 to 200 W/kg and bleomycin exhibited increased HPRT mutations. As the exposure to HFEMF induced an increase in temperature, these increases of mutation frequency may be a result of activation of bleomycin by heat. We consider that the increase of mutation frequency may be due to a thermal effect.

Hirose et al. conducted a large-scale in vitro study focusing on low-level radio- frequency (RF) fields from mobile radio base stations employing the International Mobile Telecommunication 2000 (IMT-2000) cellular system to test the hypothesis that modulated RF fields affect malignant transformation or other cellular stress responses [Hirose, 2008]. BALB/3T3 cells were continuously exposed to 2.1425 GHz W-CDMA RF fields at specific absorption rates (SARs) of 80 and 800 mW/kg for 6 weeks and malignant cell transformation was assessed. In addition, 3- methylcholanthrene (MCA)-treated cells were exposed to RF fields in a similar fashion, to assess for effects on tumor promotion. Finally, the effect of RF fields on tumor co-promotion was assessed in cells initiated with MCA and co-exposed to 12-Otetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). No significant differences in trans- formation frequency were observed between the test groups exposed to RF signals and the sham-exposed negative controls in the non-, MCA-, or MCA plus TPA- treated cells. Our studies found no evidence to support the hypothesis that RF fields may affect malignant transformation. Our results suggest that exposure to low-level RF radiation of up to 800 mW/kg does not induce cell transformation, which causes tumor formation.

  Matsui et al. investigated the effects of exposure to RF fields (UMTS/ IMT-2000; 1950 MHz) on micronucleus (MN) formation in HL-60 cells [Matsui et al., 2008]. The experiments were performed, as follows: 1) RF exposure, 2) Sham- exposure, 3) Control groups that were incubated in a conventional incubator, and 4) Positive control groups that were irradiated by X-rays with 1 and 3 Gy. The exposure conditions for the RF field were as follows: 1) SAR; 0.2, 1.0, 1.3, 1.6, 2.0 and 3.0 W/kg for 24 hours, and 2) SAR; 1.3 W/kg for 6, 24 and 72 hours. No significant differences in the frequencies of MN formation were observed in the RF exposure group compared with the sham-exposure and control groups. We did not observed any increase in MN formation by exposure to UMTS/IMT-2000 (1950 MHz) RF field.

Hirose et al. investigated the effect of RF fields on microglial cells in the brain to examine any biological effects on the central nervous system (CNS) induced by 1950 MHz Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (W-CDMA) RF field, which are controlled by the International Mobile Telecommunication-2000 (IMT-2000) cellular system, at specific absorption rates (SARs) of 0.2, 0.8, and 2.0 W/kg for 2 h [Hirose et al., 2010]. Assay samples obtained 24 and 72 h after exposure were processed in a blind manner. Results showed that the percentage of cells positive for major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II was similar between cells exposed to W-CDMA radiation and sham-exposed controls. No statistically significant differences were observed between any of the RF field exposure groups and the sham-exposed controls in percentage of MHC class II positive cells. Further, no remarkable differences in the production of tumor necrosis factor-ƒ¿ (TNF-ƒ¿), interleukin-1ƒÀ (IL-1ƒÀ),@and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were observed between the test groups exposed to W-CDMA signal and the sham- exposed negative controls. These findings suggest that exposure to RF fields up to 2 W/kg does not activate microglial cells in vitro.

Yoshie et. al. investigated thermal tolerance of budding yeast exposed to radio -frequency electromagnetic fields (RFs) under the active temperature regulation evaluating the expression of mRNA relating to stress response in yeast cells [Yoshie et al., 2009]. 50 W/kg SAR of RF was exposed to yeast cells. Incubation temperature was kept at 25‹C. Stress response of yeast cells were analyzed by survival rate after heat treatment at 47 or 48‹C for 5 min and level of gene expression as quantity of mRNA of four stress response genes. The effect on expression of hsp82 in S. cerevisiae following RF exposure (2.45 GHz, 50 W/kg) did not observed in this study. This suggests that stress response pathway regulated by HSF might little respond to RF exposure under the condition in this study.

Narita et al. investigated the influence of a high-frequency electromagnetic field (HFEMF) at 2.45 GHz on neurite outgrowth of PC12VG cells cultured for 7 days after exposure to HFEMF at average specific absorption rates (SARs) of 1 and 10 W/kg for 4h [Narita et al., 2009]. We found that HFEMF exposure slightly inhibited the percentage of neurite-bearing cells. However, at the same time, the average length of all neurites per neurite-bearing cell and the longest neurite length increased by approximately 10% and 5%, respectively. Significant increases in the average length of neurites, the longest neurite length and the percentage of neurite-bearing cells were observed in PC12VG cells cultured in the presence of NGF. These data suggest that exposure to a HFEMF of 2.45 GHz for 4h has no significant effect on neurite outgrowth in PC12VG cells.

Sekijima et al. investigated the mechanisms by which radiofrequency (RF) fields exert their activity, and the changes in both cell proliferation and the gene expression profile in the human cell lines, A172 (glioblastoma), H4 (neuroglioma), and IMR-90 (fibroblasts from normal fetal lung) following exposure to 2.1425 GHz continuous wave (CW) and Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (W-CDMA) RF fields at three field levels [Sekijima et al., 2010]. During the incubation phase, cells were exposed at the specific absorption rates (SARs) of 80, 250, or 800 mW/kg with both CW and W-CDMA RF fields for up to 96 h. Heat shock treat- ment was used as the positive control. No significant differences in cell growth or viability were observed between any test group exposed to W-CDMA or CW radiation and the sham-exposed negative controls. Using the Affymetrix Human Genome Array, only a very small (< 1%) number of available genes (ca. 16,000 to 19,000) exhibited altered expression in each experiment. The results confirm that low-level exposure to 2.1425 GHz CW and W-CDMA RF fields for up to 96 h did not act as an acute cytotoxicant in either cell proliferation or the gene expression profile. These results suggest that RF exposure up to the limit of whole-body average SAR levels as specified in the ICNIRP guidelines is unlikely to elicit a general stress response in the tested cell lines under these conditions.

 

K.1.4.3 Other Studies

Takebayashi et al. used a novel approach for estimating the specific absorption rate (SAR) inside the tumour, taking account of spatial relationships between tumour localisation and intracranial radiofrequency distribution in a case-control study in Japan of brain tumours in relation to mobile phone use [Takebayashi et al., 2008]. Personal interviews were carried out with 88 patients with glioma, 132 with meningioma, and 102 with pituitary adenoma (322 cases in total), and with 683 individually matched controls. All maximal SAR values were below 0.1 Wkg 1, far lower than the level at which thermal effects may occur, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for regular mobile phone users being 1.22 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.63-2.37) for glioma and 0.70 (0.42-1.16) for meningioma. When the maximal SAR value inside the tumour tissue was accounted for in the exposure indices, the overall OR was again not increased and there was no significant trend towards an increasing OR in relation to SAR-derived exposure indices. A non-significant increase in OR among glioma patients in the heavily exposed group may reflect recall bias.

Furubayashi et al. conducted a double-blind, cross-over provocation study to confirm whether subjects with mobile phone related symptoms (MPRS) are more susceptible than control subjects to the effect of electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted from base stations [Furubayashi et al., 2009]. There were four EMF exposure conditions, each of which lasted 30 min: continuous, intermittent, and sham exposure with and without noise. Subjects were exposed to EMF of 2.14 GHz, 10 V/m (W-CDMA), in a shielded room to simulate whole-body exposure to EMF from base stations. The MPRS group did not differ from the controls in their ability to detect exposure to EMF. The two groups did not differ in their responses to real or sham EMF exposure according to any psychological, cognitive or autonomic assessment. In conclusion, we found no evidence of any causal link between hypersensitivity symptoms and exposure to EMF from base stations. Mizuno et al. investigated the effects of the third generation system on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in humans [Mizuno et al., 2009]. They compared effects of the electromagnetic field (EMF) emitted from the Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (W-CDMA) cellular system versus sham control exposure on rCBF in humans after unilateral 30 min EMF exposure. The subtraction analysis revealed no significant rCBF changes caused by the EMF conditions compared with the sham exposure, suggesting that EMF emitted by a third generation mobile phone does not affect rCBF in humans.

Rongen et al. reviewed the effects of exposure to radiofrequency electro- magnetic fields (EMF), specifically related to the use of mobile telephones, on the nervous system in humans [Rongen et al., 2009]. Exposure to a GSM-type signal may result in minor effects on brain activity, but such changes have never been found to relate to any adverse health effects. No consistent significant effects on cognitive performance in adults have been observed. If anything, any effect is small and exposure seems to improve performance. Effects in children did not differ from those in healthy adults. Studies on auditory and vestibular function are more unequivocal: neither hearing nor the sense of balance is influenced by short-term exposure to mobile phone signals. Subjective symptoms over a wide range, including headaches and migraine, fatigue, and skin itches, have been attributed to various radiofrequency sources both at home and at work. However, in provocation studies a causal relation between EMF exposure and symptoms has never been demonstrated. There are clear indications, however, that psychological factors such as the conscious expectation of effect may play an important role in this condition.

Okano et al. investigated whether exposure to a pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic field (pulsed EMF) emitted by a mobile phone has short-term effects on the inhibitory control of saccades [Okano et al., 2010]. A double-blind, counterbalanced crossover study design was employed. They assessed the performance of 10 normal subjects on antisaccade (AS) and cued saccade (CUED) tasks as well as two types of overlap saccade (OL1, OL2) task before and after 30 min of exposure to EMF emitted by a mobile phone or sham exposure. After EMF or sham exposure, we observed a slight but significant shortening of latency in the CUED and OL2 tasks. AS amplitude decreased as well as the saccade velocities in the AS, CUED, and OL1 tasks after exposure. These changes occurred regardless of whether exposure was real or sham. The frequencies of prosaccades in the AS task, saccades to cue in the CUED task, and prematurely initiated saccades in the overlap (OL2) task did not change significantly after real or sham EMF exposure. They concluded that thirty minutes of mobile phone exposure has no significant short-term effect on the inhibitory control of saccades.

Sato., et al. conducted a case-case study of mobile phone use and acoustic neuroma using a self-administered postal questionnaire [Sato et al., 2010]. A total of 1589 cases identified in 22 hospitals throughout Japan were invited to participate, and 787 cases (51%) actually participated. Associations between laterality of mobile phone use prior to the reference dates (1 and 5 years before diagnosis) and tumor location were analyzed. The overall risk ratio was 1.08 (95 % confidence interval (CI), 0.93-1.28) for regular mobile phone use until 1 year before diagnosis and 1.14 (95 % CI, 0.96-1.40) for regular mobile phone use until 5 years before diagnosis. A significantly increased risk was identified for mobile phone use for >20 min/day on average, with risk ratios of 2.74 at 1 year before diagnosis, and 3.08 at 5 years before diagnosis. Cases with ipsilateral combination of tumor location and more frequently used ear were found to have tumors with smaller diameters, suggesting an effect of detection bias. Further- more, analysis of the distribution of left and right tumors suggested an effect of tumor-side-related recall bias for recall of mobile phone use at 5 years before diagnosis. The increased risk identified for mobile phone users with average call duration >20 min/day should be interpreted with caution, taking into account the possibilities of detection and recall biases. However, we could not conclude that the increased risk was entirely explicable by these biases, leaving open the possibility that mobile phone use increased the risk of acoustic neuroma.

 

K1.5 Other higher frequencies and other studies.

K1.5.1Millimeter wave

Kojima et al [2009c] reported about thermal ocular injuries by irradiated to 60 GHz electromagnetic field in rabbit eye. Three different antenna systems such as a horn antenna and two lens antennas (6 and 9 mm diameter; phi6, phi9) were used. Morphological changes were assessed by slit-lamp microscopy. The most reproducible injuries without concurrent eyelid edema and corneal desiccation were achieved using the phi6 lens antenna: irradiation for 6 min led to an elevation of the corneal surface temperature (reaching 54.2 } 0.9 degrees C) plus corneal edema and epithelial cell loss and the three types of millimeter-wave antennas can cause thermal injuries of varying types and levels. The thermal effects induced by millimeter-waves can apparently penetrate below the surface of the eye.

 

K1.6 Contact currents

Kamimura et al [2008, 2009, 2010a] reported the study of tracking methods to monitor threshold of contact currents for perception. Some differences were found in the perception threshold for ELF, 100 kHz and VLF band currents while no difference was observed in 300 kHz and 1 MHz currents.

 

K2 Dosimetry

K2.1 Numerical dosimetry using voxel human models

Nagaoka and his colleagues have developed various voxel human models based on Japanese MRI. They have applied Free-Form Deformation (FFD) technique to voxel human models to develop child models based on an adult voxel model [Nagaoka 2008b] or to change the posture of a voxel human model [Nagaoka 2008a]. Recently they have also developed new techniques to change the posture of the voxel human models without anatomical knowledge [Nagaoka 2009b].

Dosimetry of pregnant woman models is one of the most important themes in EMF safety as described in 2006 WHO Research Agenda. Chiba University and NICT have developed 26-weeks pregnant woman model and applied it for numerical calculation of SAR and temperature due to a VHF-band professional transceiver [Akimoto et al., 2008a, 2008b, 2009a, 2009b, 2009c, 2010a, 2010b, and 2010c]. Togashi et al., have studied on the SAR in the pregnant woman model due to cellular phones [Togashi et al., 2008]. Kawai et al., have also reported SAR characteristics of the embryo in a pregnant woman model during early stage and found that the maximum averaged SAR of the embryo with the incident power density of the ICNIRP reference level is lower than the basic restriction, i.e., 0.08 W/kg, from 10 MHz to 1.5 GHz [Kawai et al., 2009]..

Hirata et al., have reported the temperature elevation due to human-body exposure to RF fields and compared between adults, children and laboratory animals [Hirata et al., 2008c, 2009d]. They also investigated on the averaging mass for local SAR and the temperature elevation due to EMF from a dipole antenna [Hirata et al., 2008d and 2009e]. Onishi et al., have numerically estimated the SAR and temperature elevation in a Japanese human model due to the use of body-worn wireless devices [Onishi et al., 2009a, 2010a, and 2010b].

Furthermore Hirata et al., have improved thermal parameters used for numerical simulations of temperature elevation and reported the importance of time variation of blood temperature [Hirata et al., 2009a]. They have also proposed conservative models for whole-body averaged SAR based on the numerical calculations using the voxel human models [Hirata et al., 2008e].

Various characteristics of whole-body averaged SAR which is used for the most important basic restriction for RF region have been investigated. Polarization of the EM wave have been reported as the important factor for human-body SAR and concluded that the horizontal polarization is the worst case at 2 GHz compared with the vertical polarization which is assumed for the worst condition at lower frequencies [Hirata et al., 2009b and 2009f]. Hirata et al., have also proposed the estimation formula for the whole-body averaged SAR for the resonant frequency region [Hirata et al., 2010b].

Whole-body averaged SAR of children has been great concerns as ICNIRP State- ment has pointed out in 2009. In Japan, Nagaoka et al., have reported the whole- body averaged SAR of children [Nagaoka 2008a and 2009a].

Human SAR characteristics in complex environments have been investigated. Simba et al., have reported the effect of SAR enhancement or passive exposure in an elevator where multiple reflection causes hot spots of EMF [Simba, et al., 2009a and 2009b]. Wang, et al., have investigated human-body exposure to EMF when using wireless body-area network (WBAN) devices with UWB signals [Wang J., et al., 2009; Wang Q., et al., 2009a and 2009b]. Arima et al., have developed a new modeling method for FDTD calculation of a human voxel model standing on lossy ground plane using the surface impedance technique [Arima et al., 2009].

Applications of millimeter wave have recently increased while the needs for accurate dosimetry have also been growing. Kanezaki et al., have conducted a fundamental investigation using a multi-layer flat model of human skin and subcutaneous tissues exposed to millimeter wave. They have reported the dependence of the SAR and temperature elevation due to the millimeter wave exposure on the electrical and thermal parameters [Kanezaki et al., 2009 and 2010].

Numerical dosimetry using voxel human models have also been applied for EMF dosimetry in ELF frequency region. Hirata et al., have conducted the detailed calculation of induced current and in-situ electric field strength in a human body exposed to ELF magnetic field [Hirata et al., 2009c]. This study is referred in the revision of the ICNIRP guidelines issued in 2010. The averaging volume for in-situ electric field, used for the basic restrictions in the ICNIRP guidelines, has also been investigated [Hirata et al., 2010c; Takano, et al., 2010]. Inter-laboratory comparison has also been conducted among Japanese research group [Hirata et al., 2010e; Yamazaki, et al., 2009]. It is found from the comparison that differences in the maximal and 99th percentile value of the in situ electric field were less than 30 and 10 % except for the results of one group and that differences in the current density averaged over 1 cm2 of the central nerve tissue are 10 % or less except for the results of one group. Kamimura has proposed high-speed calculation procedure for ELF dosimetry [Kamimura 2010b]. Yamazaki has reported a calculation of induced electric field and current for human-body exposure to magnetic field in the context of compliance testing [Yamazaki 2010].

Tarao et al., have conducted numerical calculations of internal body resistance at power frequency and compared with experimental measurements. They found similar trend in electric potential distribution but significant difference in absolute resistance values between the numerical calculations and the experimental measurements.

Nagai et al., have estimated in situ electric field causing electro-stimulation from conductor contact of charged human using a dispersive FDTD model and the indices used in international guidelines [Nagaoi et al., 2010].

Intermediate frequency region (300 Hz to 10 MHz) has also been great concerns in dosimetry research fields because of extensive growing new wireless systems operating in this frequency region, such as EAS/RFID, IH cooking systems, and wireless power transmission systems. Suzuki et al., have conducted numerical estimation of induced current density and in-situ electric field strength in the pregnant woman model exposed to internal frequency magnetic field [Suzuki et al., 2009].

 

K2.2 Compliance methods for EMF applications to EMF safety guidelines and exposure assessment

In order to evaluate the compliance of EMF applications with EMF safety guidelines, we need to estimate internal dose of a human body exposed to EMF, i.e., SAR or induced (in-situ) electric field strength, or incident electromagnetic field strength as reference levels described in safety guidelines. The research group of NTT DoCoMo and their colleagues has extensively studied on the evaluation methods for SAR by a cellular phone and for E-field radiated from a base station antenna.

Onishi with NTT DoCoMo also joined an international research group on the evaluation method of the compliance of multiple RF sources [Faraone, et al., 2009]. Higashiyama and his colleagues have proposed a RF field measurement method around W-CDMA base stations and reported detailed characteristics of E- field distribution around the base station [Higashiyama, et al., 2009a, 2009b, 2010a, 2010b, and 2010c]. Iyama et al., have proposed a novel SAR measurement method using multiple probes embedded in a flat phantom [Iyama et al., 2008a and 2008b; Kiminami 2008a and 2008b; Onishi 2008a and 2009b]. They also developed three-axial electro-optic (EO) SAR probe [Iyama et al., 2009a; Kiminami 2008c]. A novel SAR measurement procedure for multiple-antenna transmitter such as MIMO, which has recently been introduced into advanced wireless devices to realize high-speed data transmission, has been proposed [Iyama et al., 2009b, 2010a, and 2010b; Onishi 2008b].

The researchers of National Institute of Information and Communications (NICT) have also conducted researches on the compliance procedures. Simple and fast measurement methods using a novel flat phantom have been proposed [Hamada, et al., 2009a and 2009b]. They also studied on a novel calibration method for SAR probes using a small standard antenna in phantom liquid in cooperation with Niigata University [Watanabe T., et al., 2009; Ishii, et al., 2008].

Exposure assessment or experimental measurement of electric and magnetic field strength in low frequency region have also been investigated in Japan. Sato et al., with his colleagues of Utsunomiya University have developed a free scanning method for measuring magnetic field using a magnetic tracker [Sato K et al., 2009 and 2010]. Tanaka, et al., with his colleagues of Nagoya Institute of Technology has reported frequency spectrum of electromagnetic fields leaked form household appliance from 40 to 800 Hz [Tanaka K., et al., 2009]. Hosono et al., have developed array sensor system for intermediate-frequency magnetic field radiated from IH hob or EAS/RFID [Hosono et al., 2010].

Very wide-frequency EMF measurement around the Large Helical Device (LHD) has also been reported [Uda, et al., 2009]. It is shown that usual leakage of the static magnetic field strength was less than 0.1 mT, that the leakage of the electric and magnetic fields from the Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) plasma heating sources of 25-100 MHz were less than occupational regulation levels, and that high-strength extremely-low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic levels were measured near the magnetic coil power supply boxes.

 

K2.3 Development of exposure setups and dosimetry for medical and biological studies.

Arima et al., have developed a local-exposure setup for the head of a rat. Applying this setup to a cranial window rat, real-time observation can be available. They have evaluated SAR of the rat fixed in the setup and found that the localized head exposure similar to the case of the mobile-phone use in the proximity of a human head can be realized [Usui et al., 2010]. Wang, et al., have developed in vivo exposure setup simulating whole-body exposure to RF signals from base stations [Wang et al., 2008a and 2008c] and partial-body exposure to RF signal from cellular phones [Wang et al., 2008b] for pregnant rats.

Wake et al., has developed the estimation method for epidemiological studies on cellular-phone use and brain cancer, i.e., INTERPHONE study led by WHO/ IARC, [Cardis et al., 2008; Varsier et al., 2008a, 2008b and 2008c; Wake et al., 2009]. Especially the development of a novel estimation procedure for actual dose around brain cancer region based on the categorization of cellular phones used by subjects provided more reliable estimation of the relationship between the brain cancer and cellular phone use for Japanese epidemiological study [Takebayashi, et al., 2008].

Hirata et al., have studied on temperature elevation of laboratory animals due to RF exposure. They found good agreement between the experimental measure- ment and the numerically calculation with optimized thermal parameters [Hirata 2008a and 2008b]. They have also investigated the thresholds for thermal stress for 2.45-GHz microwave exposure in rabbits [Hirata 2010d].

Kozai et al., have conducted fine resolution E-field measurement from milli- meter-wave lens antenna which have been used for thermal sensation human studies or ocular effects of rabbit eyes [Kozai et al., 2009; Kouzai et al., 2010]. Based on the measurement, they have reconstructed the millimeter-wave beam radiation from the lens antenna with plane-wave spectrum method and numerically calculated the SAR in the human skin.

IH cooking systems, RFID, EAS, wireless power transmission systems and so on operate in intermediate frequency (IF; 300 Hz to 10 MHz) region. Health effects of IF EMF are also important topics in Japan because those systems are very popular in public environment. Fujita et al., have developed an exposure setup for in vitro studies on biological investigation in intermediate-frequency region. The system can realize 6.25 mT (rms) at 23 kHz with uniformity within 5 %. Ikehata et al., have also developed an in vitro exposure setup for simulating the magnetic field (3.9 mT at 20 kHz) exposure from IH cooking systems with high-performance temperature control system (37}1Ž). The research group has also developed a high-performance magnetic field generator at 20 kHz [Kogure et al., 2009]. Shigemitsu et al., have developed an exposure system for in vivo studies on 20 kHz magnetic-field exposure [Shigemitsu et al., 2009a].

 

K2.4 Mechanism between biological tissues and EMF.

Koyama et al., has conducted in vivo measurements for complex permittivities of human skin using time-domain reflectometry (TDR) method from 300 MHz to 6 GHz [Koyama et al., 2010]. Sakai et al., have recently reported complex permitti- vities of biological tissues and organs up to 50 GHz and also proposed a temperature-compensation technique based on the temperature characteristics of the water relaxation mechanism [Sakai T., et al., 2010].

Sekino, et al., have developed a magnetic resonance imaging of electric properties in living bodies [Sekino et al., 2007 and 2008b]. Recently they also measured low-frequency conductivity tensor of rat brain tissue [Sekino et al., 2009b; Imae et al., 2008].

Cespedes et al., have investigated the effects of radio frequency magnetic fields on iron release and uptake from and in cage proteins. They reported the radio frequency magnetic fields of 1 MHz and 30 ƒÊT can increase the release of iron ion from cage proteins up to a factor of 3 [Cespedes, et al., 2009]. They also investigated the mechanism of this effect using Raman spectroscopy [Cespedes, et al., 2010].

Hinou et al., have investigated the effect of microwave (2.45 GHz) radiation on glycosylation promoted by solid super acid in supercritical carbon dioxide. They reported that microwave irradiation without alteration of the temperature of the reaction solution enhanced reaction yield when aliphatic acceptors were employed while no enhancement was observed when a phenolic acceptor was employed [Hinou, et al., 2009].

 

K2.5 Dosimetry for medical application (see also K3)

Temperature elevation of a human body in a MRI system is required to be estimated, especially in a high-magnetic-field-strength MRI system introduced recently. Kikuchi et al., have studied detailed SAR and temperature elevation of a pregnant woman in a MRI system [Kikuchi 2008a, 2008b, 2009a, 2009b, 2009b, and 2010]. They found that in a thermal equilibrium state, the temperature elevations in the intrinsic tissues of the woman and fetal tissues were 0.85 and 0.61 ‹C, respectively, at a whole-body averaged specific absorption rate of 2.0 W/kg, which is the restriction value of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) for the normal operating mode although the maximum temperature elevation exceeded the recommendation described in ICNIRP statement on MRI issued in 2004.

Saito and his colleagues with Chiba University have investigated the application of the thermograph method to the temperature elevation in a human body exposed to high-strength RF fields radiated from a birdcage coil of 3-T MRI system [Kawamura et al., 2009; Saito K., et al., 2009]. Sekino et al., with The University of Tokyo have also conducted FDTD simulation of RF electromagnetic field and signal inhomogeneities in ultra-high-field MRI system [Sekino et al., 2008a].

Microwave radiometry is a promised technique for future medical treatment such as noninvasive temperature measurement during hypothermal neural rescue for newborns. Sugiura, et al., have developed high-accurate radiometry system with five-band microwave signals [Sugiura et al., 2010]. Hirata et al., have investigated the validity of inverse coupler to improve temperature resolution of one-band microwave radiometer for non-invasive brain temperature monitoring [Hirata et al., 2010a].

Higaki et al., have evaluated the SAR and current density during the use of energy transmission for artificial hearts and compared with the ICNIRP guidelines [Higaki et al., 2010]. Sato et al., have investigated the heating level due to a prototype charger system for a cardiac pacemaker and also developed a wireless communication system in real-time internal dose measurement system [Sato T et al., 2008; Sato F., 2009]. Watanabe, et al., have reported SAR enhance- ment in a human body with an implantable pacemaker using a cellular phone due to the reflection at the metal boundary of the household of the pacemaker [Watanabe et al., 2010].

 

K3 Biomedical Applications

K3.1 Medical treatment

Hyperthermia has been one of the most important research fields on medical application of EMF. Prof. Ito with Chiba University and his colleagues have extensively studied on MW hyperthermia and coagulation with coaxial antennas [Saito K., et al., 2008a, 2008b, 2008c, 2010a, 2010b, 2010c, and 2010d]. They reported five clinical cases (four cases were supraclavicular or inguinal node metastasis and one was a soft palate primary lesion) [Aoyagi, et al., 2008] and experimental evaluation of thermal treatment of bile duct carcinoma [Tsubouchi, et al., 2010]. They also developed a circular loop antenna combined with high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment system [Ishikawa, et al., 2010a and 2010b]. They furthermore developed an external microwave hyperthermia system for treatment of pleural metastasis in orthotopic lung cancer model and evaluated the system in vitro and in vivo [Motomura, et al., 2010].

Watanabe Y., et al., have developed a second-generation radiofrequency ablation system. They used MgFe2O4 needles and introduced alternating magnetic field for human cancer therapy [Watanabe Y., et al., 2009].

Prof. Matsuki with Tohoku University and his colleagues have also studied on the hyperthermia with magnetic field. They developed a novel method called as soft-heating medhot in which a small elongated element is implanted inside the body and heated by strong magnetic field excited by a coil [Furiya et al., 2009]. They studied on the magnetic particle heated by incident magnetic field [Takura, et al., 2008a, 2008b, and 2009]. Other research group has also investigated the heat ability of the magnetic nanoparticles under AC magnetic field for cancer therapy [Motoyama, et al., 2008].

Matsumine et al., have reviewed the difficulty of the application of hyper- thermia to bone tissues because of their deep location from the body surface and low conductivity. In order to overcome these difficulties, they developed a novel hyperthermia treatment for bone metastases using magnetic materials [Matsumine, et al., 2011].

Takahashi et al., have applied MW hyperthermia to osteoarthritis, one of the most frequency muscleoskeltal disorders in the elderly population, and reported that the MW heating can increase Hsp7 which protects the cartilage and inhibits the apoptosis of chondrocytes [Takahashi et al., 2009].

Baba et al., have studied on medical treatment of electrical stimulation to ischemia stroke. They conducted electric cortical stimulation (0 to 200 ƒÊA at 0 to 50 Hz) of adult Wistra rats and found that the electrical stimulation abrogated the ischemia-associated increase in apoptotic cells in the injured cortex [Baba et al., 2009]. Kato et al., have developed a novel functional electrical stimulation method using small implanted stimulators under the skin at a depth of 10-20 mm and a magnetic coupling system to transport stimulus energy and signals noninvasively. They developed a magnetic connective dual resonance (MCDR) antenna with two resonance circuit for the magnetic coupling system [Kato, et al., 2009].

Nakajima et al., have studied on the effect of electroacupuncture on the heal- ing process of tibia fracture in a rat model. They used the electroacupuncture (50 Hz, 20 ƒÊA, 20 min) and reported that the treatment accelerated bone healing [Nakajima et al., 2010].

Transcranial magnetic stimulation has been developed and studied by Prof. Ueno and his colleague long time. Recently Tsuyama et al., investigated the effects of coil parameters on the stimulation area by transcranial magnetic stimu- lation system [Tsuyama, et al., 2009].

Wireless power transmission systems for implanted medical devices have been investigated. Prof. Matsuki and his colleagues have studied on a contactless power transmission for implantable medical devices [Tokuhara, et al., 2008]. They pointed out that the eddy current (loss) caused by the metal case of the medical devices for magnetically energy coupling must be reduced [Komai, et al., 2009]. Same research group has also developed a desktop contactless power station system using spiral coils [Miyamori, et al,, 2009]. MW is also used for the wireless power transmission. Kumagai et al., have developed a small 915 MHz antenna for wireless power transmission for medical applications [Kumagai et al., 2010].

Takura, et al., have studied thermosensitive magnetic powder that was coated with Ag-paste for cancer therapy [Takura et al., 2008a].

 

K3.2 Medical diagnosis

Hoshino et al., have reported detailed measurement and analysis of magnet- cardiograms (MCG) and body surface potential maps (BSPMs) using 39-channnel superconducting quantum interface device (SQUID) [Hoshino, et al., 2009].

Kotani et al., have investigated measurement methods for respiratory sinus arrhythmia as a selective index of cardiac vagal activity under the condition of body motion (keyboard typing and mental arithmetic with touching panel). They reported that elastic chest band is suitable under the quiet condition, while thermistor is suitable under the condition of body motion [Kotani, et al., 2007]. They also investigated the multiple effects of respiration on cardiovascular variability in different postures by analyzing respiratory sinus arrhythmia and respiratory-related blood pressure variations [Kotani , et al., 2008].

Sekino, et al., reported improvement method to detect transient changes in magnetic resonance signal intensity by neuronal electrical activities [Sekino, et al., 2009a]

Sekino et al., have studied on improvement of MRI system with an off- centered distribution of homogeneous magnetic field zone using superconducting magnet. They fabricated the sytem for a functional-MRI-based Benton visual retention test [Sekino, et al., 2010].

Shinohe, et al., have developed X-ray internal dosimeter using a wireless communication system similar to RFID. A signal transmission small coil with X-ray detector (CdTe) is implanted in a human body and 3-MHz magnetic field is used to read the information noninvasively [Shinohe, et al., 2008 and 2009]. An equivalent human model has been developed for medical applications by Prof. Ito and his colleagues with Chiba University [Uno, et al., 2010]. The same research group have also developed a dynamic phantom for evaluation for breath detection Doppler radar [Yonebayashi, et al., 2010a and 2010b]

Sugiura et al., have developed and improved the multi-frequency microwave radiometer system for measuring deep brain temperature in new born infants [Sugiura, et al., 2009].

Hayami et al., reported magnetic field variation of fiber loss on a peripheral nerve. The loss of nerve fibers, which is observed in some neuropathies, is considered as the cause of low amplitude and slow conduction of the wave [Hayami, et al., 2008].

Sann et al., investigated discriminating multiple source components of magnetocephalogram by time-frequency analysis [Sano, et al., 2009].

Sato, et al., reported variations and differences in evoked EEG by transcranial magnetic stimulation [Sato,et al., 2008].

 

K3.3 Neuronal circuit development in vitro

Prof. Jimbofs group is active in artificial neuronal circuit development in vitro and studies its behavior. Goto, et al., developed gMicropipette drawingh technique to develop micropatterning of neurite outgrowth and recording its electrical activity [Goto, et al., 2009, 2010a, 2010b]. Hattori, et al., reported direction control of information transfer between neuronal cells using asymmetric three- dimensional microstructure [Hattori, et al., 2008]. Hirota, et al., reported reconstruction of visual information processing system using retina cells and superior colliculus in vitro [Hirota, et al., 2008, 2009b]. Moriguchi, et al., investigated site-selective stimulation of neuronal networks that was constructed on micro-patterning electrode and recording of electric activity of the neuronal circuits [Moriguchi, et al., 2008a, 2008b, 2008c, 2008d]. Suzurikawa, et al., investigated methods for stimulation of cultured neurons using light-addressable electrode with hydrogenated amorphous silicon and low-conductive passivation layer [Suzurikawa, et al., 2007a, 2007b, 2008a, 2008b, 2008c, 2009]. Takayama, et al., used P19 embryonal carcinoma cells to establish functional neuronal network on microelectrode array and induced ensemble calcium oscillations within net- work [Takeyama, et al., 2007, 2008a, 2008b, 2008c, 2009a, 2009b, 2009c, 2009d]. In addition, they showed interaction of hybrid in vitro neuronal network by co-culture of P19 cell-derived neuronal networks and mouse cortical networks [Takeyama et al., 2010a, 2010b, 2010c]. Takeuchi, et al., investigated develop- mental changes in spontaneous beating rhythm of cardiac myocytes [Takeuchi, et al., 2008]. They developed semi-separated co-culture system for electrical stimulation and extracellular recording of sympathetic neuron and cardiomyocyte to investigate their relationship [Takeuchi, et al., 2009a, 2009b, 2010a, 2010b, 2010c, 2010d]. Tonomura, et al., applied MEMS device for electrophysiological measurement with micro channel array for cellular network analysis and parallel multipoint recording of aligned and cultured neurons [Tonomura, et al., 2007, 2008].

 

K3.4 Medical instrumentation

Abe, et al., developed high throughout automated bioscreening system using magnetic beads to elucidate molecular mechanisms of anticancer drugs [Abe, et al., 2009]..

 

K3.5 Electromagnetic interference (EMI) of implanted medical devices.

EMI with a bipolar pacemaker in a patient with sick sinus syndrome by an IH rice cooker has also been investigated [Nagatomo, 2009].

Watanabe et al., have investigated the interference voltage of a pacemaker embedded in a human phantom, which has been used for experimental investigation promoted by Ministry of Internal Affair and Communications, by a cellular phone model [Watanabe R et al., 2009]. They found good agreement between the numerical calculation and the experimental measurement.

Kitagawa et al., have investigated the E-field distribution inside of the elevator with humans with cellular phones [Kitagawa et al., 2009]. The estimated data can be used for risk assessment of the EMI of implantable cardiac pace- makers.

 

Acknowledgements

Editors are grateful to Dr. Sakurai T of Kyoto University and Dr. Nakasono S of Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, for their contribution in preparation of this manuscript.

 

 

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Iyama T., Kimianmi K. and Onishi T. [2009a],gApplicability of Three-Axis Electro- Optic (EO) Probe for Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) Measurement,h IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E92-B (4), pp. 1414 - 1417.

Iyama T. and Onishi T. [2009b], gSAR measurement procedure for multi-antenna transmitters,h EMCf09/Kyoto, 21S4-2, July.

Iyama T. and Onishi T. [2010a], gApplicability of SAR estimation method based on 2-D scanned E-fields to determine maximum average SAR for multi-antenna transmitters,h Proceedings of the Bioelectromagnetics Society the 32nd Annual Meeting, P-A-26, June.

Iyama T. and Onishi T. [2010b], gMaximum average SAR measurement procedure for multi-antenna transmitters,h IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E93-B (7), pp. 1821 - 1825.

Jimbo Y. [2007], gMEA-based recording of neuronal activity in vitro.h Arch. Ita. Biol. vol.145, pp. 289-297.

Kamimura Y., Mishima H., Furubayashi T., Mizuno Y., Hanajima R., Nishikata A., Wake K., Watanabe S. and Ugawa Y. [2008], "Comparison of the threshold currents for perception determined by three different threshold tracking methods", BEMS 30th Annual Meeting Abstract Collection, 8-3, pp.136-138, June.

Kamimura Y., T. Furubayashi, Y. Terao, Y. Mizuno, R.Hanajima, T. Sakai, K. Wake, S. Watanabe, and Y. Ugawa [2009], "The threshold currents for perception determined by two different threshold tracking methods", Proceedings of BioEM 2009, P-126, June.

Kamimura Y., Yamashita A., Furubayashi T., Hanajima R., Terao Y., Sakai T., Wake K., Watanabe S., Ugawa Y. [2010a], gThe perception threshold for LF-MF band currents: comparison among three threshold tracking methodsh, BEMS 32th Annual Meeting, Soul, Korea, P-B-94.

Kamimura Y. [2010b], gHigh speed calculation of induced current in human body exposed to uniform ELF magnetic fieldsh, Proceedings of the 2010 Asia-Pacific Radio Science Conference (APRASC'10), KAE-2, Toyama, Sep.

Kanezaki A., Hirata A., Watanabe S. and Shirai H. [2009], gEffects of dielectric permittivities on skin heating due to millimeter wave exposure.h Biomedical Engineering online vol.8 (20) pp1-23.

Kanezaki A., Hirata A., Watanabe S. and Shirai H. [2010], gParameter variation effects on temperature elevation in a steady-state, one-dimensional thermal model for millimeter wave exposure of one-and three-layer human tissue. Phys Med Biol, vo.55, no.16, pp.4647-4659.

Kashiwagi K., Fujiwara Y., Sakao S., Furuno N., Yanagisawa M., Hanada H., Tanimoto Y., Yamashita M., Watanabe M., Shinkai T., Yoshitome S., Kubo H., Sakai M., Fujii H., Naitoh T., Suzuki K., Kashiwagi A. [2010], gEffect of strong static magnetic fields on amphibian life cycle- morphogical and molecular biological analyses of early developmenth. Spce Utiliz. Res. vol. 26, pp. 232-235

Kato K., Matsuki H., Sato F., Sato T. and Handa N. [2009], gDuplex communicable implanted antenna for magnetic direct feeding method: Functional electrical stimulation,h Journal of Applied Physics, vol.105, 07B316.

Kawai H., Nagaoka T., Watanabe S., Saito K., Takahashi M. and Ito K. [2009] gComputational dosimetry in embryos exposed to electromagnetic plane waves over the frequency range of 10 MHz-1.5 GHz.h Phys Med Biol, vol.55, pp.N1-N11.

Kawamura T., Saito K., Kikuchi S., Takahashi M. and Ito K. [2009], "Specific absorption rate measurement of birdcage coil for 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging system employing thermographic method." IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 2508-2514.

Kikuchi S., Saito K., Takahashi M., Ito K., and Ikehira H. [2008a], "Calculation of temperature rise distribution in pregnant woman model exposed to RF pulses during MR imaging." Proceedings of the International Workshop on Antenna Technology 2008, pp. 354-357.

Kikuchi S., Saito K., Takahashi M., Ito K., and Ikehira H. [2008b], "Numerical computation of temperature increase in pregnant woman model induced by electromagnetic absorption of MRI system." Book of Abstract on European Electromagnetics 2008, p. 355.

Kikuchi S., Saito K., Takahashi M., Ito K. and Ikehira H. [2009a], "SAR computation inside fetus by RF coil during MR imaging employing realistic numerical pregnant woman model." IEICE Transactions on Communications, vol. E92-B, no. 2, pp. 431-439.

Kikuchi S., Saito K., Takahashi M., Ito K., and Ikehira H. [2009b], "Numerical calculation on electromagnetic energy absorption in pregnant woman by RF coil for MRI system." Proceedings of 2009 International Symposium on Electro- magnetic Compatibility, pp. 661-664.

Kikuchi S., Saito K., Takahashi M., and Ito K. [2010], "Temperature elevation in the fetus from electromagnetic exposure during magnetic resonance imaging." Physics in Medicine and Biology, vol. 55, no.8, pp.2411-2426.

Kiminami K., Iyama T., Onishi T. and Uebayashi S. [2008a], gNovel specific absorption rate (SAR) estimation method based on 2-D scanned electric fields,h IEEE Trans. EMC, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 828 - 836.

Kiminami K., Iyama T. and Onishi T. [2008b], gSimple estimation method based on electric fields on a two-dimensional plane for SAR measurement,h Proceedings of the Bioelectromagnetics Society the 30th Annual Meeting (BEMS2008), P-15, June.

Kiminami K., Iyama T. and Onishi T. [2008c], gA three-axis electro-optic probe for specific absorption rate measurement,h Proceedings of the XXIX General Assembly of the International Union of Radio Science (URSI), KAE. 3, August.

Kimura T., Takahashi K., Suzuki Y., Konishi Y., Ota Y., Mori C., Ikenaga T., Takanami T., Saito R., Ichiishi E., Awaji S., Watanabe K. and Higashitani A. [2008], gThe effect of high strength static magnetic felds and ionizing radiation on gene expression and DNA damage in Caenorhabditis elegans.h Bioelectro- magnetics, vol. 29, pp.605-614.

Kitagawa A, Hikage T., Nojima T., Simba A. Y., Watanabe S. [2009] gLarge scale FDTD analysis for the electromagnetic field distribution estimations in elevator using precise numerical phantom modelh EMC09, p.517-520

Kiyokawa T., Sakurai T. and Miyakoshi J. [2008], gEffects of magnetic fields generated by induction heating (IH) cook tops on genotoxicity and HSP expression in cultured cells,h The proceedings of the Bioelectromagnetics Society 30th Annual Meeting, P-93, pp. 386-387.

Kiyokawa T., Sakurai T. and Miyakoshi J. [2009], gEffects of magnetic fields generated by induction heating (IH) cooktops on mutagenicity and HSP expression in cultured cells,h The proceedings of BioEM2009, P-153, June. Kiyokawa T., Sakurai T., Miyakosi. J. [2010], gEffects of long-term exposure to magnetic fields generated by induction heating cooktops on genotoxicity and cogenotoxicity,h BEMS 32th Annual Meeting, Soul, Korea, P-A-102.

Kogure S., Wada K. and Suzuki Y. [2009], gDevelopment of a magnetic field generator at 20 kHz using a voltage-source inverter for biological research,h IEICE technical report. Electromagnetic compatibility, 109(350), 19-24, 2009-12-11

Kojima M., Yamashiro Y., Sakamoto Y., Kawakami Y., Sasaki H. and Sasaki K. [2007], gDifference of cataract development by different frequency in millimeter waveh, US-Japan Cooperative Cataract Research Group Meeting, Hawaii, pp 46, December

Kojima M., Sakai T., Yamashiro Y., Suzuki Y., Sakamoto Y., Kawakami Y., Watanabe S., Taki M., Sasaki K. and Sasaki H. [2008a], gInvestigation of frequency specificity of millimeter wave exposure through ocular temperature measurement and heath, The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Florida, 2777-D793, pp 219, April

Kojima M., Sakai T., Suzuki Yamashiro Y., Sakamoto Y., Kawakami Y., Watanabe S., Taki M., Sasaki K. and Sasaki H. [2008b], gInvestigation of frequency specificity of quasi- and millimeter wave exposure through ocular temperature measurement and heat transportationh, The Bioelectromagnetics Society 30th Annual Meeting, San Diego, P-115, pp 440, June

Kojima M., Sakai T., Yamashiro Y., Suzuki Y., Hirata A., Sakamoto Y., Kawakami Y., Watanabe S., Wake K., Taki M., Kamimura Y., Sasaki H. and Sasaki K., [2008c], gRelationship between frequency specific characteristics of quasi- and millimeter-waves and complexity of the eye structureh, The 7th Asian Cataract Research Conference in conjunction with Cataract Satellite Meeting of the 18th International Conference for Eye Research and the 11th Conference of Chinese Cataract Society, Xi'an, September

Kojima M., Sakai T., Yamashiro Y., Matsuda T., Watanabe S., Sasaki K. and Sasaki H. [2009a], gCharacteristics of ocular temperature rise under exposure to frequency (18-40 GHz)h, Proceedings of the BioEM2009, 16-3, June.

Kojima M., Yamashiro Y., Sakai T., Suzuki Y., Sasaki K. and Sasaki H. [2009b], gHeat cataract by millimeter wave band exposure and thermal transport of aqueous humorh, US-Japan Cooperative Cataract Research Group, Hawaii, December

Kojima M., Hanazawa M., Yamashiro Y., Sasaki H., Watanabe S. and Taki M. [2009c], gAcute ocular injuries caused by 60-GHz millimeter-wave,h Heath Phys, vol.97 (3), pp.212-218.

Kojima M., Yamashiro Y., Sakai T., Suzuki Y., Sasaki K. and Sasaki H. [2010a], gAnalysis of Heat Transportation to Crystalline Lens Surface by Aqueous Humor convectionh, The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Florida, May

Kojima M., Sakai T., Yamashiro Y., Suzuki Y., Watanabe S., Taki M., Sasaki K. and Sasaki H. [2010b], gMechanism of ocular temperature difference between 18 and 40 GHz exposureh, Proceedings of the Bioelectromagnetics Society 32nd Annual Meeting, 4-4, June.

Kojima M., Yamashiro Y., Sasaki K. and Sasaki H. [2010c], gExamination of threshold 60 GHz millimeter wave ocular exposure in rabbith, The 8th Asian Cataract Research Conference, Hangzhou, June

Kojima M., Yamashiro Y., Sasaki H., Sasaki K., Sakai T., Wake K., Watanabe S., Kamimura Y., Hirata A., Suzuki Y. and Taki M. [2010d], gVerification of safety guidelines for 60 GHz millimeter wave ocular exposureh, Proceedings of the 2010 Asia-Pacific Radio Science Conference (AP-RASC'10), K2-3, Toyama, September

Kojima M., Sasaki H., Sasaki K., Sakai T., Wake K., Watanabe S., Suzuki Y., Taki M., Hirata A. and Kamimura Y. [2010e], gInvestigation of frequency specificity of millimeter wave exposure trough ocular temperature measurementh, Glore, Paris, October

Komai, T., Sato T., Sato F., Matsuki H. and Sato T. [2009], gA study of contactless power transmission for an implantable medical device (in Japanese with English summary),h Journal of the Magnetics Society of Japan, vol.33, pp.328-332.

Kotani K., Iida F., Akagawa T., Saitoh T., Jimbo Y., Kawaguchi Y. and Takamasu K. [2007], gDevelopment of the method for estimating cardiac vagal activity in real-time during body motion and generation of the interactive CG (in Japanese with English summary).h IEEJ Trans. EIS, vol. 127, pp. 1762-1769.

Kotani K., Takamasu K., Jimbo Y. and Yamamoto Y. [2008], gPostural-induced phase shift of respiratory sinus arrhythmia and blood pressure variations - insight from respiratory-phase domain analysis.h Am. J. Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 294, pp. H1481-H1489.

Koyama S., Takashima Y., Sakurai T., Suzuki Y., Taki M. and Miyakoshi J. [2007], gEffects of 2.45 GHz electromagnetic fields with a wide range of SARs on bacterial and HPRT gene mutations,h Journal of Radiation Research, vol. 48, pp. 69-75.

Koyama S., Sakurai T., Nakahara T. and Miyakoshi J. [2008a], gExtremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields enhance chemically induced formation of apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites in A172 cell,h International Journal of Radiation Bioloy, vol. 84, pp. 53-59.

Koyama D., Kim BS., Sagae T., Uchikawa Y. and Kobayashi K. [2008b], gDiscussion of ST segment of exercise-induced 3D MCGs (in Japanese with English summary). Journal of the Magnetic Society of Japan, vol. 32, pp.36-41.

Koyama K., Hirata A., Wang J. and Fujiwara O. [2010], gIn-Vivo time domain measurement of dielectric properties of human body tissue.h IEEJ-A, vol.130, no.12, 1087-1091.

Kouzai M., Nishikata A., Sakai T., Watanabe S., Enomoto H., Ugawa Y. [2010], gThreshold measurement for thermal sensation produced by 60 GHz millimeter converging beam exposure onto the palm,h IEICE Trans. Commun., Vol.J93-B, pp.1456-1465.

Kozai M., Nishikata A., Sakai T. and Watanabe S. [2009] gCharacterization of 60 GHz millimeter-wave focusing beam for living-body exposure experimentsh EMC09 22S1-1 p.309-312.

Kumagai T., Saito K., Takahashi M. and Ito K. [2010], gA small 915MHz receiving antenna for wireless power transmission aimed at medical applications,h International Journal of Technology (IJTech), vol. 2, issue 1, pp.20-27, Jan 2011.

Masuda H., Ushiyama A., Takahashi M., Wang J., Fujiwara O., Hikage T., Nojima T., Fujita K., Kudo M. and Ohkubo C. [2009], gEffects of 915 MHz electro- magnetic field radiation in TEM cell on the blood-brain barrier and neurons in the rat brain.h Radiation Research, vol. 172 (1), pp.66-73.

Matsui H., Sakurai T., Kiyokawa T. and Miyakoshi J. [2008], gEffects of exposure to radiofrequency fields (UMTS/IMT-2000; 1950MHz) on micronucleus formation in HL-60 cells,h The proceedings of the Bioelectromagnetics Society 30th Annual Meeting, P-94, pp. 387-389, June.

Matsumine A, Takegami K, Asanuma L, Matsubara T, Nakamura T and Uchida T. [2011], gA novel hyperthermia treatment for bone metastases using magnetic materials.h Int J Clin Oncol (in press).

Matsumoto H. and Hashimoto K. [2009], gSolar Power Satellite/Station,h IEICE, vol.92 (9), pp.755-760 (in Japanese)

Miyakoshi J., Horiuchi E., Nakahara T. and Sakurai T. [2007], gMagnetic fields generated by an induction heating (IH) cook top do not cause genotoxicity in vitro,h Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 28, pp. 529-537.

Miyakoshi J. [2008], gEffects of Static Magnetic Field at the Cellular Level,h ISMRM 16th@Scientific Meeting and Exhibition and the SMRT 17th Annual Meeting, May.

Miyakoshi J. [2009], gAdvances in Electromagnetic Fields in Living Systems,h Vol. 5, Health Effects of Cell Phone Radiation, (J. Miyakoshi, M. J. Schoemaker, A. W. Preece, N. Leitgeb, P. Bernardi and J. C. Lin.) J. C. Lin. (Editor), Springer, USA

Miyakoshi J., Narita E. and Sakurai T. [2010], gEffects of exposure to radio- frequency fields (UMTS/IMT-2000; 1950 MHz) on DNA strand breaks and micronucleous formation in cultured cellsh. BEMS 32th Annual Meeting, Soul, Korea, P-A-124

Miyamori J., Haga A., Kakubari Y., Sato F., Matsuki H. and Sato T. [2009], gExamination of Phase Excitation in a Desktop CLPS (in Japanese with English summary)h, Journal of the Magnetics Society of Japan, vol.33, pp.110-113.

Mizuki T., Watanabe M., Nagaoka Y., Fukushima T., Morimoto H. and Usami R. [2010]. gActivity of an enzyme immobilized on superparamagnetic particles in a rotational magnetic field.h Biochem Biopjhys Res Commun, vol.393 (4), pp.779-782.

Mizuno Y., Moriguchi Y., Hikage T., Terao Y., Ohnishi T. and Nojima T. [2009], gEffects of W-CDMA 1950 MHz EMF emitted by mobile phones on regional cerebral blood flow in humans,h Bioelectromagnetics, vol.30, pp.536-544.

Monzen, S., Takahashi K., Toki T., Ito E., Sakurai T., Miyakoshi J. and Kashiwakura I. [2009], gExposure to a MRI-type high-strength static magnetic field stimulates megakaryocytic/erythroid hematopoiesis in CD34+ cells from human placental and umbilical cord blood,h Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 30, pp. 280-285.

Moriguchi H., Tamai N., Takayama Y., Kurashima T. and Jimbo Y. [2008a], gSite-selective recording of spontaneous activity from cultured small neuronal circuits by means of spray-patterning and a mobile microelectrode (in Japanese with English summary).h IEEJ Trans. EIS, Vol. 127, pp. 1562-1567.

Moriguchi H., Tamai N., Takayama Y., Kotani K. and Jimbo Y. [2008b], gExtra- cellular recording from mass-produced small neuronal networks using mobile metal microelectrodes.h 6th Int Meeting on Substrate-Integrated Micro- electrodes, Reutlingen, July.

Moriguchi H., Tamai N., Takayama Y., Kotani K. and Jimbo Y. [2008c], gHierarchical oscillatory patterns observed in the spontaneous and evoked activity in cultured small recurrent networks.h 6th FENS Forum, Geneva, July.

Moriguchi H., Tamai N., Takayama Y., Kotani K. and Jimbo Y. [2008d], gSite-selective stimulation and recording of the electrical activity of cultured neuronal networks using mobile microelectrodes.h Int. Symp. Biol. Physiol. Engng..January.

Motomura T., Ueda K., Ohtani S., Hansen E., Ji L., Ito K., Saito K., Sugita Y. and Nose Y. [2010], "Evaluation of systemic external microwave hyperthermia for treatment of pleural metastasis in orthotopic lung cancer model." Oncology Reports, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 591-598.

Motoyama J., Hakata T., Kato R., Yamashita N., Morino T. and Honda H. [2008] gSize dependent heat generation of magnetite nanoparticles under AC magnetic field for cancer therapy.h BioMagnetic Research and Technology (open Accsess) 6, pp.1-6.

Nagai T. and Hirata A. [2010], gIn situ electric fields causing electro-stimulation from conductor contact of charged human.h Radiat Prot Dosimetry, vol.140, no.4, pp.351-356.

Nagaoka T., Kunieda E., and Watanabe S. [2008a], gProportion-corrected voxel models for Japanese children and their application to the numerical dosimetry of specific absorption rate for frequencies from 30 MHz to 3 GHz.h, Physics in Medicine and Biology, Vol.53, pp.6695-6711.

Nagaoka T. and Watanabe S. [2008b], gPostured voxel-based human models for electromagnetic dosimetry,h Physics in Medicine and Biology, Vol.53, pp.7047-7061.

Nagaoka T. and Watanabe S. [2009a] gEstimation of variability of specific absorption rate with physical description of children exposed to electro- magnetic field in the VHF bandh 31st Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, pp.942-945, September

Nagaoka T. and Watanabe S. [2009b], gVoxel-based variable posture models of human anatomyh Proceeding of the IEEE, vol.97, no.12, Nov.2009

Nagaoka T., Sakatani K., Awano T., Yokose N., Hoshino T. and Murata Y. [2010], gDevelopment of a new rehabilitation system based on a brain-computer interface using near-infrared spectroscopy.h Adv Exp Med Biol, vol.662, pp.497-503.

Nagatomo T., Abe H., Toyoshima T., Fujimoto H., Kohno R. and Kondo S. [2009], gElectromagnetic interference with a bipolar pacemaker by an induction heating (IH) rice cooker.h International Heart Journal, vol. 50 (1), pp.133-137.

Nakajima M., Inoue M., Hojo T., Inoue N., Tanaka K. and Takatori R. [2010], gEffect of electroacupuncutre on the healing process of tibia fracture in a rat model: a randomised controlled trial.h Acupunct Med (in press).

Nakamichi N., Ishioka Y., Hirai T., Ozawa S., Tachibana M. and Nakamura M. [2009], gPossible promotion of neuronal differentiation in fetal rat brain neural progenitor cells after sustained exposure to static magnetism,h J Neurosci Res (in press).

Nakaoka Y., Itoh J. and Shimizu K. [2010], gOrientation of Paramecium swimming in a static magnetic field: Dependence on membrane lipid fluidity.h Bioelectromagnetics, Vol.32, pp.66-72.

Nakasono S., Ikehata M., Dateki M., Yoshie S., Shigemitsu T. and Nagishi T. [2008a], gIntermediate frequency magnetic fields did not have micronucleus formation potential in in vitro tests,h Proceedings of the Bioelectromagnetics Society the 30th Annual Meeting (BEMS2008), P-67, pp. 340-341, June.

Nakasono S., Ikehata M., Dateki M., Yoshie S., Shigemitsu T. and Negishi T. [2008b], gIntermediate frequency magnetic fields do not have mutagenic, co- mutagenic or gene conversion potentials in microbial genotoxicity tests.h Mutation Research, vol. 649, pp.187-200.

Nakasono, S., M. Ikehata, M. Dateki, S. Yoshie and T. Nagishi [2009] gIntermediate frequency magnetic fields did not have genotoxic potentials in mouse lymphoma assay (MLA),h Proceedings of the BioEM2009, P-152, June.

Nakasono S., Nishimura I., Ikehata M., Yamazaki K. and Negishi T. [2010a] gIntermediate frequency magnetic fields did not have genotoxic and promotion potentials in vitro, nor reproductive and developmental toxicity in vivoh, Proceedings of the BEMS2010, T-1-2, June.

Nakasono S., Ikehata M., Yamazaki K. and Negishi T. [2010b], gIntermediated frequency magnetic fields did not have genotoxic and promotion potentialsh, Proceedings of the 2010 Asia-Pacific Radio Science Conference (APRASC'10), KP-3, Toyama, Sept.

Narita E., Sakurai T., Taki M. and Miyakoshi J. [2009], gInfluence of a high-frequency electromagnetic field at 2.45 GHz on neurite outgrowth in PC12VG cells,h The proceedings of BioEM2009, 11-2, June.

Negishi T., Imai S., Shibuya K., Nishimura I. and Shigemitsu T. [2008], gLack of promotion effects of 50 Hz magnetic fields on 7, 12-dimethylenz (a) anthracene- induced malignant lymphoma/ lymphatic leukemia in mice.h Bioelectro- magnetics, vol. 29, pp.29-38.

Nishimura I., Imai T. and Negishi T. [2009], gLack of chick embryotoxicity after 20 kHz, 1.1 mT magnetic field exposure,h Bioelectromagnetics vol.30 (7), pp.573-582.

Nishimura T., Okano H., Tada H., Nishimura E., Sugimoto K. and Mohri K. [2010], gLizards respond to an extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields.h J Exp Biol, vol.213 (pt12), pp.1985-1990

Nishimura T, Tada H, Guo X, Murayama T, Teramukai S and Okano H. [2011], gA 1-uT extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field vs. sham control for mild-to- modulate hypertension: a double-blind, randomize study.h Hypertension Research (in press).

Ogawa K., Nabae K., Wang J., Wake K., Watanabe S., Kawabe M., Fujiwara O., Takahashi S., Ichihara T., Ramano S. and Shirai T. [2009], gEffects of gestational exposure to 1.95-GHz W-CDWA signals for IMT-2000 cellular phones: lack of embryotoxicity and teratogenicity in rats.h Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 30, pp.205-212.

Ohkubo C. and Okano H. [2010], gClinical aspects of static magnetic field effects on circulatory system.h The Environmentalist (in press)

Okano H., Tomita N. and Ikada Y. [2008a], gSpatial gradient effects of 120 mT static magnetic field on endothelial tubular formation in vitro.h Bioelectro- magnetics, vol. 29, pp.233-236.

Okano H., Kitahara H., Akai D. and Tomita N. [2008b], gThe influence of a gradient static magnetic field on an unstirred Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction.h Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 29, pp.598-604.

Okano H., Kitahara H. and Akai D. [2009], gEffect of a gradient static magnetic field on an unstirred Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction by changing the thickness of the medium.h Journal of Physical Chemistry, vol.113 (13), pp.3061-3067.

Okano T., Terao Y., Furubayashi T., Yugeta A., Hanajima R. and Ugawa Y. [2010], gThe effect of electromagnetic field emitted by a mobile phone on the inhibitory control of saccades. Clin Neurophysiol, vol. 121, No. 4, pp. 603-611

Onishi T., Kiminami K. and Iyama T. [2008a], gNovel specific absorption rate measurement techniques,h EMC-in-Singapore 2008, TU-BIO-1-3, May.

Onishi T., Kiminami K. and Iyama T. [2008b], gExclusion procedure with respect to SAR measurement for simultaneous multi-band transmission assessment,h Proceedings of the Bioelectromagnetics Society the 30th Annual Meeting (BEMS 2008), P-26, June.

Onishi T., Iyama T., Hamada L. and Watanabe S. [2009a] gSAR and Temperature elevation Using Japanese anatomical human models for Body-worn Usage,h Proceedings of the BioEM2009, P-82, June.

Onishi T., Iyama T. and Kiminami K. [2009b], gFaster specific absorption rate measurement techniques,h EMCf09/Kyoto, 21S1-6, June.

Onishi T., Iyama T., Hamada L., Watanabe S. and Hirata A. [2010a], gRelation- ship between SAR and temperature elevation for body-worn devices,h Proceedings of the Bioelectromagnetics Society the 32nd Annual Meeting, P-A-43, June.

Onishi T., Iyama T., Hamada L., Watanabe S. and Hirata A. [2010b], gEvaluation of SAR and Temperature Elevation Using Japanese Anatomical Human Models for Body-Worn Devices,h IEICE Trans., E93-B, no. 12, pp. 3643-3646, Dec.

Rongen E., Croft R., Juutilainen J., Lagroye I., Miyakoshi J., Saunders R., Seze R., Tenforde T., Verschaeve L., Veyret B. and Xu Z. [2009] gEffects of radio- frequency electromagnetic fields on the human nervous systemh. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, vol.12, no.8, pp.572-97.

Saito A., Takayama Y., Moriguchi H., Kotani K. and Jimbo Y. [2008], gEffects of ELFMF exposure on differentiation and spontaneous activity of P19EC-derived neuronal cells.h 3rd Int. Symp. Biomed. Engng., Bangkok, November.

Saito A., Takayama Y., Moriguchi H., Kotani K. and Jimbo Y. [2009], gDevelopmental effects of low frequency magnetic fields on P19-derived neuronal cells.h 31st Ann. Int. IEEE EMBS Conf., Minneapolis, September.

Saito A., Takayama Y., Moriguchi H., Kotani K. and Jimbo Y. [2010a], gEffects of extremely low frequency magnetic fields on neuronal development of P19 embryonal carcinoma cellsh. IEEJ Trans. in press.

Saito A., Takayama Y., Moriguchi H., Kotani K. and Jimbo Y. [2010b], gEvaluation of neuronal differentiation of P19EC cells after alternating current magnetic fields exposure.h 7th FENS Forum, Amsterdam, July.

Saito A., Takayama Y., Moriguchi H., Kotani K. and Jimbo Y. [2010c], gThe Effects of AC magnetic fields on neuronal differentiation and network activities of P19EC cells.h 7th Int. Meeting on Substrate-Integrated Microelectrodes, Reutlingen, July.

Saito A., Moriguchi H., Goto M., Saito A., Takayama Y., Kotani K. and Jimbo Y. [2010d], gElectrical and optical recording of interactions between small neuronal networks using needle-type microelectrodes.h 7th Int. Meeting on Substrate-Integrated Microelectrodes, Reutlingen, July.

Saito K., Kamimura T., Takahashi M. and Ito K. [2008a], "Evaluation on performances of microwave antenna with thermosensor for intracavitary thermal therapy." The 10th International Congress on Hyperthermic Oncology Scientific Program and Abstracts, p. 132.

Saito K., Kamimura T., Takahashi M., and Ito K. [2008b], "Microwave antenna with thermosensor for intracavitary thermal therapy of bile duct carcinoma." Book of Abstract on European Electromagnetics 2008, p. 358.

Saito K., Kawamura T., Takahashi M. and Ito K. [2008c], "Generation of controllable heating patterns by two types of thin microwave antennas for interstitial microwave thermal therapy." Proceedings of the 2008 International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation.

Saito K., Kawamura T., Kikuchi S., Takahashi M. and Ito K. [2009], "SAR measurement of birdcage coil for MRI system using thermographic method." Bioelectromagnetics Society Annual Meeting, P-181.

Saito K. and Ito K. [2010a], "Preliminary study of coagulation monitoring by antenna for treatment during microwave coagulation therapy." The Open Biomedical Engineering Journal, vol. 4, pp. 13-15.

Saito K., Tsubouchi K., Takahashi M. and Ito K. [2010b], "Intracavitary microwave thermal therapy for bile duct carcinoma -Experimental evaluations on heating performances of antenna-." Proceedings of the International Workshop on Antenna Technology 2010.

Saito K., Tsubouchi K., Takahashi M. and Ito K. [2010c], "Development of antenna for intracavitary microwave thermal therapy-Evaluations on heating characteristics of antenna using biological tissue -." Proceedings of 2010 IEEE AP-S International Symposium and CNC-USNC/URSI Radio Science Meeting.

Saito K., Tsubouchi K., Takahashi M. and Ito K. [2010d], gPractical evaluations on heating characteristics of thin microwave antenna for intracavitary thermal therapy,h 32nd Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBS 2010), pp.2755-2758, Buenos Aires, Argentina, Sep.

Saito T., Nitta N., Kubo O., Yamamoto S., Yamaguchi N. and Akiba K. [2010]. gPower-frequency magnetic field and childhood brain tumours: a case-control study in Japan.h J Epidemiology, vol.20, pp.54-61.

Sakai H., Horiguchi N., Endoh D., Nakayama K. and Hayashi M. [2010], gRadiofrequency radiation at 40 kHz induces hepatic injury in Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats, an animal model for human Wilson desease.h J Vet Med Sci (in press)

Sakai T., Wake K., Watanabe S., and Hashimoto O. [2010], gTemperature compen- sation of complex permittivities of biological tissues and organs in quasi- millimeter-wave and millimeter-wave bands,h Journal of the Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science (JKIEES), Vol.10, pp.231-236.

Sakurai T., Yoshimoto M., Koyama S. and Miyakoshi J. [2008a], gExposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields affects insulin-secreting cells,h Bio- electromagnetics, vol. 29, pp. 118-124.

Sakurai T., Terashima S. and Miyakoshi J. [2008b], gEnhanced secretion of prostaglandin E2 from osteoblasts by exposure to a strong static magnetic field,h Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 29, pp. 277-283.

Sakurai T. and Miyakoshi J. [2008c], gEffects of strong static magnetic fields on insulin-secreting cellsh. Proceedings of the 3rd international Workshop on Materials Analysis and processing in Magnetic Fields (MAP3), Session 7-2, May.

Sakurai T. and Miyakoshi J. [2008d], gStrong static magnetic fields affect insulin-secreting cells,h The proceedings of the Bioelectromagnetics Society 30th Annual Meeting, 6-3, pp. 98-99, June.

Sakurai T., Kiyokawa T. and Miyakoshi J. [2008e], gExtremely low frequency magnetic fields enhance cytokine-mediated beta-cell dysfunction,h Proceedings of the XXIX General Assembly of the International Union of Radio Science (URSI), K02b.10, August.

Sakurai T., Terashima S. and Miyakoshi J. [2009a], gEffects of strong static magnetic fields used in magnetic resonance imaging on insulin-secreting cells,h Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 30, pp. 1-8.

Sakurai T., Kiyokawa T. and Miyakoshi J. [2009b], gThe effects of strong static magnetic fields on astrocyte differentiationh. The proceedings of BioEM2009, P-146, June.

Sakurai T., Kiyokawa T. and Miyakoshi J. [2009c], gThe effects of extremely low frequency magnetic fields on adipogenesish. The proceedings of BioEM2009, P-148, June.

Sakurai T., Kiyokawa T., Kikuchi K. and Miyakoshi J. [2009d], gIntermediate frequency magnetic fields generated by an induction heating (IH) cooktop do not affect genotoxicities and expression of heat shock proteinsh. International Journal of Radiation Biology, vol.85 (10), pp.883-90

Sakurai T. and Miyakoshi J. [2009e] gBiological effects of strong static magnetic fields on insulin-secreting cellsh. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 156, 012014

Sakurai T., Narita E., Kiyokawa T. and Miyakoshi J. [2010a], gAnalysis of gene expression in glial cells exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields using microarrayh. The proceedings of BEMS 32th Annual Meeting, Soul, Korea, P-A-106

Sakurai T., Kiyokawa T. and Miyakoshi J. [2010b], gEffects of extremely low frequency magnetic fields on insulin-secreting cellsh. Proceedings of the 2010 Asia-Pacific Radio Science Conference (APRASC'10), K1-1, Toyama, Sep.

Salama N., Kishimoto T. and Kanayama H.O. [2009a], gThe mobile phone decreases fructose but not citrate in rabbit semen: a longitudinal study.h Syst Biol Reprod Med, vol.55, pp.181-187

Salama N., Kishimoto T. and Kanayama H.O. [2009b], gAuthors response on letter to the editor on 'Effects of exposure to a mobile phone on testicular function and structure in adult Rabbit' by Salama et al,h Int J Androl (in press)

Sano M., Tanaka K., Uchikawa Y., Sakurai S., Watanabe T., Kim B.S. and Kobayashi K. [2009], gDiscriminating multiple source components of magneto- cephalogram by time-frequency analysis (in Japanese with English summary).h Journal of the Magnetic Society of Japan, vol.33, pp.341-346.

Sato H., Arimatsu T., Ueno S., Ge S., Hayami T. and Iramina K. [2008], gDifferences in evoked EEG by transcranial magnetic stimulation (in Japanese with English summary).h Journal of the Magnetic Society of Japan, vol.32, pp. 495-498.

Sato K., Kamimura Y. and Yamada Y. [2009], gA Free Scanning Method for Measuring Magnetic Distributions Using Magnetic Trackerh, Int. Simposium on EMC, Kyoto, Japan, pp.85-88.

Sato K., Miyata N., Kamimura Y. and Yamada Y. [2010], gA Freehand Scanning Method for Measuring EMF Distributions Using Magnetic Tracker,h IEICE Trans. Commun., Vol. E93-B, No.7, pp.1865-1868.

Sato, T., Sato F., Matsuki H. and Sato T. [2008], gPrototype Charger System with Low Heating Levels for Cardiac Pacemaker (in Japanese with English summary),h Journal of the Magnetics Society of Japan, vol.32, pp.29-35.

Sato, F., Shinohe K., Takura T., Matsuki H., Yamada S. and Sato T. [2009], gDevelopment of Wireless Communication System in real-time Internal Dose Measurement System,h Journal of Applied Physics, vol.105, 07B319.

Sato Y, Akiba S., Kubo O. and Yamaguchi N. [2010], gA case-case study of mobile phone use and acoustic neuroma risk in Japan.h Bioelectromagnetics, vol.32, pp.85-93.

Sekino M. and Ueno S. [2007], gMagnetic resonance imaging of electric properties in living bodies.h Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, vol. 27, pp. 175-182.

Sekino M., Kim D. and Ohsaki H. [2008a], gFDTD simulations of RF electromagnetic fields and signal inhomogeneities in ultrahigh-field MRI systems.h Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 103, pp. 07A318.

Sekino M., Tatara S. and Ohsaki H. [2008b], gImaging of electric permittivity and conductivity using MRI.h IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 44, pp. 4460-4463.

Sekino M., Ohsaki H., Yamaguchi-Sekino S. and Ueno S. [2009a], gToward detection of transient changes in magnetic resonance signal intensity arising from neuronal electrical activities.h IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 45, pp. 4841-4844.

Sekino M., Ohsaki H., Yamaguchi-Sekino S., Iriguchi N. and Uneo S. [2009b], gLow-frequency conductivity tensor of rat brain tissues inferred from diffusion MRI,h Bioelectromagnetics vol.30, pp.489-499

Sekino M., Ohsaki H., Wada H., Hisatsune T., Ozaki O. and Kiyoshi T. [2010], gFabrication of an MRI model magnet with an off-centered distribution of homo- geneous magnetic field zone.h IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, vol. 20, pp. 781-785.

Sekijima M., Takeda H., Yasunaga K., Sakuma N., Hirose H. and Nojima T. [2010], g2-GHz band CW and W-CDMA modulated radiofrequency fields have no significant effect on cell proliferation and gene expression profile in human cells.h J Radiation Research, vol.51, no.3, pp.277-284..

Shigemitsu T., Negishi T., Yamazaki K., Kawahara Y., Haga A., Kobayashi K. and Muramatsu K. [2009a], gA newly designed and constructed 20 kHz magnetic field exposure facility for in vivo study.h Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 30, pp.36-44.

Shigemitsu T. and Yomori H. [2009b], gEffect of Elf EMF exposure on human - human health effects and evaluation technique with respect to human exposure to ELF EMF-. The Institute of Electrostatic Japan, vol.33, pp.171-176 (in Japanese)

Shinohe K., Takura T., Sato F., Matsuki H., Yamada S. and Sato T. [2008], gSignal Transmission in Real-Time Internal Radiation Dose Measurement System Using Magnetic Fields,h IEEE Trans. Magn., vol.44 no.11, pp.4456-4459.

Shinohe K., Takura T., Sato F., Matsuki H., Yamada S. and Sato T. [2009], gBasic Evaluation of Signal Transmission in a Real-Time Internal Radiation Dose Measurement System (in Japanese with English summary),h Journal of the Magnetics Society of Japan, vol. 33, pp.337-340.

Simba A.Y., Hikage T., Watanabe S. and Nojima T. [2009a], gSpecific absorption rates of anatomically realistic human models exposed to RF electromagnetic fields from mobile phones used in elevators.h IEEE Trans MTT, vol. 57 (5), pp.1250-1259.

Simba A.Y., Watanabe S., Hikage T., Nojima T. [2009b], gA Review of Mobile Phone Usage in Enclosed Areas and RF Safety Guidelineh, AFRICON 2009, IEEE, pp.1-6, Sep.2009

Soda A., Ikehara T., Kinouchi Y. and Yoshizaki K. [2008], gEffect of exposure to an extremely low frequency-electromagnetic field on the cellular collagen with respect to signaling pathway in osteoblast-like cells.h Journal of Medical Investigation, vol.55, pp.267-278.

Sugiura T., Umehara N., Mizushina S. and Hirata H. [2009], gImprovement of the Confidence Interval Level of Multi-frequency Microwave Radiometer System for Measuring Deep Brain Temperature in New Born Infants,h Proceedings of PIERS 2010, pp.1489-1492, March.

Sugiura T., Okita Y., Takahashi I. and Hirata H. [2010], gFive-band microwave radiometer system for non-invasive brain temperature measurement in new- born babies: Improvement of confidence interval and phantom measurement experiment,h Proceedings of AP-RASCf10, KB1-5, 2010.9

Suzuki Y., Maruyama K., Wake K., Watanabe S., Taki M. and Hashimoto O. [2009], gComputational analysis on induced current density and electric field in a pregnant woman model due to intermediate frequency magnetic fieldsh EMC09 21S3-3 p.189 to 192, Jul.2009

Suzurikawa J., Takahashi H., Kanzaki R., Nakao M. and Jimbo Y. [2007a], gPhotoelectric properties of a light-addressable electrode with a low-conductive passivation layer and spatial resolution of the light-addressed electrical stimulation (in Japanese with English summary).h IEEJ Trans. EIS, Vol. 127, pp. 1581-1587.

Suzurikawa J., Takahashi H., Kanzaki R., Nakao M., Takayama Y. and Jimbo Y. [2007b], gLight-addressable electrode with hydrogenated amorphous silicon and low-conductive passivation layer for stimulation of cultured neurons.h Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 09390

Suzurikawa J., Kanzaki R., Nakao M., Jimbo Y. and Takahashi H. [2008a], gOptimization of thin-film configuration for light-addressable stimulation electrode (in Japanese with English summary).h IEEJ Trans. EIS, Vol. 128, pp. 1043-1049.

Suzurikawa J., Nakao M., Jimbo Y., Kanzaki R. and Takahashi H. [2008b], gCharacterization of response patterns evoked by light addressed electrical stimulation in cultured neuronal network.h 6th Int. Meeting on Substrate- Integrated Microelectrodes, Reutlingen, July.

Suzurikawa J., Nakao M., Jimbo Y., Kanzaki R. and Takahashi H. [2008c], gLight- addresable electrodes for probing functional neuronal networks in culture.h Int. Symp. Biol. Physiol. Engng. January.

Suzurikawa J., Nakao M., Jimbo Y., Kanzaki R. and Takahashi H. [2009], gLight- addressed stimulation under Ca2+ imaging of cultured neurons.h IEEE Trans. BME 56, pp. 2660-2665.

Takahashi S., Imai N., Nabae K., Wake K., Kawai H., Wang J., Watanabe S., Kawabe M., Fujiwara O., Ogawa K., Tamano S. and Shirai T. [2009] gLack of adverse effects of whole-body exposure to a mobile telecommunication electromagnetic field on the rat fetush Radiation Research, vol.173 p.362-372.

Takahashi K.A., Tonomura H., Arai Y., Terauchi R., Honjo K. and Hiraoka N. [2009], gHyperthermia for the treatment of articular cartilage with osteo- arthritis.h Int J Hyperthermia, pp.661-667.

Takano Y., Hirata A. and Fujiwara O. [2010], gBasic restriction and reference level in anatomically-based Japanese models for low-frequency electric and magnetic field exposures.h IEEJ-A, vol.130, no.12, pp.1092-1098.

Takayama Y., Moriguchi H. and Jimbo Y. [2007], gActivity changes induced by spatio-temporally correlated stimuli in cultured cortical ntworks (in Japanese with English summary).h IEEJ Trans. EIS, Vol. 127, pp. 1619-1624.

Takayama Y., Saito A., Moriguchi H. and Jimbo Y. [2008a], gDevelopmental Activity Changes in P19EC-derived Neurons Cultured on Microelectrode Array.h Int. Symp. Biol. Physiol. Engng. January.

Takayama Y., Saito A., Moriguchi H., Kotani K. and Jimbo Y. [2008b], gNeurons derived from P19 embryonal carcinoma cells establish functional neuronal network.h 6th Int. Meeting on Substrate-Integrated Microelectrodes, Reutlingen, July.

Takayama Y., Saito A., Moriguchi H., Kotani K. and Jimbo Y. [2008c], gNeurons derived from P19 embryonal carcinoma cells establish functional neuronal network.h 6th FENS Forum, Geneva, July.

Takayama Y., Moriguchi H., Kotani K. and Jimbo. Y. [2009a], gSpontaneous calcium oscillations in cultured cortical networks during development.h IEEE Trans. BME 56, pp. 2649-2956.

Takayama Y., Saito A., Moriguchi H. and Jimbo. Y. [2009b], gEnsemble simulation of embryoid bodies using substrate-embedded electrodes.h IEEJ Trans. 4, pp. 734-735.

Takayama Y., Saito A., Moriguchi H., Kotani K. and Jimbo Y. [2009c], gEnsemble recording of electrical activity in neurons derived from P19 embryonal carcinoma cells (in Japanese with English summary).h IEEJ Trans. EIS, Vol. 129, pp. 8-16.

Takayama Y., Moriguchi H., Saito A., Kotani K. and Jimbo Y. [2009d], gEnsemble stimulation of embryoid bodies using microfabricated ITO substrates.h 31st Ann. Int. IEEE EMBS Conf., Minneapolis, September.

Takayama Y., Moriguchi H., Kotani K. and Jimbo Y. [2010a], gSpontaneous calcium transients in cultured cortical networks during development.h 7th Int. Meeting on Substrate-Integrated Microelectrodes, Reutlingen, July.

Takayama Y., Moriguchi H., Saito A., Kotani K. and Jimbo Y. [2010b], gInteraction of P19 cell-derived neuronal networks and mouse cortical networks co-cultured on micro-electrode array.h 7th FENS Forum, Amsterdam, July.

Takayama Y., Moriguchi H., Saito A., Kotani K. and Jimbo Y. [2010c], gInteractions of P19 cell-derived neuronal networks and mouse cortical networks co-cultured on microelectrode array.h 7th Int. Meeting on Substrate- Integrated Microelectrodes, Reutlingen, July.

Takebayashi T., Versier N., Kikuchi Y., Wake K., Taki M. and Watanabe S. [2008], gMobile phone use, exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic field, and brain tumour: a case-control study.h British Journal of Cancer, vol. 98, pp.652-659.

Takeuchi A., Ogawa H., Moriguchi H., Lee J., Noshiro M., Kotani K. and Jimbo Y. [2008], gDevelopmental changes in spontaneous beating rhythm of cardiac myocytes in vitro cultured with molecular diffusion culture method (in Japanese with English summary).h IEEJ Trans. EIS, Vol. 128, pp. 1064-1070. Takeuchi A., Moriguchi H., Kotani K., Lee J.K., Noshiro M. and Jimbo Y. [2009a], gDevelopment of semi-separated co-culture system for electrical stimulation and extracellular recording of sympathetic neuron and cardiomyocyte (in Japanese with English summary).h IEEJ Trans. EIS, Vol.129 (7), pp.1225-1230.

Takeuchi A., Moriguchi H., Kotani K., Miwa K., Lee J., Noshiro M. and Jimbo Y. [2009b], gDevelopment of semi-separated co-culture system of sympathetic neuron and cardiomyocyte.h 31st Ann. Int. IEEE EMBS Conf., Minneapolis, September.

Takeuchi A., Moriguchi H., Kotani K., Miwa K., Lee J., Noshiro M. and Jimbo Y. [2010a], gDevelopment of spatially-separated co-culture system of the sympathetic neuron and the cardiomyocyte.h IEEJ Trans. in press.

Takeuchi A., Tani M., Mori M., Moriguchi H., Kotani K., Lee J., Noshiro M. and Jimbo Y. [2010b], gEffects of electrical stimulation in sympathetic neuron- cardiomyocyte co-cultures (in Japanese with English summary).h IEEJ Trans. EIS, Vol. 130, pp. 1139-1144.

Takeuchi A., Tani M., Mori M., Kotani K., Miwa K., Lee J., Noshiro M. and Jimbo Y. [2010c]., gEffects of electrical stimulation in sympathetic neuron- cardio- myocyte co-cultures.h 7th FENS Forum, Amsterdam, July.

Takeuchi A., Tani M., Mori M., Moriguchi H., Kotani K., Miwa K., Lee J., Noshiro M. and Jimbo Y. [2010d], gEffects of electrical stimulation to sympathetic neuron-cadiomyocyte coculture.h 7th Int. Meeting on Substrate-Integrated Microelectrodes, Reutlingen, July.

Takura T., Sato F., Matsuki H. and Sato T. [2008a], gEvaluation of thermo- sensitive magnetic powder coated with Ag-paste for cancer therapy,h Journal of Applied Physics, vol.103, 07A305.

Takura T., Sato F., Matsuki H., Fujimura T., Aiba S. and Sato T. [2008b], gInhibitory effect of tumor (murine B16 melanoma) by self-control heater for hyperthermia,h Journal of the Magnetics Society of Japan, vol.32, pp.439-443.

Takura T., Sato F., Matsuki H. and Sato T. [2009], gAnalysis of complex type of heat particles for hyperthermia (in Japanese with English summary),h Journal of the Magnetics Society of Japan, vol. 33, pp.150-153.

Tamai N., Moriguchi H., Takayama Y., Jimbo Y., Suzuki I. and Yasuda K. [2007], gChaotropic etching for fabricating microwells for cell culture (in Japanese with English summary).h IEEJ Trans. EIS, Vol. 127, pp. 1568-1574.

Tanaka K., Mizuno Y. and Naito K. [2009], gQuantification of low frequency magnetic fields generated by household appliances,h IEEJ vol.129 (9), pp.627-632 (in Japanese)

Tanaka K, Mizuno Y and Naito K [2010], gEffect of power frequency magnetic field on acute, chronic, and genetic toxicities of fruit flies.h IEEJ-A vol.130, no.12, pp.1053-1059

Tanaka N., Yamaga M., Tateyama S., Uno T., Tsuneyoshi I. and Takasaki M. [2010], gThe effect of pulsed radiofrequency current on mechanical allodynia induced with resiniferatoxin in rats.h Anesth Analg (in press).

Terashima, S., Yamauchi R., Sakurai T., Nakahara T. and Miyakoshi J. [2007], gMorphological changes of cultured cells by the medium convection under strong static magnetic fields,h Bulletin of Health Sciences Hirosaki, vol. 6, pp. 115-120.

Togashi T., Nagaoka T., Kikuchi S., Saito K., Watanabe S., Takahashi M. and Ito K. [2008], "FDTD calculations of specific absorption rate in fetus caused by electromagnetic waves from mobile radio terminal using pregnant woman model." IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 554-559.

Tokuhara Y., Sato F., Matsuki H. and Sato T. [2008], gExamination to improve transmissible range in the transcutaneous energy transmission system for the artificial heart (in Japanese with English summary),h Journal of the Magnetics Society of Japan, vol.32, pp.430-433.

Tonomura W., Kurashima T., Takayama Y., Moriguchi H., Jimbo Y. and Konishi S. [2007], gThe electrophysiological MEMS device with micro channel array for cellular network analysis (in Japanese with English summary).h IEEJ Trans. EIS, Vol. 127, pp. 1575-1580.

Tonomura W., Moriguchi H., Jimbo Y. and Konishi S. [2008], gParallel multipoint recording of aligned and cultured neurons on corresponding micro channel array toward on-chip cell analysis.h 30th Ann. Int. IEEE EMBS Conf., Vancouver, August.

Tsubouchi K., Saito K., Takahashi M., Ito K., Tsuyuguchi T., Yamaguchi M. and Kato K. [2010], "Experimental evaluation of microwave antenna for thermal treatment of bile duct carcinoma," Thermal Medicine, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 121-130, Dec. 2010.

Tsuyama S., Katayama Y., Hyodo A., Hayami T., Ueno S. and Iramina K. [2009], gEffects of coil parameters on the stimulated area by transcranial magnetic stimulation,h IEEE Trans on Mag vol.45 (10) pp.4845-4848

Uda, T., Tanaka M., Kawano T., Kamimura Y., Wang J. and Fujiwara O. [2009], "Monitoring of static magnetic field and variable electromagnetic fields in a large magnetic fusion plasma experimental facility", Proc. the 20th Zurich Int. Symp. on Electromagn. Compat., Zurich, Switzerland, pp.487-490.

Uno Y., Saito K., Takahashi M. and Ito K., [2010] gStructure of cylindrical tissue- equivalent phantom for medical applications,h International Conference on Electromagnetics in Advanced Applications, pp.406-409, Sydney, Sep.

Usui D., Arima T., Kawai H., Wake K., Watanabe S. and Uno T. [2010] gDevelopment of tunable head local exposure system for rats using rectangular loop antenna in 3.4 GHz bandh 2010 International Workshop on Antenna Technology PS3.14, Mar.2010

Variser N., Wake K., Taki M., Watanabe S., Takebayashi T., Yamaguchi N., and Kikuchi Y. [2008a], gSAR characterization inside intracranial tumors for case- control epidemiological studies on cellular phones and RF exposure,h Annals of Telecommunications, Vol.63, pp.65-78.

Varsier N., Wake K., Taki M., Watanabe S., Cardis E., Wiart J., and Yamaguchi N. [2008b], gCategorization of mobile phones for exposure assessment in epidemiological studies on mobile phone use and brain cancer risk,h IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech., Vol.56, pp.2377-2384.

Varsier N., Wake K., Taki M., and Watanabe S. [2008c], gSAR characterization inside intracranial tumors for case-control epidemiological studies on cellular phones and RF exposure,h IEICE Trans. Commun., Vol.E910B, pp.3792-3795.

Wake K., Varsier N., Watanabe S., Taki M., Wiart J. and Mann S. [2009], gThe estimation of 3D SAR distributions in the human head from mobile phone compliance testing data for epidemiological studies,h Phys Med Biol, vol. 54 (19), pp.5695-5706.

Wang J., Fujiwara O., Kawai H., Wake K. and Watanabe S. [2008a], gDevelopment and dosimetry analysis of a 2-GHz whole-body exposure setup for unstrained pregnant and newborn rats.h IEEE Trans on MTT, vol. 56, no.8, pp.2008-2013. Wang@J., Fujiwara O., Wake K. and Watanabe S. [2008b], "Dosimetry evaluation for pregnant and fetus rats in a near-field exposure system of 1.95-GHz cellular phones," IEEE Microwave Wireless Comp. Lett., vol.18, no.4, pp.260-262.

Wang J., Tayamachi T. and Fujiwara O. [2008c], gAmplitude probability distri- bution measurement for electric field intensity assessment of cellular- phone- base stations,h IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat., vol.50, no.3, pp.736-739.

Wang J., Nishikawa Y. and Shibata T. [2009], gAnalysis of on-body transmission mechanism and characteristic based on an electromagnetic field approach,h IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol.57, no.10, pp. 2464-2470, Oct. 2009.

Wang Q. and Wang J. [2009a], gSA and SAR analysis for wearable UWB body area applications,h IEICE Trans. Commun., vol.E92-B, no.2, 425-430, Feb. 2009.

Wang Q., Tayamachi T., Kimura I. and Wang J. [2009b], gAn on-body channel model for UWB body area communications for various postures,h IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagt. vol.57, no.4, pp.991-998, April 2009.

Wang Q. and Wang J. [2010], "Performance of ultra wideband on-body communi- cation based on statistical channel model," IEICE Trans. Commun., vol.E93-B, no.4, 833-841, April 2010.

Watanabe R., Saito K., Watanabe S., Takahashi M. and Ito K. [2009], "Computation of interference voltage at a pacemaker due to electromagnetic wave from a mobile phone with a PIFA." Bioelectromagnetics Society Annual Meeting, P-70.

Watanabe R., Saito K., Watanabe S., Takahashi M. and Ito K. [2010], gSAR evaluations of mobile phone close to a pacemaker implanted in human body,h 32nd Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBS 2010), pp. 3839-3842, Buenos Aires, Argentina, Sep.

Watanabe T., Ikarashi N., Ishi N., Sato K., Hamada R. and Watanabe S. [2009] gFar-Field Gain Estimation of Sandwiched Dipole Antenna in Tissue Equivalent Liquid at 5.2GHzh EMC09 22S1-4 p.321 to 324 , Jul.

Watanabe Y., Sato K., Yukumi S., Yoshida M., Yamamoto Y. and Doi T. [2009], gDevelopment of a second-generation radiofrequency ablation using sintered MgFe2O4 needles and alternating magnetic field for human cancer therapy,h Biomed Mater Eng, vol.19(2), pp.101-110.

Xu S., Okano H., Tomita N. and Ikeda Y. [2010], gRecovery effects of a 180 mT static magnetic field on bone mineral density of osteoporotic lumbar vertebrae in ovariectomized rats.h Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011; 2011: 620984.

Yamashita H., Hata K., Yamaguchi H., Tsurita G., Wake K. and Watanabe S. [2010], gShort-term exposure to a 1439-MHz TDMA signal exerts no estrogenic effect in rats.h Bioelectromagnetics, vol.31, pp.573-575.

Yamazaki K., A. Hirata, S. Hamada, Y. Kamimura, H. Tarao, K. Wake, Y. Suzuki, N. Hayashi and O. Fujiwara [2009], gIntercomparison of induced fields in Japanese male model TARO due to magnetic field exposures,h 2009 Inter- national Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Kyoto (EMC'09 Kyoto), July.

Yamazaki K. [2010], gCalculation of induced electric field and current in the context of compliance testing with guidelines for human exposure to magnetic field.h Proceedings of the 2010 Asia-Pacific Radio Science Conference (AP-RASC'10), KAE-1, Toyama, Sep.

Yanamoto H., Miyamoto S., Nakajo Y., Nakano Y., Hori T. and Naritomi H. [2008], gRepeated application of an electric field increases BDNF in the brain, enhances spatial learning, and induces infarct tolerance.h Brain Research vol.1212, pp.79-88.

Yonebayashi J., Takamatsu S., Saito K., Takahashi M. and Ito K. [2010a], gDevelopment of dynamic phantom for evaluation of breath detection Doppler radar.h Bioelectromagnetics Society Annual Meeting, P-B-180.

Yonebayashi J., Takamatsu S., Saito K., Takahashi M. and Ito K. [2010b], gEvaluation on performance of doppler radar for breath detection by dynamic phantom,h Proceedings of the 2010 Asia-Pacific Radio Science Conference (APRASC'10), KB2-2, Toyama, Sep.

Yoshie S., Ikehata M., Hirota N., Takemura T., Minowa T., Hanagata N. and Hayakawa T. [2007], gEffects of static magnetic field on Escherichia coli deficient in superoxide dismutase,h International Conference on Magneto- Science ICMS2007, IIP-21, pp. 131, Nov.

Yoshie S., Ikehata M., Hirota N., Takemura T., Minowa T., Hanagata N. and Hayakawa T. [2008a], gEffects of strong static magnetic field up to 13 T on mutagenicity in SOD-deficient E. coli cells,h Proceedings of the Bioelectro- magnetics Society the 30th Annual Meeting (BEMS2008), P-92, pp. 384-385, June.

Yoshie S., Ikehata M., Hirota N., Takemura T., Minowa T., Hanagata N. and Hayakawa T. [2008b], gMutagenicity and co-mutagenicity of static magnetic field in SOD-deficient escherichia coli,h IRPA12, p. 924, October.

Yoshie S., Ikehata M., Saito A., Hiromoto S., Suzuki Y., Hayakawa T. and Taki M. [2008c], gIs there athermal RF effects? Evaluation of temperature sensitivity on hsp81 gene regulation in budding yeast and possible effects of 2.45GHz RF electromagnetic field exposure,h 6th international NIR workshop of ICNIRP, p10, October.

Yoshie S., Ikehata M., Saito A., Hiromoto S., Suzuki Y., Hayakawa T. and Taki M. [2009], gEvaluation of the effect of 2.45 GHz radiofrequency electromagnetic field on the thermal tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae,h Proceedings of the BioEM2009, P-147, June.

Yoshie S., Ikehata M., Suzuki Y., Wada K., Ohkubo C. and Hayalawa T. [2010], gEvaluation of biological effects of intermediate frequency magnetic field based on growth of DNA repair deficient mammalian cells and mutation assayh, Proceedings of the 2010 Asia-Pacific Radio Science Conference (APRASC'10), K1-4, Toyama, Sep.