Japanese URSI Commission J Report (2007.11-2010.10)

Edited by H. Kobayashi

 

 


J1@Overview of Japanese radio astronomy activity

 

  One of most important activities in Japanese radio astronomy is ALMA project, which is a millimeter and submillimeter large array with 80 telescopes at Atacama Desert of Chili. Japan shares quarter burden for the construction and operation. In concrete terms, Japan has constructed ACA@(Atacama Compact Array), which consists of four 12-m telescopes and twelve 7-m telescopes, and 3 band receiver cartridges for whole ALMA telescopes. The construction of ALMA is succeeding and science observations have been started

  In the field of millimeter and submillimeter radio astronomy, ASTE telescope, which is a 10-m submillimeter telescope at Atacama Desert, has started science observations. A large TES bolometer array is used for simultaneously imaging the sky in the two bands (1100 and 850 micron). It discovered a cluster of galaxies, which show ultra star burst formation. And Nobeyama 45-m telescope is continued for science observations and Nobeyama millimeter array was closed for common use.

  At the field of VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometer) researches, VERA@(VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry) was started to carry out a precise astrometry project to measure the distance of galactic maser objects by using trigonometric parallax measurement technique. It has revealed the structure of nearby spiral arm structure around the Sun. And a new VLBI correlator is developed under the collaboration with NAOJ (National Astronomical Observatory of Japan) and KASI (Korean Astronomy and Space Science Institute), which will be used for the East Asian VLBI network observations. Also Japanese VLBI network have started science observations with 6, 8 and 22 GHz bands.

  And NANTEN telescope, which is a 4-m submillimeter telescope at Chili, has made wide field mapping observations of southern hemisphere sky.

  On September 2007, SELENE satellite was launched, which is a lunar probe vehicle. In order to make precise hypsographic map and gravity map of whole lunar globe, Japanese VLBI network has used for the satellite tracking. It revealed the accurate gravitational field of the whole of the moon.

 

J2 ALMA

 

  The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is most important project for Japanese radio astronomy. It is constructed and operated by Europe, Japan, and North America, in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. ALMA is funded in Europe by the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern HemisphereCin Japan by the National lnstitutes of Natural Sciences(NINS) in cooperation with the Academia Sinica in Taiwan, and in North America by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) in cooperation with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC). ALMA@construction and operations are led on behalf of Europe by ESOCon behalf of Japan by the National Astronomical 0bservatory of Japan (NAOJ), and on behalf of North America by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). ALMA will have 54 12-m telescopes and 12 7-m telescopes with 3-0.3 mm wavelength receivers.

  East Asia shares the construction of Atacama Compact Array (ACA), which is a part of ALMA for wide field and extended structure imagings. ACA consists of four 12-m telescopes and twelve 7-m telescopes. Also East Asia has been developing three bands receivers, which are 125-163GHz, 385-500GHz, and 780-950 GHz, and a correlator. Operation and data analysis software is developing with international collaborations.

  ALMA was succeded test observations at 230, 345, and 690 GHz with more than 10 telescopes. They already showed the higest feasibilities of sensitivity and spatial resolution in millimeter and submillimeter arrays.@And first science program with common use will start within 2011.

 

J3 ASTE

 

  ASTE is 12-m single dish telescope for millimeter and submillimeter observations. It has four receivers, which are 350GHz/450GHz heterodyne receivers and the 270GHz/350GHz bolometer camera. It made important scientific results for star busrt galaxies, galactic star forming regions and others. ASTE discovered very active star burst galaxy at 11.5 Giga light-year distances, which shows 1000 time star formation than Milkyway galaxy. Also other star burst galaxies are discovered. These results are important for understanding of the revolution of galaxies.

 

J4 VLBI

 

  In the field of VLBI, Japan has mainly two activities. One is ground-based arrays, such as VERA, JVN and EAVN. The other is a space-based project, which is VSOP-2. VERA aims to measure the trigonometric parallaxes for galactic maser sources and reveal real structure of the Milkyway galaxy. VERA has started to observe more than 200 sources and determine the distance and proper motions for around 50 sources. And neaby arm structure around Sun is decided. Also JVN (Japanese VLBI Network) has started science observations, which consists of 12 VLBI stations in Japan. Fine structure of jets and disks in star forming regions are revealed by 6.7GHz methanol maser observations. And other high sentivity VLBI observations have been carried out. Moreover EAVN (East Asian VLBI network) is started. Some test observations were done and feasibility is checked between Japan, Korea and China. EAVN has around 20 VLBI stations, which is the biggest in the world. And new VLBI correlator is constructed by the interbational collaborations between Japan and Korea. It has 16 stations correlations with 8Gbps data rate per station, which is the biggest capability in the world. Space VLBI project, which is used space radio telescope as a VLBI station, is started the project. 9-m deployment antenna, which is a key instrument, met some difficulties. It is under the review of project by ISAS/JAXA.

 

J5 Others

 

  Japan has many activities of radio astronomy. Hokakido University has a 11-m telescope for 22 GHz observations. NH3 observations for galactic sources are published. Ibaraki University is operating two 32-m telescopes at Takahagi under the collaboration with NAOJ. They have 6, 8, and 22 GHz receivers for single dish and VLBI observations. National Institute of Communication and Trasmission (NICT) has a 32-m telescope at Kashima for VLBI. And NICT has developed VLBI sampler, recorder and software correlator for geodesy VLBI. Geo-Survey Institute (GSI) of Japan has a 32-m telescope at Tsukuba for geodesy VLBI, which is to keep the original point in Japan. GSI has three 11-m telescopes for geodesy VLBI in Shitotsugawa, Aira, and Chichijima. Moreover Tsukuba University uses GSI 32-m telescope for astonomy usage at 22GHz. Institute of Space and Astronaitics Science (ISAS) has a 64-m telescope at Usuda, which is mainly used for satellite tracking. It is used for VLBI. Waseda University has an 8-element array with 20-m fixed telescopes at 1.4 GHz, which is mainly used for pulsar and transient sources. Naogoya University has a 4-m submillimeter telescope at Atacama, which is called as NANTEN. It made large survey of some star forming regions. Gifu University has a 11-m telescope at 8 and 22GHz, which is used for geodey VLBI and optical fiber VLBI experiments. Osaka Prefecture University has a 1.85-m telescope at Nobeyama and an activity to develop new receivers. 6GHz and 8GHz common polarized and receiver is developed and used at Takahagi and Shanghai telescopes. Yamaguchi University is operating 32-m telescope at Yamaguchi with NAOJ, which has 6GHz and 8GHz receivers. It is used for single dish and VLBI obserbations and made some results of methanol masers and active galactic nuclei sources. Kagoshima Univeristy is collaborating with NAOJ for VERA. Period luminosity relation of Mira variables is deteming.

 

References and Abstracts

 

Ø          Abdo, A.A., M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, A. Axelsson, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbielline, D. Bastieri, B. M. Baughman, K. Bechtol, R. Bekkazzini, B. Berenji, E. D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A. W. Borgland, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, T. H. Burnett, G. A. Caliandro, R. A. Cameron, P. A. Caraveo, J. M. Casandjian, E. Cavazzuti, C. Cecchi, ö. Celik, A. Celotti, A. Chekhtman, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, W. Collmar, J. Conrad, L. Costamante, S. Cutini, A. de Angelis, F. de Palma, E. do Couto e Silva, P. S. Frell, D. Dumora, C. Farnier, C. Favuzzi, S. J. Fegan, W. B. Focke, P. Fortin, L. Foschini, M. Frailis, L. Fuhrmann, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I. A. Grenier, IJ. E. Grove, L. Guillemot, S. Guiriec, Y. Hanabata, E. Hays, R. E. Hughes, M. S. Jackson, G. Johannesson, A. S. Johnson, W. N. Johnson, M. Kadler, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, N. Kawai, M. Kerr, J. Knodlseder, M. L. Kocian, M. Kuss, J. Lander, L. Latronico, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M. N. Lovelette, P. Lubrano, G. M. Madejski, A. Makeev, W. Max-Moerbeck, M. N. Mazziotta, W. McConville, J. E. McEnery, S. McGlynn, C. Meurer, P. F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, A. A. Moiseev, C. Monte, M. E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I. V. Moskalenko, I. Nestoras, P. L. Nolan, J. P. Norris, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J. F. Ormes, D. Paneque, D. Parent, V. Pavlidou, V. Pelassa, M. Pepe, M. Persc-Rollins, F. Piron, T. A. Porter, S. Raino, R. Rando, M. Razzano, A. Readhead, O. Reimer, T. Reposeur, J. L. Richards, A. Y. Rodriguez, M. Roth, F. Ryde, H. F. -W. Sadrozinski, D. Sanchez, A. Sander, P. M. Saz Parkinson, J. D. Scargle, C. Sgro, M. S. Shaw, P. D. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, M. S. Strickman, D. J. Suson, G. Tagliaferri, H. Tajima, H. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J. B. Thayer, J. G. Thayer, D. J. Tho,pson, L. Tibaldo, O. Tibolla, D. F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, Y. Uchiyama, T. L. Usher, V. Vasileiou, N. Vilchez, V. Vitale, A. P. Waite, P. Wang, A. E. Wehrle, B. L. Winer, K. S. Wood, T. Ylinen, J. A. Zensus, M. Ziegler, M. (The Fermi/LAT Coolab.), E. Angelakis, C. Bailyn, H. Bignall, J. Blanchard, E. W. Bonning, M. Buxton, R. Canterna, A. Carraminana, L. Carrasco, F. Colomer, A. Doi, G. Ghisellini, M. Hauser, X. Hong, J. Isler, M. Kino, Y. Y. Kovalev, Yu. A. Kovalev, T. P. Krichbaum, A. Kutyrev, A. Lahteenmaki, J. J. van Langevelde, M. L. Lister, D. Macomb, L. Maraschi, N. Marchili, H. Nagai, Z. Paragi, C. Phillips, A. B. Pushkarev, E. Recillas, P. Roming, M. Sekido, M. A. Stark, A. Szomoru, J. Tammi, F. Tavecchio, M. Tornikoski, A. K. Tzioumis, C. M. Urry, and S. Wagner [2009], "Multiwavelength Monitoring of the Engimatic Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 PMN J0948+0022 in March-July 2009," Astrophys. J., vol.707, pp.727-737.

l           Following the recent discovery of ƒΑ-rays from the radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy PMN J0948+0022 (z = 0.5846), we started a multiwavelength campaign from radio toƒΑ-rays, which was carried out between the end of 2009 March and the beginning of July. The source displayed activity at all the observed wavelengths: a general decreasing trend from optical toƒΑ-ray frequencies was followed by an increase of radio emission after less than two months from the peak of theƒΑ-ray emission. The largest flux change, about a factor of about 4, occurred in the X-ray band. The smallest was at ultraviolet and near-infrared frequencies, where the rate of the detected photons dropped by a factor 1.6-1.9. At optical wavelengths, where the sampling rate was the highest, it was possible to observe day scale variability, with flux variations up to a factor of about 3. The behavior of PMN J0948+0022 observed in this campaign and the calculated power carried out by its jet in the form of protons, electrons, radiation, and magnetic field are quite similar to that of blazars, specifically of flat-spectrum radio quasars. These results confirm the idea that radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies host relativistic jets with power similar to that of average blazars.

Ø          Abdo, A. A., M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, M. Axelsson, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, D. Bastieri, B. M. Baughman, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R. D. Blandford, E. D. Bloom, D. C.-J. Bock, J. R. Bogart, E. Bonamente, A. W. Borgland, A. Bouvier, J. Bregeon, A. Brez, M. Brigida, P. Bruel, T. H. Burnett, S. Buson, G. A. Caliandro, R. A. Cameron, P. A. Caraveo, J. M. Casandjian, E. Cavazzuti, C. Cecchi, O. Celik, A. Chekhtman, C. C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, I. Cognard, J. Cohen-Tanugi, W. Collmar, L. R. Cominsky, J. Conrad, S. Corbel, R. Corbet, L. Costamante, S. Cutini, C. D. Dermer, A. de Angelis, F. de Palma, S. W. Digel, E. E. Silva Do Couto, P. S. Drell, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, C. Farnier, C. Favuzzi, S. J. Fegan, E. C. Ferrara, W. B. Focke, P. Fortin, M. Frailis, L. Fuhrmann, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, B. Giebels, N. Giglietto, P. Giommi, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I. A. Grenier, J. E. Grove, L. Guillemot, S. Guiriec, Y. Hanabata, A. K. Harding, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, D. Horan, R. E. Hughes, G. Iafrate, R. Itoh, M. S. Jackson, G. Johannesson, A. S. Johnson, R. P. Johnson, W. N. Johnson, M. Kadler, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, N. Kawai, M. Kerr, J. Knodlseder, M. L. Kocian, M. Kuss, J. Lande, S. Larsson, L. Latronico, M. Lemoine-Goumard, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M. N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, J. Macquart, G. M. Madejski, A. Makeev, W. Max-Moerbeck, M. N. Mazziotta, W. McConville, J. E. McEnery, S. McGlynn, C. Meurer, P. F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, A. A. Moiseev, C. Monte, M. E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I. V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, I. Nestoras, P. L. Nolan, J. P. Norris, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, A. Okumura, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J. F. Ormes, D. Paneque, J. H. Panetta, D. Parent, V. Pavlidou, T. J. Pearson, V. Pelassa, M. Pepe, M. Pesce-Rollins, F. Piron, T. A. Porter, S. Raino, R. Rando, A. Readhead, M. Razzano, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, T. Reposeur, L. C. Reyes, J. L. Richards, L. S. Rochester, A. Y. Rodriguez, M. Roth, F. Ryde, H. F.-W. Sadrozinski, D. Sanchez, A. Sander, P. M. Saz Parkinson, D. Scargle, C. Sgro, M. S. Shaw, C. Shrader, E. J. Siskind, D. A. Smith, P. D. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, L. Stawarz, M. Stevenson, M. S. Strickman, D. J. Suson, H. Tajima, H. Takahashi, T. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, G. B. Taylor, J. B. Thayer, J. G. Thayer, D. J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, D. F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, Y. Uchiyama, T. L. Usher, V. Vasileiou, N. Vilchez, V. Vitale, A. P. Waite, P. Wang, A. E. Wehrle, B. L. Winer, K. S. Wood, T. Ylinen, J. A. Zensus, M. Ziegler, M., (The Fermi-Lat Collaboration), M. Uemura, Y. Ikejiri, K. S. Kawabata, M. Kino, K. Sakimoto, M. Sasada, S. Sato, M. Yamanaka, M. Villata, C. M. Raiteri, I. Agudo, H. D. Aller, M. F. Aller, E. Angelakis, A. A. Arkharov, U. Bach, E. Benitez, A. Berdyugin, D. A. Blinov, M. Boettcher, C. S. Buemi, W. P. Chen, M. Dolci, D. Dultzin, N. V. Efimova, M. A. Gurwell, C. Gusbar, J. L. Gomez, J. Heidt, D. Hiriart, T. Hovatta, S. G. Jorstad, T. S. Konstantinova, E. N. Kopatskaya, E. Koptelova, O. M. Kurtanidze, A. Lahteenmaki, V. M. Larionov, E. G. Larionova, P. Leto, H. C. Lin, E. Lindfors, A. P. Marscher, I. M. McHardy, D. A. Melnichuk, M. Mommert, K. Nilsson, A. Paola, di, R. Reinthal, G. M. Richter, M. Roca-Sogorb, P. Roustazadeh, L. A. Sigua, L. O. Takalo, M. Tornikoski, C. Trigiglio, I. S. Troitsky, G. Umana, C. Villforth, K. Grainge, R. Moderski, K. Nalewajko, and M. A. Sikora [2010], "A Change in the Optical Polarization Associated with a -Ray Flare in the Blazar 3C 279," Nature, vol.463, pp.919-923.

l           It is widely accepted that strong and variable radiation detected over all accessible energy bands in a number of active galaxies arises froma relativistic, Doppler-boosted jet pointing close to our line of sight1. The size of the emitting zone and the location of this region relative to the central supermassive black hole are, however, poorly known, with estimates ranging from light-hours to a light-year or more. Here we report the coincidence of a gamma (c)-ray flare with a dramatic change of optical polarization angle. This provides evidence for co-spatiality of optical and c-ray emission regions and indicates a highly ordered jet magnetic field. The results also require a non-axisymmetric structure of the emission zone, implying a curved trajectory for the emitting material within the jet, with the dissipation region located at a considerable distance from the black hole, at about 105 gravitational radii.

Ø          Abramov-Maximov, V. E., G. B. Gelfreikh, N. I. Kobanov, and K. Shibasaki [2009], "A Comparison of Parameters of 3-minute and 5-minute Oscillations in Sunspots From Synchronous Microwave and Optical Observations," Proc. of the IAU Symp. 257, "Universal Heliophysical Processes", eds. N. Gopalswamy and David F. Webb, pp.95-99.

l           The observations of 3 and 5 minute oscillations in sunspots present information on propagation of MHD waves in the magnetic tubes of sunspots. We present a comparison of wavelet spectra of radio flux oscillations at = 1.76 cm and oscillations of longitudinal component of the velocity at the chromosphere in sunspot umbra and penumbra in AR 10661 (2004, Aug 18). The radio maps of the Sun obtained with the Nobeyama Radioheliograph were used. The spatial resolution of the radio data was about 10-15 arcsec, and 10 sec cadence was used. On the radio maps sunspot-associated sources were identified and time profiles of their maximum brightness temperatures for each radio source were calculated. Radio data consists of information of oscillations of plasma parameters (in the regions with magnetic field B = 2000 G) at the level of the chromosphere-corona transition region. The optical observations were carried out at Sayan observatory. These data included information on longitude component of the magnetic field at the photosphere (line Fe I 6569Å and longitudinal component of the velocity at the chromosphere (line HƒΏ was used). Comparing the wavelet diagrams covering the same periods of observations at radio and optics showed that some wave trains of time profiles are very similar in both kinds of observations (similar oscillation frequencies and their drifts, variations of amplitudes), however, some significant differences were also registered. The best similarity in optical and radio oscillations was found when the active region (AR) was near the center of the solar disk. The phase shifts between the two kinds of observations reflecting the propagation of MHD waves were also analyzed.

Ø          Adams, M., H. J. Boffin, W. Garnier, and D. Iono [2008], "The Global ALMA EPO Programme: Communicating Astronomy with the Public at Millimetre and Submillimetre Wavelengths," Commnicating astronomy with the public 2007 : Proceedings from the IAU/National Observatory of Athens/ESA/ESO Conference, eds. Christensen, L. L., Zoulias, M., and Robson, I., pp.288-293.

l           The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a major 21st century international science research facility that will open new windows on celestial origins. ALMA construction is underway in the high-elevation Atacama Desert of northern Chile. Science operations will begin in 2010, and full science operations will start in 2013. The ALMA Education and Public Outreach (EPO) programme is a global collaboration that seeks to communicate the excitement and value of the ALMA mission, science, and technology to international audiences effectively. The ALMA EPO programme is the responsibility of the Joint ALMA Observatory (JAO), the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO), and the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ). This contribution provides an overview of the ALMA Project and the global ALMA EPO programme.

Ø          Araki, H., S. T. Tazawa, H. Noda, Y. Ishihara, E. M. Migita, S. Sasaki, N. K. Kawano, I. K. Kamiya, and J. Oberst [2008a], "Present Status and Preliminary Results of the Lunar Topography by Kaguya-LALT Mission," 39th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, (Lunar and Planetary Science XXXIX), held March 10-14, 2008 in League City, Texas. LPI Contribution No. 1391., p.1510.

l           We report present status and the first results from the laser altimeter (LALT) on Kaguya (SELENE) lunar explorer. LALT started its observations on December 30, 2007. New, but preliminary, lunar topography will be obtained after two months observation by LALT.

Ø          Araki, H., S. Tazawa, H. Noda, T. Tsubokawa, N. Kawano, and S. Sasaki [2008b], "Observation of the Lunar Topography by the Laser Altimeter LALT on Board Japanese Lunar Explorer SELENE," Adv. Sp. Res., vol.42, pp.317-322.

l           The SELENE Laser Altimeter (LALT) is designed to map the Moonfs topography and will be launched in summer 2007. LALT incorporates Q-switched Cr doped Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) with an output energy of 100 mJ and 1 Hz repetition frequency for about one year mission period. The laser pulse travels to the Moon's surface and reflections from the surface are detected by a silicon avalanche photo-diode. The ranging distance is 50-150 km with about 5 m accuracy. Several corrections for accurate ranging data are investigated. The flight hardware has been qualified and passed all the integration tests. A principal goal of the LALT instrument is to obtain a much more detailed lunar topographic map which is superior in global coverage, measurement accuracy and number of data points to previous observations and models. The overall science objectives of LALT are (1) determination of lunar global figure, (2) internal structure and surface processes, (3) exploration of the lunar pole regions, and (4) reduction of lunar occultation data.

Ø          Araki, H., S. Sasaki, H. Noda, S. Tazawa, Y. Ishihara, E. Migita, N. Kawano, I. Kamiya, and J. Oberst [2008c], "Global Lunar Topography by LALT (Laser Altimeter) on Board Kaguya," Meteoritics and Planetary Sci. Suppl., vol.43, paper id. 5230.

l           Not Available

Ø          Araki, H., Y. Ishihara, H. Noda, S. Goossens, S. Tazawa, N. Kawano, S. Sasaki, and J. Oberst [2008d], "A New Lunar Topographic Map of the Moon by KAGUYA-LALT: The First Precise Topography of the Polar Regions," American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2008, abstract #P13E-04.

l           The Japanese lunar explorer KAGUYA (SELENE) was launched successfully on September 14th, 2007. A laser altimeter (LALT) is on board the main orbiter of KAGUYA. The objectives of LALT are (1) determination of lunar global figure, (2) studies in internal structure and surface processes, (3) exploration of the lunar pole regions, and (4) reduction of lunar occultation data. LALT transmits laser pulses whose time width is about 20 nano-seconds and pulse interval is 1 second. Range accuracy is up to 5m. The range data are transformed to the topography of the moon with the aid of position and attitude data of the main orbiter. From the end of December 2007, LALT started continuous operation and a global topography map with unprecedented resolution was produced. Lunar mean radius is estimated as 1737.15}0.01 km and the COM-COF offset is 1.94 km based on the spherical harmonic model STM359_grid-02 derived from LALT topography. The amplitude of the power spectrum of STM359_grid-02 is larger than that of the previous model at L>30 degrees, which may reflect the process of basin formation and/or crustal evolution. In the polar regions where previous CLEMENTINE altimeter did not cover, many topographic features that were difficult to see on the imagery from spacecraft or ground based radar are discovered. The sunlit rate in the lunar polar regions is estimated by using the polar topographic map made from LALT topography. We found that i) the highest sunlit rate is 93~96 % in both polar regions and ii) the eternal shadow area is smaller than previous estimations. These results will be of great use for the planning of the lunar polar exploration in near future.

Ø          Araki, H., S. Tazawa, H. Noda, Y. Ishihara, S. Goossens, S. Sasaki, N. Kawano, I. Kamiya, H. Otake, J. Oberst, and C. Shum [2009a], "Lunar Global Shape and Polar Topography Derived from Kaguya-LALT Laser Altimetry," Science, vol.323, pp.897-900.

l           A global lunar topographic map with a spatial resolution of finer than 0.5 degree has been derived using data from the laser altimeter (LALT) on board the Japanese lunar explorer Selenological and Engineering Explorer (SELENE or Kaguya). In comparison with the previous Unified Lunar Control Network (ULCN 2005) model, the new map reveals unbiased lunar topography for scales finer than a few hundred kilometers. Spherical harmonic analysis of global topographic data for the Moon, Earth, Mars, and Venus suggests that isostatic compensation is the prevailing lithospheric support mechanism at large scales. However, simple rigid support is suggested to dominate for the Moon, Venus, and Mars for smaller scales, which may indicate a drier lithosphere than on Earth, especially for the Moon and Venus.

Ø          Araki, H., S. Tazawa, H. Noda, Y. Ishihara, S. Goossens, N. Kawano, S. Sasaki, I. Kamiya, H. Otake, J. Oberst, and C. K. Shum [2009b], "The Lunar Global Topography by the Laser Altimeter (LALT) Onboard Kaguya (SELENE): Results from the One Year Observation," 40th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, (Lunar and Planetary Science XL), held March 23-27, 2009 in The Woodlands, Texas, id.1432.

l           A global and precise topographic map of the Moon has been derived by the laser altimeter (LALT) onboard the Japanese lunar explorer Kaguya (SELENE). Results of the one year observation and implications from the LALT topography will be presented.

Ø          Araki, H., S. Tazawa, H. Noda, E. Migita, I. Kamiya, N. Kawano, and S. Sasaki [2010], "Preliminary Results of Lunar Topography by KAGUYA-LALT Mission," Trans. of Sp. Tech. Japan, vol.7, pp.Tk23-Tk25.o:p>

l           The Laser Altimeter (LALT) on board the main orbiter of KAGUYA (SELENE) started nominal observation on December 30, 2007 for mapping the lunar topography. As of March 31, 2008, LALT has obtained about 6.7 million topographic data and the return rate is 97%. Several qualifications of the data to produce reliable topography are now in progress. The present status and preliminary results are reported in this article.

Ø          Asada, K., A. Doi, M. Kino, H. Nagai, M. Nakamura, S. Kameno, and VSOP-2 Science Working Group [2009a], "VSOP-2 Observations of M 87: A Proposal for a VSOP-2 Key Science Program," Proc. of the "Approaching Micro-Arcsecond Resolution with VSOP-2: Astrophysics and Technologies", eds. Hagiwara, Y., Fomalont, Ed., Tsuboi, M., and Murata, Y., ASP Conf. Ser. vol.402, pp.262-265.

l           We report the advantages and potentials of VSOP-2 observations for studying the central engine of M 87. Extremely high angular resolution of VSOP-2 of 38ƒΚ-arcsecond will provide us the unique opportunity to observe M 87 with spatial resolution of 0.0031 pc. This corresponds to around 10 times the Schwarzschild radius so that VSOP-2 can be a powerful tool to reveal the accretion disk and jet launching site, and investigate the formation, acceleration and collimation of the jet in connection with the physics of the accretion disk. A polished plan based on these studies will be proposed as one of the Key Science Programs of VSOP-2 mission in the category of Active Galactic Nuclei.

Ø          Asada, K., S. Kameno, Z.-Q. Shen, H. Shinji, D. C. Gabuzda, and M. Inoue [2009b], "3C 84 Expanding Radio Lobe Revealed by VSOP Observations," Proc. of the "Approaching Micro-Arcsecond Resolution with VSOP-2: Astrophysics and Technologies", eds. Hagiwara, Y., Fomalont, Ed., Tsuboi, M., and Murata, Y., ASP Conf. Ser. vol.402, pp.91-95.

l           We report the detection of the expansion and inner proper motions of a young radio lobe associated with the bright radio source 3C 84 in the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1275 using multi-epoch VSOP observation. The observed inner proper motions are consistent with the evolution scenario of classical double radio sources. The apparent expansion velocity is 0.50}0.09 c, and the age of radio lobe is estimated to be 45.7}8.9 years in 2001. The total flux density at 5 GHz increased at the end of the 1950fs, with several peaks in the middle of the 1980fs, and is in a decay phase now. The decay of total flux density can be naturally explained by an adiabatic cooling due to the expansion of the radio lobe, and previously measured spectral indices suggest that the emission comes from the surface of the radio lobe.

Ø          Asai, A., K. Shibata, H. Hara, and N. Nitta [2008a], "Characteristics of Anemone Active Regions Appearing in Coronal Holes Observed with the Yohkoh Soft X-Ray Telescope," Astrophys. J., vol.673, pp.1188-1193.

l           Coronal structure of active regions appearing in coronal holes is studied, using data that were obtained with the Soft X-Ray Telescope (SXT) aboard Yohkoh between 1991 November and 1993 March. The following characteristics are found. Many of the active regions (ARs) appearing in coronal holes show a structure that looks like a sea anemone. Such active regions are called anemone ARs. About one-fourth of all active regions that were observed with SXT from their births showed the anemone structure. For almost all the anemone ARs, the order of the magnetic polarities is consistent with the Hale-Nicholson polarity law. These anemone ARs also showed, to a greater or lesser extent, an east-west asymmetry in the X-ray intensity distribution, such that the following (eastern) part of the AR was brighter than its preceding (western) part. This, as well as the anemone shape itself, is consistent with the magnetic polarity distribution around the anemone ARs. These observations also suggest that an active region appearing in coronal holes has a simpler (less sheared) and more preceding-spot-dominant magnetic structure than those appearing in other regions.

Ø          Asai, A., H. Hara, T. Watanabe, S. Imada, T. Sakao, N. Narukage, J. L. Culhane, and G. A. Doschek [2008b], "Strongly Blueshifted Phenomena Observed with {\it Hinode}/EIS in the 2006 December 13 Solar Flare," Astrophys. J., vol.685, pp.622-628.

l           We present a detailed examination of strongly blueshifted emission lines observed with the EUV Imaging Spectrometer on board the Hinode satellite. We found two kinds of blueshifted phenomenon associated with the X3.4 flare that occurred on 2006 December 13. One was related to a plasmoid ejection seen in soft X-rays. It was very bright in all the lines used for the observations. The other was associated with the faint arc-shaped ejection seen in soft X-rays. The soft X-ray ejection is thought to be a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fast-mode shock wave. This is therefore the first spectroscopic observation of an MHD fast-mode shock wave associated with a flare.

Ø          Asai, A., H. Nakajima, M. Shimojo, T. Yokoyama, S. Masuda, and S. Krucker [2009], "Imaging Spectroscopy on Preflare Coronal Nonthermal Sources Associated with the 2002 July 23 Flare," Astrophys. J., vol.695, pp.1623-1630.

l           We present a detailed examination on the coronal nonthermal emissions during the preflare phase of the X4.8 flare that occurred on 2002 July 23. The microwave (17 GHz and 34 GHz) data obtained with Nobeyama Radioheliograph, at Nobeyama Solar Radio Observatory and the hard X-ray (HXR) data taken with RHESSI obviously showed nonthermal sources that are located above the flare loops during the preflare phase. We performed imaging spectroscopic analyses on the nonthermal emission sources both in microwaves and in HXRs, and confirmed that electrons are accelerated from several tens of keV to more than 1 MeV even in this phase. If we assume the thin-target model for the HXR emission source, the derived electron spectral indices (~4.7) is the same value as that from microwaves (~4.7) within the observational uncertainties, which implies that the distribution of the accelerated electrons follows a single power law. The number density of the microwave-emitting electrons is, however, larger than that of the HXR-emitting electrons, unless we assume low-ambient plasma density of about 1.0x109 cm-3 for the HXR-emitting region. If we adopt the thick-target model for the HXR emission source, on the other hand, the electron spectral index (~6.7) is much different, while the gap of the number density of the accelerated electrons is somewhat reduced.

Ø          Asaki, Y., S. Deguchi, H. Imai, K. Hachisuka, M. Miyoshi, and M. Honma [2008], "Measurements of Annual Parallaxes and Proper Motions of the Red Supergiant S Per," Proc. of the IAU Symp. 242, "Astrophysical Masers and their Environments", eds. Jessica Chapman and Willem Baan, pp.378-380.

l           VLBI phase-referencing monitoring of water vapor masers around the red supergiant, S Per, was conducted over four years. We successfully obtained proper motions and an annual parallax of the masers and determined the distance to S Per of 2.51}0.09 kpc. The proper motion of the star itself was inferred from the maser proper motions, and it was -0.38 and -1.54 mas/yr for right ascension and declination, respectively. Assuming the distance from the sun to the Galactic center, R0, of 8.5 kpc and the rotation velocity around the sun, ƒΖ0, of 220 km/s, the Galactic rotation velocity around S Per is 200 km/s.

Ø          Asaki, Y., and Y. Kono [2009a], "VSOP-2 Astrometric Accuracy with Phase Referencing," Proc. of the "Approaching Micro-Arcsecond Resolution with VSOP-2: Astrophysics and Technologies", eds. Hagiwara, Y., Fomalont, Ed., Tsuboi, M., and Murata, Y., ASP Conf. Ser. vol.402, pp.435-440.

l           The VSOP-2 mission is expected to conduct phase referencing observations with the unprecedented spatial resolutions at 8.4, 22, and 43 GHz together with the ASTRO-G satellite. In this report, VSOP-2 astrometry with phase referencing is examined in detail based on a simulation tool, ARIS

Ø          Asaki, Y., and M. Miyoshi [2009b], "A Future Submillimeter-Wave Space VLBI," Proc. of the "Approaching Micro-Arcsecond Resolution with VSOP-2: Astrophysics and Technologies", eds. Hagiwara, Y., Fomalont, Ed., Tsuboi, M., and Murata, Y., ASP Conf. Ser. vol.402, pp.431-434.

l           Submillimeter-wave VLBI is a very attractive idea for future radio astronomy. We discuss a submillimeter space VLBI based on the simulation of (u, v) coverage. We assume observations using three terrestrial submillimeter telescopes and one telescope in a sun-synchronous low-Earth orbit. The simulated array gives a well-filled (u, v) coverage for a specified source. However, the (u, v) coverage becomes much poorer if real-time VLBI data transfer from the satellite to the ground is needed even with a telemetry network with seven ground stations. Alternative methods for the VLBI data acquisition from the space telescope will be required for the proposed space VLBI.

Ø          Asayama, S., S. Kawashima, H. Iwashita, T. Takahashi, M. Inata, Y. Obuchi, T. Suzuki, and T. Wada [2008], "Design and Development of ALMA Band 4 Cartridge Receiver," Proc. of the 19th International Symposium on Space THz Technology, ed. Wolfgang Wild, pp.244-249.

l           This paper describes the design and development of the ALMA Band 4 cartridge receiver. Band 4 is one of the ten bands that will form the ALMA Front End Receiver. It receives radiation in the 125-163 GHz frequency range in two orthogonal polarizations and down-converts the sideband separated signals to intermediate frequencies between 4 and 8 GHz.

Ø          Asayama, S., and M. Kamikura [2009], "Development of Double-Ridged Waveguide Orthomode Transducer for the 2 MM Band," J. IR., Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, vol.30, pp.573-579.

l           This paper describes the design and development of the 2 mm band orthomode transducer (OMT) for the Band 4 cartridge receivers of the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA). The OMT consists of a double-ridged waveguide followed by a B ifot type junction with a main arm and two side arms. The main arm output is a multi-section step transformer followed by an E-plane bend and an oval waveguide to be realized the OMT with a two-split block using conventional Computer Numerical Control (CNC) milling techniques. The prototype OMT shows return loss of better than 20 dB, cross polarization coupling of better than 30 dB and insertion loss of less than 0.4 dB across 125 - 163 GHz. Furthermore, production feasibility was demonstrated through the evaluation of seven OMTs with a production design. The design of the developed OMT is so simple that it is easily scaled to submillimeter frequencies.

Ø          Baba, J., Y. Asaki, J. Makino, M. Miyoshi, R. Takahashi, T. R. Saitoh, and K. Wada [2009], "The Origin of Large Reculiar Motions of Star-Forming Regions and Spiral Structures of Our Galaxy," Astrophys. J., vol.706, pp.471-481.

l           Recent Very Long Baseline Interferometer (VLBI) observations determined the distances and proper motions of star-forming regions in spiral arms directly. They showed that star-forming regions and young stars have large peculiar motions as large as 30 km s-1 with complex structures. Such a large peculiar motion is incompatible with the prediction of the standard theory of quasi-stationary spiral arms. We use a high-resolution, self-consistent N-body+hydrodynamical simulation to explore how the spiral arms are formed and maintained, and how star-forming regions move. We found that arms are not quasi-stationary but transient and recurrent, as suggested in alternative theories of spiral structures. Because of this transient nature of the spiral arms, star-forming regions exhibit a trend of large and complex non-circular motions, which is qualitatively consistent with the VLBI observations. Owing to this large non-circular motion, a kinematically estimated gas map of our Galaxy has large systematic errors of ~2-3 kpc in the distance from the Sun.

Ø          Bakunina, I. A., V. E. Abramov-Maximov, S. V. Lesovoy, K. Shibasaki, A. A. Solov'ev, and Yu. V. Tikhomirov, [2009], "Long Period Oscillations of Microwave Emission of Solar Active Regions: Observations with NoRH and SSRT," Proc. of the IAU Symp. 257, "Universal Heliophysical Processes", eds. N. Gopalswamy and David F. Webb, pp.155-157.

l           In this work we present the first results of study and comparison of the parameters of quasi-periodic long-term oscillations of microwave emission of large (>0.7 arcmin) sunspots as a result of simultaneous observations with two radioheliographs Π NoRH (17 GHz) and Siberian Solar Radio Telescope (SSRT) (5.7 GHz) with 1 minute cadence. Radioheliographs have been working with quite large time overlap (about 5 hours) and have the high spatial resolution: 10 arcsec (NoRH) and 20 arcsec (SSRT). We have found that quasi-periodic long-term oscillations are surely observed at both frequencies with the periods in the range of 20-150 min. We detected common periods for common time of observations with two radioheliographs and interpret this as the consequence of the vertical-radial quasi-periodic displacements of sunspot as a whole structure.

Ø          Barnes, P. J., Y. Yonekura, S. D. Ryder, A. M. Hopkins, Y. Miyamoto, N. Furukawa, and Y. Fukui [2010], "Discovery of Large-Scale Gravitational Infall in a Massive Protostellar Cluster," Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc., vol.402, pp.73-86.

l           We report Mopra Australia Telescope National Facility (ATNF), Anglo-Australian Telescope and Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment observations of a molecular clump in Carina, BYF73 = G286.21+0.17, which give evidence of large-scale gravitational infall in the dense gas. From the millimetre and far-infrared data, the clump has a mass of ∼2 ~ 104 M, luminosity of ∼2-3 ~ 104 L and diameter of ∼0.9 pc. From radiative transfer modelling, we derive a mass infall rate of ∼3.4 ~ 10-2 M yr-1. If confirmed, this rate for gravitational infall in a molecular core or clump may be the highest yet seen. The near-infrared K-band imaging shows an adjacent compact H ii region and IR cluster surrounded by a shell-like photodissociation region showing H2 emission. At the molecular infall peak, the K imaging also reveals a deeply embedded group of stars with associated H2 emission. The combination of these features is very unusual, and we suggest that they indicate the ongoing formation of a massive star cluster. We discuss the implications of these data for competing theories of massive star formation.

Ø          Bridger, A., D. Clarke, N. P. F. Lorente, H. Yatagai, M. Scgilling, L. Testi, and R. H. Warmels [2008], "ALMA Observing Tool," Proc. of the SPIE, vol.7019, pp.70190R-1-12.

l           We present a report on the current development status of the ALMA Observing Tool, describing how the tool operates as an integrated environment for proposal and program preparation. The paper also covers the science-oriented graphical tools for both spatial and spectral setup, their system-oriented equivalents, local oscillator and correlator setup assistants as well as program validation.

Ø          Bronfman, L. [2008a], "Massive Star Formation in the Southern Milky Way. From Large Scale Surveys to High Resolution Observations," Asttrophys. and Sp. Sci., vol.313, pp.81-85.

l           During the past decade we have compiled a large molecular line data base of massive star forming regions in the southern Milky Way. These regions are confined into giant molecular clouds that trace the galactic spiral arms. Their radial distribution has a pronounced peak midway between the Sun and the galactic center, which in the IV quadrant corresponds to the location of the Norma Spiral arm. We study in some detail one of the foremost regions of massive star formation in the Norma arm, using millimeter continuum and line emission maps obtained with the SEST, APEX, and ASTE telescopes. It is a multiple system evolving along a complete GMC core, candidate for future ALMA observations.

Ø          Bronfman, L., G. Garay, M. Merello, D. Mardones, J. May, K. J. Brooks, L.-A. Nyman, and R. Gusten [2008b], "Discovery of an Extremely High Velocity, Massive, and Compact Molecular Outflow in Norma," Astrophys. J., vol.672, pp.391-397.

l           G331.5-0.1 in the Norma spiral arm is one of the most luminous and extended cores of a giant molecular cloud (GMC), containing at least six massive and dense dust condensations. Here we report the discovery, from observations of several submillimeter molecular lines that were made using the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope (ASTE) and the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment Telescope (APEX), of an unresolved, extremely high velocity molecular outflow toward the brightest and most massive dust condensation. The outflow is massive and energetic (flow mass of ~55 Msolar momentum of ~2.4x103 Msolar km s-1 kinetic energy of ~1.4x1048 ergs). These values are characteristic of flows driven by young massive stellar objects with Lbol~1x105 Lsolar. We also report the detection, using the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA), of a compact radio continuum source that is located at the center of the outflow and therefore likely to be its driving energy source. It has an spectral index between 4.8 and 8.6 GHz of 1.1}0.2, suggesting that it might correspond to a collimated jet.

Ø          Bussey, D. B. J., J. A. McGovern, P. D. Spudis, C. Neish, S. Sorensen, H. Noda, and Y. Ishihara [2010], "Lunar Polar Illumination Conditions Derived Using Kaguya Laser Data," LPI Contribution No. 1533, p.2293.

l           We have used the Kaguya laser-derived topography data to fully characterize the lunar polar illumination conditions. We have generated illumination profiles for the areas that receive the most illumination.

Ø          Choi, M., and K. Tatematsu [2009], "Protostellar Accretion Disks for the NGC 1333 IRAS 4A Binary System," Proc. of the "Exoplanets and disks: their formation and diversity", eds. Usuda, T., Tamura, M., and Ishii, M., AIP Conf. Proc., vol.1158, pp.117-118.

l           We present the results of radio imaging observations of the NGC 1333 IRAS 4A protobinary in the ammonia (2, 2) and (3, 3) lines and in the 1.3 cm continuum. Both ammonia and continuum maps show two compact sources, accretion disks of Al and A2. Interestingly, the A2 disk is brighter in the ammonia lines but dimmer in the dust continuum than its sibling disk. This difference suggests that the disks have surprisingly dissimilar characters, one gas-rich and the other dusty. If such a condition can persist until the planet-forming phase of the disk evolution, planetary systems produced in such disks may look very different from each other.

Ø          Choi, Y. K., T. Hirota, M. Honma, and H. Kobayashi [2008a], "Astrometry of Red Supergiant VY Canis Majoris with VERA," Proc. of the IAU Symp. 248, "A Giant Step: from Milli- to Micro-arcsecond Astrometry", eds. Wenjing Jin, Imants Platais, Michael A. C. Perryman, pp.192-193.

l           We present observational results on the red supergiant VY Canis Majoris with VERA. We have observed 22 GHz H2O masers and 43 GHz SiO masers (v=1 and 2 J=1-0) around VY CMa for 13 months. We succesfully detected a parallax of 0.87}0.08 mas, corresponding to the distance of 1.15 +0.10-0.09 kpc using H2O masers. As the result of phase-referencing analyses, we have measured absolute positions for both H2O masers and SiO masers. The H2O maser features show rapid expansion off the central star.

Ø          Choi, Y. K., T. Hirota, M. Honma, H. Kobayashi, T. Bushimata, H. Imai, K. Iwadate, T. Jike, S. Kameno, O. Kameya, R. Kamohara, Y. Kan-ya, N. Kawaguchi, M. Kijima, M. K. Kim, S. Kuji, T. Kurayama, S. Manabe, K. Maruyama, M. Matsui, N. Matsumoto, T. Miyaji, T. Nagayama, A. Nakagawa, K. Nakamura, C. S. Oh, T. Omodaka, T. Oyama, S. Sakai, T. Sasao, K. Sato, M. Sato, K. M. Shibata, Y. Tamura, M. Tsushima, and K. Yamashita [2008b], "Distance to VY Canis Majoris with VERA," Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan, vol.60, pp.1007-1012.

l           We report on astrometric observations of H2O masers around the red supergiant VY Canis Majoris carried out with VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA). Based on astrometric monitoring for 13 months, we successfully measured a trigonometric parallax of 0.88}0.08 mas, corresponding to a distance of 1.14 +0.11-0.09 kpc. This is the most accurate determined distance to VY CMa and the first one based on an annual parallax measurement. The luminosity of VY CMa has been overestimated due to a previously accepted distance. With our result, we re-estimate the luminosity of VY CMa to be (3}0.5) x 105 Lsun using the bolometric flux integrated over optical and IR wavelengths. This improved luminosity value makes the location of VY CMa on the Hertzsprung-Russel (HR) diagram much closer to the theoretically allowable zone (i.e. the left side of the Hayashi track) than previous ones, though the uncertainty in the effective temperature of the stellar surface still does not permit us to make a final conclusion.

Ø          Choi, Y. K., T. Hirota, M. Honma, and H. Kobayashi [2008c], "Distance to VY Canis Majoris with VERA," Proc. of the 9th European VLBI Network Symposium on The role of VLBI in the Golden Age for Radio Astronomy and EVN Users Meeting, September 23-16, 2008, Bologna, Italy, pp.57-62.

l           We report on observational results of H2O and SiO (J=1 0, v=1 and v=2) masers around VY Canis Majoris (VYCMa) carried out with VERA for 13 months. Our astrometric monitoring measured a parallax of 0.88}0.08 mas, and it corresponds to a distance of 1.14+0.11-0.09 kpc. This is the first trigonometric parallax measurement for VY CMa. Using our newly obtained distance with a high accuracy, the luminosity of VY CMa was re-estimated to be (3}0.5) ~ 105 L. This improved luminosity is more consistent with the theoretical evolutionary model than previous values. Moreover, we considered 3-dimensional structure and kinematics of the circumstellar envelopes around VY CMa with propermotions and absolute positions of the H2O and SiO masers. The 3-dimensional structures and kinematics suggest a bipolar outίow around VY CMa along the line of sight.

Ø          Choi, Y. K., T. Hirota, M. Honma, and H. Kobayashi [2009], "Astrometry of the Red Supergiant Star VY Canis Majoris with VERA," Proc. of the "Approaching Micro-Arcsecond Resolution with VSOP-2: Astrophysics and Technologies", eds. Hagiwara, Y., Fomalont, Ed., Tsuboi, M., and Murata, Y., ASP Conf. Ser. vol.402, pp.363-365.

l           We present observational results on the red supergiant VY Canis Majoris with VERA. We have observed 22 GHz H2O masers and 43 GHz SiO masers (v = 1 and 2 J = 1-0) around VY CMa for 13 months. We successfully detected a parallax of 0.87}0.08 mas, corresponding to 1.15+0.10-0.09 kpc of distance using H2O masers. As results of phaseΠreferencing analyses, we have measured absolute positions for both the H2O masers and SiO masers. The proper motions of the H2O masers show the tendency of expansion. Cirtain, J. W., L. Golub, L. Lundquist, A. van Ballegooijen, A. Savcheva, M. Shimojo, E. DeLuca, S. Tsuneta, T. Sakao, K. Reeves, M. Weber, R. Kano, N. Narukage, and K. Shibasaki [2007], "Evidence for Alfvén Waves in Solar X-ray Jets," Science, vol.318, pp.1580-1582.

Ø          Coronal magnetic fields are dynamic, and field lines may misalign, reassemble, and release energy by means of magnetic reconnection. Giant releases may generate solar flares and coronal mass ejections and, on a smaller scale, produce x-ray jets. Hinode observations of polar coronal holes reveal that x-ray jets have two distinct velocities: one near the Alfvén speed (~800 kilometers per second) and another near the sound speed (200 kilometers per second). Many more jets were seen than have been reported previously; we detected an average of 10 events per hour up to these speeds, whereas previous observations documented only a handful per day with lower average speeds of 200 kilometers per second. The x-ray jets are about 2 ~ 103 to 2 ~ 104 kilometers wide and 1 ~ 105 kilometers long and last from 100 to 2500 seconds. The large number of events, coupled with the high velocities of the apparent outflows, indicates that the jets may contribute to the high-speed solar wind.

l           Deguchi, S., T. Fujii, Y. Ita, H. Izumiura, O. Kameya, A. Miyazaki, Y. Nakada, and M. Ideta [2008a], "Dynamics of Stars in the Inner Galactic Bulge Revealed from SiO Maser Surveys," Proc. of the "Mapping the Galaxy and Nearby Galaxies", eds. Wada, K., and Combes, F., pp.33-38.

Ø          We surveyed ~300 MSX/2MASS infrared objects in the 7‹~2‹ area of the Galactic center in the ~43 GHz SiO maser lines, obtaining accurate radial velocities of ~160 detected objects. The longitude-velocity diagram of these objects reveals two conspicuous features: one indicating a linear velocity increase with longitude with |l| < 1.5‹, which is likely to be associated with the inner bar, and the other having eccentric velocities with |Vlsr| >250 km s-1. Based on numerical simulations of stellar orbits in the Galactic bulge, we conclude that the latter feature is created as a result of a past star formation in the bulge, when the intersecting point of the x1 and x2 orbits was considerably outside of the present position.

l           Deguchi, S. [2008b], "SiO Maser Survey of Evolved Stars in the Galaxy: Various Environments of Maser Sources," Proc. of the IAU Symp. 242, "Astrophysical Masers and their Environments", eds. Jessica Chapman and Willem Baan, pp.200-207.

Ø          Using the SiO J=1-0 v=1 and v=2 lines near 43 GHz, we have detected about 2000 of 3600 sources observed with the Nobeyama 45-m radio telescope. The sources were chosen from IRAS/MSX/2MASS catalogs using color-selection criteria to pick up mass-losing oxygen-rich AGB stars and some post-AGB objects. A number of interesting sources were also found: supergiants in a massive star cluster, a nova with light echo (V838 Mon), AGB stars in globular clusters, and AGB candidates associated with dwarf galaxies. With the exception of the stars in the massive open star cluster, these 'unusual' objects are associated with metal poor environments where mass losing oxygen-rich AGB stars are unexpected. It is inferred that these objects were created by stellar merging which can occur in dense star clusters.

l           Deguchi, S. [2009a], "Study of Red Supergiants in Embedded Star Clusters by Radio Lines," Proc. of the "AGB stars and related phenomena", eds. Toshiya Ueta, Noriyuki Matsunaga, and Yoshifusa Ita, p.74.

Ø          Not Available

l           Deguchi, S., N. Matsunaga, H. Fukushi, and T. Kaminski [2009b], "Detection of the SiO J=2-1, v=1 Maser Emission at 86.2 GHz in V838 Mon, an Unusual Nova-Like Variable," ATel, #1996.

Ø          We report on a new detection of the SiO J=2-1 v=1 maser line at 86.243 GHz in V838 Mon. The observations were obtained on 2009 March 21-23 using the 45m telescope at Nobeyama with a newly built sensitive dual- polarization receiver. The maser line has a peak intensity of 0.39 Jy at Vlsr=53.7 km/s and exhibits a complex asymmetric pedestal with a stronger contribution at the lower velocity side; the total integrated intensity of the emission feature is of 2.8 Jy km/s. Deguchi, S., N. Matsunaga, S. Takahashi, N. Kuno, and J. Nakashima [2010a], "Dying SiO Maser in the V407 Cyg System," Atel, #2519.

l           The symbiotic nova, V407 Cyg, is a system having a Mira-type cool stellar component with circumstellar SiO maser emission (Deguchi et al. 2005; PASJ 57, 939). The nova outburst occurred in the V407 Cyg system can significantly influence the structure of the circumstellar shell of the cool star in a short time scale. We have been monitoring the time variation of SiO maser emission in the V407 Cyg system with the Nobeyama 45m telescope every few days since March 16, 2010.

Ø          Deguchi, S., J. Nakashima, Y. Zhang, S. S. N. Chong, K. Koike, and S. Kwok [2010b], "SiO and H2O Maser Observations of Red Supergiants in Star Clusters Embedded in the Galactic Disk," Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan, vol.62, pp.391-407.

l           We present the results of radio observations of red supergiants in a star cluster, Stephenson (1990, AJ, 99, 1867)fs #2, and of candidates for red supergiants in three star clusters, Mercer et al. (2005, ApJ, 635, 560)fs #4, #8, and #13, in the SiO and H2O maser lines. The Stephensonfs #2 cluster and nearby aggregation at the southwest contain more than 15 red supergiants. We detected one red supergiant at the center of Stephensonfs #2 and three in a southwest aggregation in the SiO maser line; three out of these four were also detected in the H2O maser line. The average radial velocity of the four detected objects is 97 kms-1, giving a kinematic distance of 5.5 kpc, which locates this cluster near the base of the Scutum-Crux spiral arm. We also detected six SiO emitting objects associated with other star clusters. In addition, mapping observations in the CO J = 1-0 line toward these clusters revealed that an appreciable amount of molecular gas still remains around the Stephensonfs #2 cluster in contrast to the prototypical red-supergiant cluster, Bica et al. (2003, A&A, 404, 223)fs #122. This indicates that the time scale of gas expulsion differs considerably in individual clusters.

Ø          Deguchi, S., T. Shimoikura, and K. Koike [2010c], "SiO Maser Survey off the Galactic Plane: A Signature of Streaming Motion," Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan, vol.62, 5pp.25-546.

l           A group of Mira variables in the solar neighborhood shows unusual spatial motion in the Galaxy. To study this motion on a much larger scale in the Galaxy, we newly surveyed 134 evolved stars off the Galactic plane by SiO maser lines, obtaining accurate radial velocities of 84 detected stars. Together with the past data of SiO maser sources, we analyzed the radial-velocity data of a large sample of sources distributed in a distance range of about 0.3-6 kpc in the first Galactic quadrant. At Galactic longitudes between 20‹ and 40‹, we found a group of stars with large negative radial velocities, which deviate by more than 100 km s-1 from the Galactic rotation. We show that these deviant motions of maser stars are created by periodic gravitational perturbation of the Bulge bar, and that the effect appears most strongly at radii between corotation and outer Lindblad resonances The resonance effect can explain the displacement of positions from the Galactic plane as well.

Ø          Doi, A., K. Fujisawa, M. Honma, K. Sugiyama, Y. Murata, N. Mochizuki, and Y. Isono [2008a], "Japanese VLBI Network Observations of 6.7-GHz Methanol Masers 1. Array," Proc. of the IAU Symp. 242, "Astrophysical Masers and their Environments", eds. Jessica Chapman and Willem Baan, pp.148-149.

l           The Japanese VLBI network (JVN) has begun observations of 6.7-GHz methanol masers associated with massive star-forming regions. The JVN is a newly-established VLBI array with baselines ranging from 50 to 2560 km spread across the Japanese islands. Three observing bands of 6.7, 8.4, and 22 GHz are now available. The array consists of ten antennas: VERA Mizusawa 20 m, VERA Ishigaki 20 m, VERA Iriki 20 m, Usuda 64 m, Yamaguchi 32 m, Tomakomai 11 m, Tsukuba 32 m, Kashima 34 m, VERA Ogasawara 20 m, and Gifu 11 m, the first five of which have 6.7-GHz receiving systems. In summer 2005, we obtained the first fringes at 6.7 GHz, and VLBI images of 12 methanol maser sites including seven that had not previously been imaged with VLBI at this band. In 2006 summer, we obtained phase-reference observations toward several methanol maser sites.

Ø          Doi, A., K. Asada, H. Nagai, K. Fujisawa, and N. Kawaguchi [2008b], "JVN Observataions of NLS1 Galaxies and BAL Quasars," Proc. of the 9th European VLBI Network Symposium on The role of VLBI in the Golden Age for Radio Astronomy and EVN Users Meeting, September 23-16, 2008, Bologna, Italy, pp.73-75.

l           We are conducting VLBI observations for Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s) and Broad Absorption Line (BAL) quasars, which are thought to be driven by highly accreting central engines, in order to understand accretion phenomena on such central engines. Because these AGN subclasses are generally very weak radio sources, phase-referencing VLBI observations are being carried out using Japanese VLBI Network (JVN), together with VLBA, EVN, and an optical-fibre-linked JVN subarray gOCTAVE.h For NLS1s, 12 out of 14 sources have been successfully imaged in milli-arcsecond resolutions. For BAL quasars, 21 out of 23 sources have been successfully detected with OCTAVE baselines at 8.4 GHz. Several NLS1 sand BAL quasars are investigated in images at multi-frequency. Some evidence of Doppler-boosting on relativistic jets were seen in several radio-loud objects, which is inconsistent with the edge-on view paradigm of BAL quasars.

Ø          Doi, A., M. Tsuboi, Y. Kono, H. Takeuchi, N. Mochizuki, Y. Murata, and ASTRO-G Group [2009a], "ASTRO-G Observing Systems," Proc. of the "Approaching Micro-Arcsecond Resolution with VSOP-2: Astrophysics and Technologies", eds. Hagiwara, Y., Fomalont, Ed., Tsuboi, M., and Murata, Y., ASP Conf. Ser. vol.402, pp.46-50.

l           ASTRO-G for the VSOP-2 project is a radio telescope satellite for a next-generation space very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) following HALCA for the VSOP project. It will be launched in 2012. We present the overview of ASTRO-G observing systems and available observing modes.

Ø          Doi, A., N. Kawaguchi, Y. Kono, T. Oyama, K. Fujisawa, H. Takaba, H. Sudou, K. Wakamatsu, A. Yamauchi, Y. Murata, N. Mochizuki, K. Wajima, T. Omodaka, T. Nagayama, N. Nakai, K. Sorai, E. Kawai, M. Sekido, Y. Koyama, S. Asano, and H. Uose, [2009b], "VLBI Detections of Parsec-Scale Nonthermal Jets in Radio-Loud Absorption Line Quasars," Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan, vol.61, pp.1389-1398.

l           We conducted radio detection observations at 8.4 GHz for 22 radio-loud broad absorption line (BAL) quasars, selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Third Data Release, by a very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) technique. The VLBI instrument we used was developed by the Optically ConnecTed Array for VLBI Exploration project (OCTAVE), which is operated as a subarray of the Japanese VLBI Network. We aimed to select BAL quasars with nonthermal jets suitable for measuring their orientation angles and ages by subsequent detailed VLBI imaging studies to evaluate two controversial issues of whether BAL quasars are viewed nearly edge-on, and of whether BAL quasars are in a short-lived evolutionary phase of the quasar population. We detected 20 out of 22 sources using the OCTAVE baselines, implying brightness temperatures greater than 105 K, which presumably come from nonthermal jets. Hence, BAL outflows and nonthermal jets can be generated simultaneously in these central engines. We also found four inverted-spectrum sources, which are interpreted as Doppler-beamed, pole-on-viewed relativistic jet sources, or young radio sources: single edge-on geometry cannot describe all BAL quasars. We discuss the implications of the OCTAVE observations for investigations for the orientation and evolutionary stage of BAL quasars.

Ø          Egusa, F., Y. Sofue, H. Nakanishi, and S. Komugi [2008a], "Determination of Pattern Speed and Star Formation Timescale in Nearby Spiral Galaxies," Proc. of the "Mapping the Galaxy and Nearby Galaxies", eds. Wada, K., and Combes, F., p.320.

l           Without abstract Egusa, F., Y. Sofue, S. Komugi, and H. Nakanishi [2008b], "Determination of Star Formation Timescale and Pattern Speed of Spiral Galaxies", Proc. of the "Pathways Through an Eclectic Universe", eds. J. H. Knapen, T. J. Mahoney, and A. Vazdekis, ASP Conf. Ser., vol.390, pp.180-181.

Ø          We propose a method to determine the star formation timescale and pattern speed simultaneously in spiral galaxies. Though they are important and fundamental parameters in galactic dynamics and star formation scenarios, it has hitherto been difficult to derive their values directly from observations. Our method utilizes azimuthal offsets between arms of HII regions and molecular clouds, and has been successfully applied to three nearby galaxies so far through the use of CO and HƒΏ images. As derived star formation timescales fall into the narrow range of 4-13Myr, which is consistent with typical timescales for molecular clouds to collapse gravitationally, a dominant mechanism of global star formation in spiral arms might be the gravitational collapse of molecular clouds.

l           Egusa, F., Y. Sofue, K. Kohno, H. Nakanishi, and S. Komugi [2009], "Determining Star Formation Timescale and Pattern Speed in Nearby Spiral Galaxies," Astrophys, J., vol.697, pp.1870-1891.

Ø          We present a revised method for simultaneous determination of the pattern speed (ƒΆP) and star formation timescale (tSF) of spiral galaxies, which is originally proposed in our previous work. As this method utilizes offsets between molecular and young-stellar arms, we refer to it as the "Offset Method." Details of the method, its application, and results for CO and HƒΏ images of 13 nearby spiral galaxies are described here. CO data are from our observations with the Nobeyama Millimeter Array for two galaxies, and from the BIMA SONG for the rest. Out of 13 galaxies, we were able to derive ½P and tSF for five galaxies. We categorize them as "C" galaxies as their offsets are clear. Our findings from these galaxies are as follows. (1) The corotation radius calculated by the derived ƒΆP is close to the edge of the CO data, and is about half of the optical radius for three galaxies. (2) The derived tSF is roughly consistent with the free-fall time of typical molecular clouds, which indicates that the gravitational instability is the dominant mechanism triggering star formation in spiral arms. (3) The tSF is found to be almost independent of the surface density of molecular gas, metallicity, or spiral arm strengths. The number of "C" galaxies and the quality of CO data, however, are not enough to confirm these relationships. We also find that two other galaxies show no offsets between CO and H , although their arms are clearly traced, and categorize them as "N" galaxies. The presence of a bar could account for this feature, since these two galaxies are both barred. With one galaxy excluded from our analysis due to its poor rotation curve, offsets of the remaining five galaxies are found to be ambiguous. Either their dependence on the rotational frequency cannot be explained by our picture, or the number or quality of data is not sufficient for the analysis. We categorize them as "A" galaxies. The possible reasons for this ambiguity are (1) the density wave is weaker, and/or (2) observational resolution and sensitivity are not enough to detect the spiral arms and their offsets clearly. The former is supported by our finding that the arm strengths of "A" galaxies are slightly weaker than that of "C" galaxies.

l           Ezawa, H., K. Kohno, R. Kawabe, S. Yamamoto, H. Inoue, H. Iwashita, H. Matsuo, T. Okuda, T. Oshima, T. Sakai, K. Tanaka, N. Yamaguchi, G. W. Wilson, M. S. Yun, I. Aretxaga, D. Hughes, J. Austermann, T. A. Perera, K. S. Scott, L. Bronfman, and J. R. Cortes [2008], "New Archevements of ASTE: the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment." Proc. of the SPIE, vol.7012, pp.101208-1-9.

Ø          ASTE is a 10-m submillimeter telescope operating in Atacama desert in northern Chile since 2002 by NAOJ and collaborators. Thanks to the excellent observing condition at the telescope site, ASTE has been producing numerous astronomical results from star forming regions, Galactic center, Magellanic clouds, nearby galaxies, and galaxy clusters. There has been three major improvements during the years 2007-2008: continuum camera "AzTEC", new SIS receiver "CATS345", and a wide-band spectrometer "WHSF". AzTEC is a 144 element bolometer array at 270 GHz, developed by University of Massachusetts and collaborators. The mapping speed reaches 10-30 arcmin2/hr/mJy2. CATS345 is a side-band separation (2SB) SIS receiver developed by University of Tokyo and NAOJ. The IF bandwidth is 4 GHz with side-band rejection ratio better than 10 dB. We have achieved the typical system noise temperature of 200-400 K (SSB) within 330-360 GHz, the best value being 150 K (SSB) at the frequency of 12CO(J=3-2) at 345 GHz under a typical weather condition. The new spectrometer WHSF employs of an FX type auto-correlator, ultra-high speed sampler, and digital signal transmitter. It can be operated in two modes; 4096 MHz band-width ~2 IFs or 2048 MHz band-width ~4 IFs, both with 4096 channels in spectral resolution.

l           Fomalont, E. B., S. Kopeikin, O. Titov, and M. Honma [2009], "VLBA/VERA Test of General Relativity," AAS#15.03/BAAS, vol.41, p.890.

Ø          We report on VLBA/VERA/geodetic observational tests of General Relativity. First, we will summarize the results from recent VLBA experiments which measured gamma from the bending of radio waves of quasars by the solar gravitational field, and the experiment that measured the the aberration of gravity using the Jovian gravitational field. We will then describe tentative results from several recent experiments that continue the measurements of the aberration of gravity from Jupiter and Saturn using the VLBA, VERA and the geodetic network. Finally, we discuss the limits of precision that can be obtained with VLBI now and in the future.

l           Fomalont, Ed., S. Kopeikin, D. Jones, M. Honma, and O. Titov [2010], "Recent VLBA/VERA/IVS Tests of General Relativity,h Proc. of the IAU symp. vol.261, "Relativity in fundamental astronomy: dynamics, reference frames, and data analysis", pp.291-295.

Ø          We report on recent VLBA/VERA/IVS observational tests of General Relativity. First, we will summarize the results from the 2005 VLBA experiment that determined gamma with an accuracy of 0.0003 by measuring the deflection of four compact radio sources by the solar gravitational field. We discuss the limits of precision that can be obtained with VLBA experiments in the future. We describe recent experiments using the three global arrays to measure the aberration of gravity when Jupiter and Saturn passed within a few arcmin of bright radio sources. These reductions are still in progress, but the anticipated positional accuracy of the VLBA experiment may be about 0.01 mas.

l           Friesen, R. K., J. Di Franesco, Y. Shimajiri, and S. Takakuwa [2010], "The Initial Conditions of Clusteres Star Formation II: N2H+ Observations of the Ophiuchus B Core," Astrophys. J., vol.708, pp.1002-1024.

Ø          We present a Nobeyama 45 m Radio Telescope map and Australia Telescope Compact Array pointed observations of N2H+ 1-0 emission toward the clustered, low-mass star-forming Oph B Core within the Ophiuchus molecular cloud. We compare these data with previously published results of high-resolution NH3 (1,1) and (2,2) observations in Oph B. We use 3D CLUMPFIND to identify emission features in the single-dish N2H+ map, and find that the N2H+ "clumps" match well similar features previously identified in NH3 (1,1) emission, but are frequently offset to clumps identified at similar resolution in 850ƒΚm continuum emission. Wide line widths in the Oph B2 sub-Core indicate that non-thermal motions dominate the Core kinematics, and remain transonic at densities n ~ 3 ~ 105 cm-3 with large scatter and no trend with N(H2). In contrast, non-thermal motions in Oph B1 and B3 are subsonic with little variation, but also show no trend with H2 column density. Over all of Oph B, non-thermal N2H+ line widths are substantially narrower than those traced by NH3, making it unlikely NH3 and N2H+ trace the same material, but the vLSR of both species agree well. We find evidence for accretion in Oph B1 from the surrounding ambient gas. The NH3/N2H+ abundance ratio is larger toward starless Oph B1 than toward protostellar Oph B2, similar to recent observational results in other star-forming regions. The interferometer observations reveal small-scale structure in N2H+ 1-0 emission, which are again offset from continuum emission. No interferometric N2H+ emission peaks were found to be coincident with continuum clumps. In particular, the ~1 Msun B2-MM8 clump is associated with an N2H+ emission minimum and surrounded by a broken ring-like N2H+ emission structure, suggestive of N2H+ depletion. We find a strong general trend of decreasing N2H+ abundance with increasing N(H2) in Oph B which matches that found for NH3.

l           Fujishita, M., K. Torii, N. Kudo, T. Kawase, H. Yamamoto, A. Kawamura, N. Mizuno, T. Onishi, A. Mizuno, M. Machida, K. Takahashi, S. Nozawa, R. Matsumoto, and Y. Fukui [2009], "Discovery of Molecular Loop 3 in the Galactic Center: Evidence for a Positive-Velocity Magnetically Floated Loop towards L=355‹-359‹, " Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan, vol.61, pp.1039-1053.

Ø          We have discovered a molecular dome-like feature towards 355‹ ≤ l ≤ 359‹ and 0‹ ≤ b ≤ 2‹. The large velocity dispersions of 50-100 km s-1 of this feature are much larger than those in the Galactic disk, and indicate that the feature is located in the Galactic center, probably within ~1 kpc of Sgr A*. The distribution has a projected length of ~600 pc and a height of ~300 pc from the Galactic disk, and shows a large-scale monotonic velocity gradient of ~130 km s-1 per ~600 pc. The feature is also associated with HI gas having a more continuous spatial and velocity distribution than that of 12CO. We interpret the feature as being a magnetically floated loop similar to loops 1 and 2, and name it "loop 3''. Loop 3 is similar to loops 1 and 2 in its height and length, but is different from loops 1 and 2 in that the inner part of loop 3 is filled with molecular emission. We have identified two foot points at both ends of loop 3. HI, 12CO, and 13CO datasets were used to estimate the total mass and the kinetic energy of loop 3 to be ~3.0 ~ 106@M and ~1.7 ~ 1052 erg. The huge size, velocity dispersions, and energy are consistent with the magnetic origin of the Parker instability, as in the case of loops 1 and 2, but is difficult to be explained by multiple stellar explosions. We argue that loop 3 is in an earlier evolutionary phase than loops 1 and 2 based on the inner-filled morphology and the relative weakness of the foot points. This discovery indicates that the western part of the nuclear gas disk of ~1 kpc radius is dominated by the three well-developed magnetically floated loops, and suggests that the dynamics of the nuclear gas disk is strongly affected by magnetic instabilities.

l           Fukui, Y., N. Furukawa, T. M. Dame, J. R. Dawson, H. Yamamoto, G. P. Rowell, F. Aharonian, W. Hofmann, E. de Oña Wilhelmi, T. Minamidani, A. Kawamura, N. Mizuno, T. Onishi, A. Mizuno, and S. Nagataki [2009a], "A Peculiar Jet and Arc of Molecular Gas toward the Rich and Young Stellar Cluster Westerlund 2 and a TeV Gamma Ray Source," Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan, vol.61, pp.L23-L27.

Ø          We have discovered remarkable jet- and arc-like molecular features toward the rich and young stellar cluster Westerlund 2. The jet has a length of ~ 100 pc and a width of ~ 10 pc, while the arc shows a crescent shape with a radius of ~30 pc. These molecular features each have masses of ~104 M, and show spatial correlations with the surrounding lower density HI gas. The jet also shows an intriguing positional alignment with the core of the TeV gamma-ray source HESS J1023-575 and with the MeV/GeV gamma-ray source recently reported by the Fermi collaboration. We argue that the jet and arc are caused by an energetic event in Westerlund 2, presumably due to an anisotropic supernova explosion of one of the most massive member stars. While the origin of the TeV and GeV gamma-ray sources is uncertain, one may speculate that they are related to the same event via relativistic particle acceleration by strong shock waves produced at the explosion or by remnant objects, such as a pulsar wind nebula or a microquasar.

l           Fukui, Y., A. Kawamura, T. Wong, M. Murai, H. Iritani, N. Mizuno, Y. Mizuno, T. Onishi, A. Hughes, J. Ott, E. Muller, L. Staveley-Smith, and S. Kim [2009b], "Molecular and Atomic Gas in the Large Magellanic Cloud II. Three-Dimensional Correlation between CO and HI," Astrophys. J., vol.705, pp.144-155.

Ø          We compare the CO (J = 1-0) and H I emission in the Large Magellanic Cloud in three dimensions, i.e., including a velocity axis in addition to the two spatial axes, with the aim of elucidating the physical connection between giant molecular clouds (GMCs) and their surrounding H I gas. The CO J = 1-0 data set is from the second NANTEN CO survey and the H I data set is from the merged Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) and Parkes Telescope surveys. The major findings of our analysis are as follows: (1) GMCs are associated with an envelope of H I emission, (2) in GMCs [average CO intensity] ε [average H I intensity]1.1}0.1, and (3) the H I intensity tends to increase with the star formation activity within GMCs, from Type I to Type III. An analysis of the H I envelopes associated with GMCs shows that their average line width is 14 km s-1 and the mean density in the envelope is 10 cm-3. We argue that the H I envelopes are gravitationally bound by GMCs. These findings are consistent with a continual increase in the mass of GMCs via H I accretion at an accretion rate of 0.05 Msun yr-1 over a timescale of 10 Myr. The growth of GMCs is terminated via dissipative ionization and/or stellar-wind disruption in the final stage of GMC evolution.

l           Fukui, Y., and A. Kawamura [2010], "Molecular Clouds in Nearby Galaxies," Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys., vol.48, pp.547-580.

Ø          We present a review of spatially resolved giant molecular clouds (GMCs) in nearby galaxies, aiming at providing a template of GMC properties, which may be extrapolated to distant galaxies. We focus on the Magellanic system including the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC, SMC), M33, and a few dwarfs as observed in the J = 1-0 12CO transition at 2.6-mm wavelength. The X factor, a conversion factor of the 12CO intensity to total molecular column density, and the GMC mass distribution, dN/dM, are similar among these galaxies, suggesting that GMCs share similar properties in the Local Group. The GMCs are classified into three types according to their level of star-formation activity and the types are interpreted in terms of evolution in 20-30 Myr rather than as three different generic types. A three-dimensional comparison including the velocity axis has revealed that GMCs in the LMC are associated with Hi envelopes. The Hi envelopes are probably gravitationally bound and may be infalling to increase the GMC mass via Hi-H2 conversion. Recent submillimeter observations are revealing dense and warm clumps in GMCs, suggesting that the interior of a GMC also follows contraction leading to star formation on a similar timescale. Finally, we present an attempt to place these GMC properties among more distant galaxies and discuss future observational prospects.

l           Furuya, R. S., R. Cesaroni, S. Takahashi, C. Codella, M. Momose, and M. T. Beltran [2008a], "Candidate Rotating Toroids around High-Mass (Proto)Stars," Astrophys. J., vol.673, pp.363-381.

Ø          Using the OVRO, Nobeyama, and IRAM millimeter arrays, we searched for "disk"-outflow systems in three high-mass (proto)star-forming regions: G16.59-0.05, G23.01-0.41, and G28.87+0.07. These were selected from a sample of NH3 cores (Codella, Testi, & Cesaroni) associated with OH and H2O maser emission (Foster & Caswell) and with no or very faint continuum emission. Our imaging of molecular line (including rotational transitions of CH3CN) and 3 mm dust continuum emission revealed that these are compact (~0.06-0.13 pc), massive (~100-400 Msolar), and hot (~100 K) molecular cores (HMCs) that are likely sites of high-mass star formation prior to the appearance of ultracompact HII regions. All three sources turn out to be associated with molecular outflows from 12CO and/or HCO+ J=1-0 line imaging. In addition, velocity gradients of 10-100 km s-1 pc-1 in the innermost, densest regions of the G23.01-0.41 and G28.87+0.07 HMCs are identified along directions roughly perpendicular to the axes of the corresponding outflows. All the results suggest that these cores might be rotating about the outflow axis, although the contribution of rotation to gravitational equilibrium of the HMCs appears to be negligible. Our analysis indicates that the three HMCs are close to virial equilibrium due to turbulent pressure support. Comparison with other similar objects where rotating toroids have been identified so far shows that in our case rotation appears to be much less prominent; this can be explained by the combined effect of unfavorable projection, large distance, and limited angular resolution with the current interferometers.

l           Furuya, R. S., Y. Kitamura, and H. Shinnnaga [2008b], "Low-Mass Star-Forming Cores in the GF9 Filament," Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan, vol.60, pp.421-428.

Ø          We carried out an unbiased mapping survey of dense molecular cloud cores traced by the NH3 (1,1) and (2,2) inversion lines in the GF9 filament which contains an extremely young low-mass protostar GF9-2 (Furuya et al. 2006, ApJ, 653, 1369). The survey was conducted using the Nobeyama 45m telescope over a region of ~1.5‹x1‹ with an angular resolution of 73". The large-scale map revealed that the filament contains at least 7 dense cores, as well as 3 possible ones, located at regular intervals of ~0.9 pc. Our analysis shows that these cores have kinetic temperatures of ≤10 K and LTE-masses of 1.8 - 8.2 Msun, making them typical sites of low-mass star formation. All the identified cores are likely to be gravitationally unstable because their LTE-masses are larger than their virial masses. Since the LTE-masses and separations of the cores are consistent with the Jeans masses and lengths, respectively, for the low-density ambient gas, we argue that the identified cores have formed via the gravitational fragmentation of the natal filamentary cloud.

l           Furuya, R. S., Y. Kitamura, and H. Shinnaga [2009], "Spectroscopic Evidence for Gas Infall in GF 9-2," Astrophys. J. (Letters), vol.692, pp.L96-L99.

Ø          We present spectroscopic evidence for the infall motion of gas in the natal cloud core harboring an extremely young low-mass protostar GF 9-2. We previously discussed that the ongoing collapse of the GF 9-2 core has agreement with the Larson-Penston-Hunter (LPH) theoretical solution for the gravitational collapse of a core. To discuss the gas infall on firmer ground, we have carried out on-the-fly mapping observations of the HCO+ (1-0) line using the Nobeyama 45 m telescope equipped with the 25 Beam Array Receiver System. Furthermore, we observed the HCN (1-0) line with the 45 m telescope, and the HCO+ (3-2) line with the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory 10.4 m telescope. The optically thick HCO+ and HCN lines show blueskewed profiles whose deepest absorptions are seen at the peak velocity of optically thin lines, i.e., the systemic velocity of the cloud, indicating the presence of gas infall toward the central protostar. We compared the observed HCO+ line profiles with model ones by solving the radiative transfer in the core under LTE assumption. We found that the core gas has a constant infall velocity of ~0.5 km s-1 in the central region, leading to a mass accretion rate of 2.5 x 10-5 M yr-1. Consequently, we confirm that the gas infall in the GF 9-2 core is consistent with the LPH solution.

l           Glendenning, B. E., J. Ibsen, G. Kosugi, and G. Raffi [2010], "ALMA Software Management and Deployment," Proc. of the SPIE, vol.7740, pp.77401L-77401L-6.

Ø          The ALMA Software (~ 80% completed) is in daily use at the ALMA Observatory and has been developed as an end-toend system including: proposal preparation, dynamic scheduling, instrument control, data handling and formatting, data archiving and retrieval, automatic and manual data processing, and support for observatory operations. This presentation will expand on some software management aspects, procedures for releases, integrated system testing and deployment in Chile. The need for a realistic validation environment, now achieved with a two antenna interferometer at the observatory, and the balance between incremental development and stability of the software (a challenge at the moment) will be explained.

l           Gomez, Y., D. Tafoya, G. Anglada, L. Loinard, J. M. Torrelles, L. F. Miranda, M. Osorio, R. Franco-Hernandez, L. Nyman, J. Nakashima, and S. Deguchi [2008], "HCO+ Emission Possibly Related with a Shielding Mechanism that Protects Water Molecules in the Young PN K 3-35," Proc. of the IAU Symp. 251, "Organic Matter in Space", eds. S. Kwok, and S. Sandford, pp.173-174.

Ø          Water maser emission has been detected only toward three planetary nebulae (PNe). In particular, in K3-35, the first PN where water vapor maser emission was detected, the components are located in a torus-like structure with a radius of 85 AU and also at the surprisingly large distance of 5000 AU from the star, in the tips of the bipolar lobes. The existence of these water molecules in PNe is puzzling, probably related to some unknown mechanism shielding them against the ionizing radiation. We report the detection of HCO+ (J = 1 - 0) emission toward K 3-35, that not only suggests that dense molecular gas (~105 cm-3) is present in this PN, but also that this kind of PN can enrich their surroundings with organic molecules.

l           Goossens, S., and K. Matsumoto [2008a], "Determination of the Lunar k2 Love Number from Satellite Tracking Data," 39th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, (Lunar and Planetary Science XXXIX), held March 10-14, 2008 in League City, Texas. LPI Contribution No. 1391., p.1536.

Ø          The lunar potential Love number k2 has been determined from available satellite tracking data. The best estimate in this research yields k2 = 0.0213 } 0.0075 (ten sigma), which is closer to results based on lunar laser ranging than a previous satellite-based estimate.

l           Goossens, S., K. Matsumoto, Y. Ishihara, Q. Liu, F. Kikuchi, H. Noda, N. Namiki, and T. Iwata [2008b], "Orbit Determination and Quality Assessment Using SELENE Tracking Data and Results," 37th COSPAR Scientific Assembly, held 13-20 July 2008, in Montreal, Canada, p.1055.

Ø          On September 14, 2007, the SELENE (KAGUYA) spacecraft were launched from Tanegashima Space Center in Japan. SELENE consists of three satellites: a main orbiter in a 100 km by 100 km circular, polar orbit, and two small subsatellites in 100 km by 2400 km (Rstar) and 100 km by 800 km (Vstar) elliptical, polar orbits. Until now, tracking of lunar satellites consisted of 2-way (or 3-way, where the upand downlink stations are different) tracking, leaving a gap in the tracking coverage over the far side of the Moon as the satellite cannot be tracked there from Earth. This severely hampers the determination of the global lunar gravity field, and, consequently, this also puts limits on the precision of orbits of lunar satellites. By employing 4-way Doppler tracking between the main orbiter and Rstar, the first direct tracking data of a satellite over the far side have been obtained, resulting in a newly determined global lunar gravity field. The existing 2-way tracking data set is furthermore complemented by differential VLBI tracking between Rstar and Vstar, providing a sensitivity perpendicular to the line-ofsight from station to satellite. This work focuses on aspects of orbit determination for the SELENE satellites, including the processing strategies for data types using multiple satellites. Orbit determination quality is described in terms of data fit and, where possible, orbit overlap statistics. For the main satellite, the on-board altimeter provides an independent check of orbit quality through crossovers, although they are not yet systematically included in the orbit determination process. The performance of the VLBI data in the orbit determination of the small subsatellites is also discussed. The newly determined global lunar gravity field models from SELENE are evaluated in several ways: their performance when used in orbit determination of previous lunar satellites, and their ability in orbit prediction. Covariance analysis shows the expected orbit quality. The results presented here are thought to be of importance for oncoming lunar spacecraft, such as LRO, GRAIL and other future missions.

l           Goossens, S., K. Matsumoto, Y. Ishihara, Q. Liu, F. Kikuchi, H. Noda, T. Iwata, N. Namiki, and H. Hanada [2008c], "Analysis of Tracking Data and Results from Kaguya (SELENE) Satellites for Lunar Gravity Field Estimation," American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2008, abstract #P31B-1400.

Ø          On September 14, 2007, the KAGUYA (SELENE) spacecraft were launched from Tanegashima Space Center in Japan. KAGUYA consists of three satellites: a main orbiter in a 100 km by 100 km circular, polar orbit, and two small subsatellites in 100 km by 2400 km (Rstar) and 100 km by 800 km (Vstar) elliptical, polar orbits. By employing 4-way Doppler tracking between the main orbiter and Rstar, the first direct tracking data of a satellite over the far side have been obtained, resulting in a newly determined global lunar gravity field. The existing 2-way tracking data set is furthermore complemented by precise differential VLBI tracking between Rstar and Vstar, providing a sensitivity perpendicular to the line-of-sight from station to satellite. This work focuses on various aspects of processing and analysing the tracking data from the Kaguya satellites for the main purpose of lunar gravity field estimation. This includes particulars of the data processing strategies, multi-satellite analysis and data weighting. Gravity models from Kaguya data are evaluated in terms of data fit and performance in orbit determination. The performance of the differential VLBI data in the orbit determination of the small subsatellites is also discussed, as well as their contribution to the gravity solutions. Results for the polar moment of inertia C/MR2 from the degree 2 coefficients, and for the lunar k2 Love number are also included.

l           Goossens, S., K. Matsumoto, Y. Ishihara, Q. Liu, F. Kikuchi, H. Noda, N. Namiki, T. Iwata, and H. Hanada [2009], "Updated Lunar Gravity Results from Kaguya (SELENE) and Historical Tracking Data," American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2009, abstract #P23C-1274.

Ø          The Kaguya spacecraft were launched from Tanegashima Space Center on September 14, 2007. Kaguya consists of three orbiters: a main orbiter in a low-altitude (100 km) circular polar orbit, and two sub-satellites (Rstar and Vstar) in elliptical orbits. By taking tracking data between Rstar and the main orbiter while the main orbiter was over the farside of the Moon (called 4-way Doppler), Kaguya has obtained the first direct tracking data over the farside. Tracking data were further complemented by differential VLBI tracking between Rstar and Vstar and stations on Earth, with a sensitivity perpendicular to the line-of-sight, thus offering further improvement in three-dimensional positioning of the relay satellites. On February 12, 2009, Rstar crashed into the Moon because of its natural orbital evolution, finishing the opportunities for 4-way data. On June 10, the main orbiter finished its lifetime by a controlled crash into the Moon, and tracking for Vstar was ended on June 29, comprising the end of data collection from Kaguya. Here, results from incorporating all Kaguya Doppler tracking (including all collected 4-way data over the farside) are presented. Spherical harmonics expansions up to degree and order 100 have been determined, and they will be evaluated in terms of geophysical content, correlations with topography, and orbit determination performance. It is shown that unconstrained solutions can be obtained up to degree and order 70 without loss of correlations with topography. A preliminary high-resolution 150 degrees and order model for low-lunar orbit determination is also presented. Furthermore, preliminary results from the analysis of same-beam differential VLBI data are also included, showing how these data can especially help to improve orbit determination for the sub-satellites. The VLBI data will also contribute to a precise determination of the lower-degree gravity coefficients.

l           Gopalswamy, N., S. Yashiro, and K. Shibasaki [2008], "Heating and Kinematics of an Eruptive Prominence Associated with a Fast Coronal Mass Ejection," American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2007, abstract #SH31C-07.

Ø          The fast (1800 km/s) coronal mass ejection (CME) on 2005 July 27 had a bright bubble-shaped prominence core observed by the Nobeyama Radioheliograph (NoRH) in microwaves (17 and 34 GHz), TRACE at 171 A, and the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) on board SOHO. NoRH has the largest field of view among the non- white light instruments, so the prominence could be tracked until it reached a height of about 0.75 solar radii from the limb. The prominence remained optically thick at both 17 and GHz, even though it was significantly heated. Comparison with TRACE observations suggest that the prominence was heated in individual fibers within the prominence, making it multi-thermal plasma. The prominence maintained its overall shape as it entered into the field of view of SOHO/LASCO coronagraphs with a speed of about 1400 km/s, so the height-time history could be studied over a distance of more than 20 solar radii from the Sun. NoRH data indicated that the initial acceleration was extremely high (about1.4 km/s/s). During the slow-rise phase of the prominence, EUV loops overlying the prominence also moved out, which when combines with CME leading-edge measurements from LASCO/C2 yielded an acceleration of about 300 m/s/s. This was comparable to the average acceleration of the prominence over the same height range. When we consider the just the LASCO field of view, both the prominence core and the CME leading edge showed deceleration, but to vastly different extents (-32 m/s/s for the CME leading edge compared to -3 m/s/s for the prominence core). Our preliminary conclusion is that the prominence was insulated from interacting with the non-CME ambient medium, which might explain the weaker slowing down of the prominence.

l           Gopalswamy, N., S. Yashiro, K. Shibasaki, and D. Hathaway [2010], "Polar Chromospheric Signatures of the Subdued Cycle 23/24 Solar Minimum," American. Astron. Soc., AAS Meeting #216, #401.03.

Ø          Coronal holes appear brighter than the quiet Sun in microwave images, with a brightness enhancement of 500 to 2000 K. The brightness enhancement corresponds to the upper chromosphere, where the plasma temperature is about 10000 K. We constructed a microwave butterfly diagram using the synoptic images obtained by the Nobeyama radioheliograph (NoRH) showing the evolution of the polar and low latitude brightness temperature. While the polar brightness reveals the chromospheric conditions, the low latitude brightness is attributed to active regions in the corona. When we compared the microwave butterfly diagram with the magnetic butterfly diagram, we found a good correlation between the microwave brightness enhancement and the polar field strength. The microwave butterfly diagram covers part of solar cycle 22, whole of cycle 23, and part of cycle 24, thus enabling comparison between the cycle 23/24 and cycle 22/23 minima. The microwave brightness during the cycle 23/24 minimum was found to be lower than that during the cycle 22/23 minimum by 250 K. The reduced brightness temperature is consistent with the reduced polar field strength during the cycle 23/24 minimum seen in the magnetic butterfly diagram. We suggest that the microwave brightness at the solar poles is a good indicator of the speed of the solar wind sampled by Ulysses at high latitudes.

l           Grechnev, V. V., V. G. Kurt, I. M. Chertok, A. M. Iralov, H. Nakajima, A. T. Altyntsev, A. V. Belov, B. Yu. Yushkov, S. N. Kuznetsov, L. K. Kashapova, N. S. Meshalkona, and N. P. Prestage [2008a], "An Extreme Solar Events of 20 January 2005: Properties of the Flare and the Origon of Energetic Particles," Solar Phys., vol.252, pp.149-177.

Ø          The famous extreme solar and particle event of 20 January 2005 is analyzed from two perspectives. Firstly, using multi-spectral data, we study temporal, spectral, and spatial features of the main phase of the flare, when the strongest emissions from microwaves up to 200 MeV gamma-rays were observed. Secondly, we relate our results to a long-standing controversy on the origin of solar energetic particles (SEP) arriving at Earth, i.e., acceleration in flares, or shocks ahead of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Our analysis shows that all electromagnetic emissions from microwaves up to 2.22 MeV line gamma-rays during the main flare phase originated within a compact structure located just above sunspot umbrae. In particular, a huge (≈105 sfu) radio burst with a high frequency maximum at 30 GHz was observed, indicating the presence of a large number of energetic electrons in very strong magnetic fields. Thus, protons and electrons responsible for various flare emissions during its main phase were accelerated within the magnetic field of the active region. The leading, impulsive parts of the ground-level enhancement (GLE), and highest-energy gamma-rays identified withƒΞ 0-decayemission, are similar and closely correspond in time. The origin of theƒΞ 0-decay gamma-rays is argued to be the same as that of lower-energy emissions, although this is not proven. On the other hand, we estimate the sky-plane speed of the CME to be 2000-2600km s-1, i.e., high, but of the same order as preceding non-GLE-related CMEs from the same active region. Hence, the flare itself rather than the CME appears to determine the extreme nature of this event. We therefore conclude that the acceleration, at least, to sub-relativistic energies, of electrons and protons, responsible for both the major flare emissions and the leading spike of SEP/GLE by 07 UT, are likely to have occurred nearly simultaneously within the flare region. However, our analysis does not rule out a probable contribution from particles accelerated in the CME-driven shock for the leading GLE spike, which seemed to dominate at later stages of the SEP event.

l           Grechnev, V. V., A. M. Uralov, V. A. Slemzin, I. M. Chertok, I. V. Kuzmenko, and K. Shibasaki [2008b], "Absorption Phenomena and a Probable Blast Wave in the 13 July 2004 Eruptive Event," Solar Phys., vol.253, pp.263-290.

Ø          We present a case study of the 13 July 2004 solar event, in which disturbances caused by eruption of a filament from an active region embraced a quarter of the visible solar surface. Remarkable are the absorption phenomena observed in the SOHO/EIT 304 Å channel, which were also visible in the EIT 195 Å channel, in the H line, and even in total radio flux records. Coronal and Moreton waves were also observed. Multispectral data allowed reconstructing an overall picture of the event. An explosive filament eruption and related impulsive flare produced a CME and blast shock, both of which decelerated and propagated independently. Coronal and Moreton waves were kinematically close and both decelerated in accordance with an expected motion of a coronal blast shock. The CME did not resemble a classical three-component structure, probably because some part of the ejected mass fell back onto the Sun. Quantitative evaluations from different observations provide close estimates of the falling mass, ~3x1015 g, which is close to the estimated mass of the CME. The falling material was responsible for the observed large-scale absorption phenomena, in particular, shallow widespread moving dimmings observed at 195 Å. By contrast, deep quasi-stationary dimmings observed in this band near the eruption center were due to plasma density decrease in coronal structures.

l           Greenhill, L., E. Humphreys, W. Hu, L. Macri, D. Murphy, K. Masters, Y. Hagiwara, H. Kobayashi, and Y. Murata [2009], "Estimation of the Hubble Constant and Constraint on Descriptions of Dark Energy," Astro2010: The Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey, Science White Papers, no. 103-0-7.

Ø          Joint analysis of Cosmic Microwave Background, Baryon Acoustic Oscillation, and supernova data has enabled precision estimation of cosmological parameters. New programs will push to 1% uncertainty in the dark energy equation of state and tightened constraint on curvature, requiring close attention to systematics. Direct 1% measurement of the Hubble constant (H0) would provide a new constraint. It can be obtained without overlapping systematics directly from recessional velocities and geometric distance estimates for galaxies via the mapping of water maser emission that traces the accretion disks of nuclear black holes. We identify redshifts 0.02<z<0.06 as best for small samples, e.g., 10 widely distributed galaxies, each with 3% distance uncertainty. Knowledge of peculiar radial motion is also required. Mapping requires very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) with the finest angular resolution, sensitivity to individual lines of a few mJy-km/s, and baselines that can detect a complex of ~10 mJy lines (peak) in < 1 min. For 2010-2020, large ground apertures (50-100m diameter) augmenting the VLBA are critical, such as EVLA, GBT, Effelsberg, and the Large Millimeter Telescope, for which we propose a 22 GHz receiver and VLBI instrumentation. A space-VLBI aperture may be required, thus motivating US participation in the Japanese VSOP-2 mission (launch c.2013). This will provide 3-4x longer baselines and ~5x improvement in distance uncertainty. There are now 5 good targets at z>0.02, out of ~100 known masers. A single-dish discovery survey of >10,000 nuclei (>2500 hours on the GBT) would build a sample of tens of potential distance anchors. Beyond 2020, a high-frequency SKA could provide larger maser samples, enabling estimation of H0 from individually less accurate distances, and possibly without the need for peculiar motion corrections.

l           Hagiwara, Y., and VSOP-2 Science Working Group [2009], "Extragalactic Water Maser Observations with VSOP-2," Proc. of the "Approaching Micro-Arcsecond Resolution with VSOP-2: Astrophysics and Technologies", eds. Hagiwara, Y., Fomalont, Ed., Tsuboi, M., and Murata, Y., ASP Conf. Ser. vol.402, pp.266-269.

Ø          Space-VLBI is known to achieve greatly increased angular resolution compared with ground-based VLBI observations. VSOP-2 will offer 75ƒΚ arcsec angular resolution at 22 GHz. With this improved angular resolution, VSOP-2 observations of H2O megamaser will refine the measurements of proper motions, accelerations, distances to galaxies, and other physical parameters of galactic nuclei. In this presentation, the prospects of VSOP-2 observations of extragalactic H2O maser with strong emphasis on H2O megamaser are presented.

l           Hanada, H., T. Iwata, N. Namiki, N. Kawano, K. Asari, T. Ishikawa, F. Kikuchi, Q. Liu, K. Matsumoto, H. Noda, S. Tsuruta, S. Goossens, K. Iwadate, O. Kameya, Y. Tamura, X. Hong, J. Ping, Y. Aili, S. Ellingsen, and W. Schlüter [2008a], "VLBI for Better Gravimetry in SELENE," Adv. Sp. Res., vol.42, pp.341-346.

Ø          The Japanese lunar explorer SELENE (SElenological and Engineering Explorer), to be launched in 2007, will for the first time utilize VLBI observations in lunar gravimetry investigations. This will particularly improve the accuracy to which the low degree gravitational harmonics and the gravity field near the limb can be measured, and when combined with Doppler measurements will enable three-dimensional information to be extracted. Differential VLBI Radio sources called VRAD experiment involves two on-board sub-satellites, Rstar and Vstar. These will be observed using differential VLBI to measure the trajectories of the satellites with the Japanese network named VERA (VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry) and an international VLBI network. We will use a multi-frequency VLBI method to measure the angular distance between the two sub-satellite radio sources Rstar and Vstar. The observations will be at three frequencies in S-band, 2212, 2218 and 2287 MHz, and one in X-band, 8456 MHz. This method uses low power consumption carrier waves, and is suitable for the positioning of spacecraft. The Japanese domestic VLBI network, VERA, will conduct VLBI observations for the whole mission period of one year. In addition, we will conduct two periods of intensive observations, each one month in duration, which will also include the international stations, Shanghai, Urumqi (China), Hobart (Australia) and Wettzell (Germany). These observations will measure the phase delay to an accuracy of better than 0.17 rad (10 deg) in X-band. For a baseline length of 2000 km this is equivalent to a positioning accuracy of about 20 cm on the Moon. Combining the data from the tracking of the 3 SELENE satellites (main orbiter, Rstar and Vstar) at different altitudes and from four-way Doppler measurements, and by making long term observations of the sub-satellites (in excess of one year without any maneuvering), we will be able to improve the accuracy to which the lunar gravitational field is known by an order of magnitude. We have completed the development of on-board instruments, and are carrying out pre-flight tests under a variety of conditions. We have also undertaken test VLBI observations of orbiters such as Geotail, Nozomi and Smart-1 with the international network.

l           Hanada, H. [2008b], "VLBI Observation of Okina and Ouna in Kaguya (SELENE) for Improvement of Orbit Determination and Lunar Gravity Field Model," 37th COSPAR Scientific Assembly, held 13-20 July 2008, in Montreal, Canada, p.1168.

Ø          KAGUYA consists of the main orbiter, and two small free-flying sub-satellites, called Rstar (OKINA) and Vstar (OUNA). We are observing OKINA and OUNA using differential VLBI observa-tions with the aim of improving the lunar gravity field model. Our observations will particularly improve the accuracy to which the low degree gravitational harmonics and the gravity field near the limb can be measured, and when combined with Doppler measurements will enable three-dimensional information to be extracted. Differential VLBI will be used to accurately measure the trajectories of the satellites, both with the Japanese VERA (VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry) telescopes and an array including the international VLBI stations, Shanghai, Urumqi (China), Hobart (Australia), and Wettzell (Germany). We are using multi-frequency VLBI to determine the angular distance between OKINA and OUNA using three frequencies in S-band, (2212, 2218 and 2287 MHz), and one in X-band, (8456MHz). Two periods of international observations, each of one month in duration, with the participation of VERA and the international stations, (in addition to the normal observations by VERA only) are planned for the one year mission period. VLBI observation was started on Nov.5, 2007 and the first international VLBI observation was per-formed in Jan, 2008. We have succeeded in obtaining phase delays with an accuracy of several pico-seconds in S-band.

l           Hanada, H., T. Iwata, N. Namiki, N. Kawnao, S. Sasaki, K. Matsumoto, H. Noda, S. Tsuruta, K. Asari, T. Ishikawa, F. Kikuchi, Q. Liu, S. Goossens, K. M. Shibata, K. Iwadate, O. Kameya, Y. Tamura, X. Hong, J. Ping, Y. Aili, S. Ellingsen, and W. Schluter [2009], "The Explorations of Lunar Gravity by VLBI Observations of SELENE (Kaguya)," Trans. of Sp. Tech. Japan, vol.7, pp.Tk1-Tk5.

Ø          SELENE (Kaguya), which was successfully launched on Sep. 14, 2007, consists of the main orbiter, and two small free-flying sub-satellites, called Rstar (OKINA) and Vstar (OUNA). We use multi-frequency VLBI to measure the angular distance between the two sub-satellite radio sources Okina and Ouna in order to improve the accuracy of the low degree gravitational harmonics and the gravity field near the limb. The observations are made at three frequencies in S-band, (2212, 2218 and 2287 MHz), and one in X-band, (8456MHz) with carrier waves. The Japanese domestic VLBI network, VERA, will conduct VLBI observations for the whole mission period of one year. In addition, we will conduct two periods of international observations, each one month in duration, which will also include the international stations, Shanghai, Urumqi, Hobart, and Wettzell. We have succeeded in making VLBI observations of Okina/Ouna with VERA and the international network, and have also succeeded in correlating of signals from Okina/Ouna. We obtained phase delays with an accuracy of several pico-seconds in S-band.

l           Haruyama, J., M. Ohtake, T. Matsunaga, T. Morota, C. Honda, Y. Yokota, M. Abe, Y. Ogawa, H. Miyamoto, A. Iwasaki, C. M. Pieters, N. Asada, H. Demura, N. Hirata, J. Terazono, S. Sasaki, K. Saiki, A. Yamaji, M. Torii, and J.-L. Josset [2009], "Long-Lived Volcanism on the Lunar Farside Revealed by SELENE Terrain Camera," Science, vol.323, pp.905-908.

Ø          We determined model ages of mare deposits on the farside of the Moon on the basis of the crater frequency distributions in 10-meter-resolution images obtained by the Terrain Camera on SELENE (Selenological and Engineering Explorer) (Kaguya). Most mare volcanism that formed mare deposits on the lunar farside ceased at ~3.0 billion years ago, suggesting that mare volcanism on the Moon was markedly reduced globally during this period. However, several mare deposits at various locations on the lunar farside also show a much younger age, clustering at ~2.5 billion years ago. These young ages indicate that mare volcanism on the lunar farside lasted longer than was previously considered and may have occurred episodically.

l           Hasegawa, T., T. Arai, N. Yamaguchi, and F. Sato [2008], "ASTE Observations of the Massive-Star Forming Region Sgr B2: a Giant Impact Scenario," Astrophys. and Sp. Sci., vol.313, pp.91-94.

Ø          We report mapping observations of a 35 pc x 35 pc region covering the Sgr B2 molecular cloud complex in the 13CO (3-2) and the CS (7-6) lines using the ASTE 10 m telescope with high angular resolution. The central region was mapped also in the C18O (3-2) line. The images not only reproduce the characteristic structures noted in the preceding millimeter observations, but also highlight the interface of the molecular clouds with a large velocity jump of a few tens of km s-1. These new results further support the scenario that a cloud-cloud collision has triggered the formation of massive cloud cores, which form massive stars of Sgr B2. Prospects of exciting science enabled by ALMA are discussed in relation to these observations.

l           Hatsukade, B., D. Iono, K. Motohara, K. Nakanishi, M. Hayashi, K. Shimasaku, T. Nagao, Y. Tamura, M. Malkan, C. Ly, and K. Kohno [2009], "A Search for Molecular Gas toward a BzK-Selected Star-Forming Galaxy at z = 2.044," Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan, vol.61, pp.487-491.

Ø          We present a search for CO (3-2) emission in SDF-26821, a BzK -selected star forming galaxy (sBzK) at z = 2.044, using the 45-m telescope of the Nobeyama Radio Observatory and the Nobeyama Millimeter Array. We did not detect significant emission, and derived the 2ƒΠ limits: CO luminosity of L' CO < 3.1 x 1010 K km s-1 pc-2, ratio of far-infrared luminosity to CO luminosity of LFIR /L'CO > 57 L (K km s-1 pc2)-1, and molecular gas mass of MH2 < 2.5 x 1010 M , assuming a velocity width of 200 km s-1 and a CO-to-H2 conversion factor of ƒΏCO = 0.8 M (K km s-1 pc2)-1 The ratio LFIR=L'CO, a measure of the star-formation efficiency (SFE), is comparable to, or higher than, the two z ~ 1.5 sBzKs detected in CO (2Π1) previously, suggesting that sBzKs can have a wide range of SFEs. Comparisons of far-infrared luminosity, gas mass, and stellar mass among the sBzKs suggest that SDF-26821 is at an earlier stage of forming stars with a similar SFE and/or more efήciently forming stars than the two z ~ 1.5 sBzKs. The higher SFEs and speciήc star-formation rates of the sBzKs compared to local spirals are indicative of a difference in the star-formation modes between these systems, suggesting that sBzKs are not just scaled-up versions of local spirals.

l           Hatsukade, B., D. Iono, M. Akiyama, T. Yoshikawa, J. S. Dunlop, R. J. Ivison, A. B. Peck, S. Ikarashi, A. Briggs, H. Ezawa, H. Hanami, P. Ho, D. H. Hughes, R. Kawabe, K. Kohno, S. Matsushita, K. Nakanishi, N. Padilla, G. Petitpas, Y. Tamura, J. Wagg, D. J. Wilner, G. W. Wilson, T. Yamada, and M. S. Yun [2010a], "Unveiling the Nature of Submillimeter Galaxy SXDF 850.6," Astrophys. J., vol.711, pp.974-979.

Ø          We present an 880 ƒΚm Submillimeter Array (SMA) detection of the submillimeter galaxy SXDF 850.6. SXDF 850.6 is a bright source (S850ƒΚm = 8 mJy) detected in the SCUBA Half Degree Extragalactic Survey and has multiple possible radio counterparts in its deep radio image obtained at the VLA. Our new SMA detection finds that the submillimeter emission coincides with the brightest radio emission that is found ~8'' north of the coordinates determined from SCUBA. Despite the lack of detectable counterparts in deep UV/optical images, we find a source at the SMA position in near-infrared and longer wavelength images. We perform spectral energy distribution (SED) model fits to UV-optical-IR photometry (u, B, V, R, i', z', J, H, K, 3.6 ƒΚm, 4.5 ƒΚm, 5.8 ƒΚm, and 8.0 ƒΚm) and to submillimeter-radio photometry (850 ƒΚm, 880 ƒΚm, 1100 ƒΚm, and 21 cm) independently, and we find both are well described by starburst templates at a redshift of z ≅ 2.2} 0.3. The best-fit parameters from the UV-optical-IR SED fit are a redshift of z = 1.87+0.15-0.07, a stellar mass of M = 2.5+2.2-0.3 ~1011 M , an extinction of AV = 3.0+0.3-1.0 mag, and an age of 720+1880-210 Myr. The submillimeter-radio SED fit provides a consistent redshift of z ~ 1.8-2.5, an IR luminosity of LIR = (7-26)~1012 L , and a star formation rate of 1300-4500 M yr-1. These results suggest that SXDF 850.6 is a mature system already having a massive amount of old stellar population constructed before its submillimeter bright phase and is experiencing a dusty starburst, possibly induced by major mergers.

l           Hatsukade, B., K. Kohno, Y. Tamura, K. Nakanishi, D. Iono, G. W. Wilson, M. S. Yun, D. H. Hughes, S. Matsuura, M. Shirahata, T. T. Takeuchi, K. S. Scott, J. E. Austermann, T. Perera, I. Aretxaga, K. Tanaka, T. Tosaki, H. Matsuo, H. Ezawa, R. Kawabe, and ADF-S team [2010b], "AzTEC/ASTE 1.1-mm Survey of the AKARI Deep Field-South," Proc. of the "AKARI, a light to illuminate the misty universe", eds. T. Onaka, G. J. White, T. Nakagawa, and I. Yamamura, ASP Conf. Ser. vol.418, pp.307-312.

Ø          We present the first results of a deep 1.1-mm survey of the AKARI Deep Field-South (ADF-S) with the AzTEC camera on the Atacama Submillimetre Telescope Experiment (ASTE). This survey covers ~400 arcmin2, of which the central 202 arcmin2 is a uniform low-noise region with an rms noise level of 0.48-0.71 mJy. This is one of the deepest surveys at 1-mm wavelength, to cover such a large contiguous region. We detected 37 sources with a significance of 3.5-10 ƒΠ. The expected number of false detections at ≥3.5 ƒΠ is at most one, indicating that the detected sources are highly reliable. We construct differential and cumulative number counts and find a difference in number counts among 1-mm blank field surveys: the number counts of the ADF-S are less than those of GOODS-N and COSMOS fields. Most of the sources are not detected in the far-infrared bands of the AKARI, suggesting that they lie mostly at z ga 1 given the detection limits. In this survey, about 10% of cosmic infrared background at 1.1 mm is resolved into discrete sources.

l           Hatsukade, B., K. Kohno, I. Aretxaga, J. E. Austermann, H. Ezawa, D. H. Hughes, S. Ikarashi, D. Iono, R. Kawabe, H. Matsuo, K. Nakanishi, T. Oshima, T. Perera, K. S. Scott, M. Shirahata, T. T. Takeuchi, Y. Tamura, K. Tanaka, T. Tosaki, G. W. Wilson, and M. S. Yun [2010c], "AzTEC/ASTE 1.1 mm Deep survey: Number Counts and Clustering of Millimeter-Bright Galaxies," AIP Conf. Proc., vol.1279, pp.324.

Ø          We present number counts and clustering properties of millimeter-bright galaxies uncovered by the AzTEC camera mounted on the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE). We surveyed the AKARI Deep Field South (ADF-S), the Subaru/XMM Newton Deep Field (SXDF), and the SSA22 fields with an area of ~0.25 deg2 each with an rms noise level of ~0.4-1.0 mJy. We constructed differential and cumulative number counts, which provide currently the tightest constraints on the faint end. The integration of the best-fit number counts in the ADF-S find that the contribution of 1.1 mm sources with fluxes ≥1 mJy to the cosmic infrared background (CIB) at 1.1 mm is 12-16%, suggesting that the large fraction of the CIB originates from faint sources of which the number counts are not yet constrained. We estimate the cosmic star-formation rate density contributed by 1.1 mm sources with >=1 mJy using the best-fit number counts in the ADF-S and find that it is lower by about a factor of 5-10 compared to those derived from UV/optically-selected galaxies at z~2-3. The average mass of dark halos hosting bright 1.1 mm sources was calculated to be 1013-1014 M. Comparison of correlation lengths of 1.1 mm sources with other populations and with a bias evolution model suggests that dark halos hosting bright 1.1 mm sources evolve into systems of clusters at present universe and the 1.1 mm sources residing the dark halos evolve into massive elliptical galaxies located in the center of clusters.

l           Higuchi, A. E., Y. Kurono, M. Saito, and R. Kawabe [2009], "A Mapping Survey of Dense Clumps Associated with Embedded Clusters : Evolutionary Stages of Cluster-Forming Clumps," Astrophys. J., vol.705, pp.468-482.

Ø          We have carried out a survey of the dense clumps associated with 14 embedded clusters in the C18O (J = 1-0) line emission with the Nobeyama 45 m telescope in order to understand the formation and evolution of stellar clusters in dense clumps of molecular clouds. We have selected these clusters at distances from 0.3 to 2.1 kpc and have mapped about 6'x6'-10' x 10' regions (corresponding to 3.8 pc x 3.8 pc at 2.1 kpc) for all the clumps with 22'' resolution (corresponding to Jeans length at 2.1 kpc). We have obtained dense clumps with radii of 0.40-1.6 pc, masses of 150-4600 M, and velocity widths in FWHM of 1.4-3.3 km s-1. Most of the clumps are found to be approximately in virial equilibrium, which implies that C18O gas represents parental dense clumps for cluster formation. From the spatial relation between the distributions of clumps and clusters, we classified C18O clumps into three types (Type A, B, and C). Type A clumps have emission distributions with a single peak at the stellar clusters and higher brightness contrast than that of other target sources. Type B clumps have double or triple peaks, which are associated with the cluster, and moderately high brightness contrast structure. Type C clumps also have multiple peaks, although they are not associated with the cluster, and low brightness contrast structure. We suggest that our classification represents an evolutionary trend of cluster-forming dense clumps because dense gas in molecular clouds is expected to be converted into stellar constituents, or dispersed by stellar activities. Moreover, although there is a scatter, we found a tendency that the star formation efficiencies of the dense clumps increase from Type A to Type C, which also supports our scenario.

l           Higuchi, A. E., Y. Kurono, M. Saito, and R. Kawabe [2010], "A Mapping Survey of Dense Associated with Embedded Clusters II: Can Clump-Climp Collisions Induce Stellar Clusters?," Astrophys. J., vol.719, pp.1813-1827.

Ø          We report the H13CO+ (J = 1-0) survey observations toward embedded clusters obtained using the Nobeyama 45 m telescope, which were performed to follow up our previous study in the C18O survey with a dense gas tracer. Our aim is to address the evolution of cluster-forming clumps. We observed the same 14 clusters in C18O, which are located at distances from 0.3 to 2.1 kpc with a 27'' resolution (corresponding to the Jeans length for most of our targets) in H13CO+. We detected the 13 clumps in H13CO+ line emission and obtained the physical parameters of the clumps with radii of 0.24-0.75 pc, masses of 100-1400 Msun, and velocity widths in FWHM of 1.5-4.0 km s-1. The mean density is ~3.9 x 104 cm-3 and the equivalent Jeans length is ~0.13 pc at 20 K. We classified the H13CO+ clumps into three types, type A, type B, and type C according to the relative locations of the H13CO+ clumps and the clusters (see our previous study). Our classification represents an evolutionary trend of cluster-forming clumps because dense clumps are expected to be converted into stellar constituents, or dispersed by stellar activities. We found a similar, but clearer trend than our previous results, for derived star formation efficiencies to increase from type A to C in the H13CO+ data, and for the dense gas regions within the clumps traced by H13CO+ to be sensitive to the physical evolution of the clump-cluster systems. In addition, we found that 4 out of 13 H13CO+ clumps, which we named "Distinct Velocity Structure Objects" (DVSOs), have distinct velocity gradients at their central parts, i.e., at the location of the embedded clusters. Assuming that the velocity gradients represent the rigid-like rotation of the clumps, we calculated the virial parameter of the H13CO+ clumps by taking into account the contribution of the rotation and found that the DVSOs tend to be gravitationally unbound. In order to explain the above physical properties for DVSOs in a consistent way, we propose a clump-clump collision model as a possible mechanism for triggering the formation of clusters.

l           Higuchi, K., N. Kishimoto, T. Mizuno, K. Kawahara, S. Tachikawa, Y. Murata, M. Tsuboi, H. Ogawa, S. Kimura, H. Ujihara, A. Meguro, H. Tanaka, M. Yoshihara, and S. IIkura [2009], "VSOP-2 Antenna and its Structure," Proc. of the "Approaching Micro-Arcsecond Resolution with VSOP-2: Astrophysics and Technologies", eds. Hagiwara, Y., Fomalont, Ed., Tsuboi, M., and Murata, Y., ASP Conf. Ser. vol.402, pp.41-45.

Ø          To achieve scientific improvements from VSOP (HALCA) to VSOP-2 (ASTRO-G), the satellite design incorporates the engineering characteristics of a large-scale deployable antenna of offset Cassegrain type with observation bands of 8, 22, and 43 GHz. The antenna subsystem requires the surface accuracy of 0.4mm RMS on the main reflector named LDR (Large-scale Deployable Reflector) of about 9m in diameter. An off-axis paraboloid reflector is adopted to achieve this surface accuracy for millimeter-wave observation. The main reflector is composed of seven deployable modular antennas, and each of the modules employs a new idea of radial-rib/hoop-cable reflector construction to stretch metal mesh and to satisfy the required surface accuracy. The deployment mechanism employs most of the LDR technology developed for JAXAfs ETS-VIII satellite, which was launched in December 2006, and both of the two antennas on the ETS-VIII deployed successfully on orbit. Some prototype models of one module have been made to investigate the surface accuracy. In addition, the antenna will have a two-axis adjustment mechanism for the main reflector, and a three-axis adjustment mechanism for the sub-reflector in order to optimize the antenna gain after deployment in orbit.

Ø          Hiramatsu, M., N. Hirano, and S. Takakuwa [2010], "Outflow - Core Interaction in Barnard 1," Astrophys, J., vol.712, pp.778-789.

l           In order to study how outflows from protostars influence the physical and chemical conditions of the parent molecular cloud, we have observed the Barnard 1 (B1) main core, which harbors four Class 0 and three Class I sources, in the CO (J = 1 - 0), CH3OH (JK = 2K - 1K), and the SiO (J = 1 - 0) lines using the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. We have identified three CO outflows in this region: one is an elongated (~0.3 pc) bipolar outflow from a Class 0 protostar B1-c in the submillimeter clump SMM 2, another is a rather compact (~0.1 pc) outflow from a Class I protostar B1 IRS in the clump SMM 6, and the other is an extended outflow from a Class I protostar in SMM 11. In the western lobe of the SMM 2 outflow, both the SiO and CH3OH lines show broad redshifted wings with the terminal velocities of 25 km s-1 and 13 km s-1, respectively. It is likely that the shocks caused by the interaction between the outflow and ambient gas enhance the abundance of SiO and CH3OH in the gas phase. The total energy input rate by the outflows (1.1 ~ 10-3 L) is smaller than the energy-loss rate (8.5 ~ 10-3 L) through the turbulence decay in the B1 main core, which suggests that the outflows cannot sustain the turbulence in this region. Since the outflows are energetic enough to compensate the dissipating turbulence energy in the neighboring, more evolved star-forming region NGC 1333, we suggest that the turbulence energy balance depends on the evolutionary state of the star formation in molecular clouds.

Ø          Hirata, N., O. S. Barnouin-Jha, C. Honda, R. Nakamura, H. Miyamoto, S. Sasaki, H. Demura, A. M. Nakamura, T. Michikami, R. W. Gaskell, and J. Saito [2009], "A Survey of Possible Impact Structures on 25143 Itokawa," Icarus, vol.200, pp.486-502.

l           We determined the morphologies and dimensions of possible impact craters on the surface of Asteroid 25143 Itokawa from images taken by the Hayabusa spacecraft. Circular depressions, circular features with flat floors or convex floors, and circular features with smooth surfaces were identified as possible craters. The survey identified 38 candidates with widely varying morphologies including rough, smooth and saddle-shaped floors, a lack of raised rims and fresh material exposures. The average depth/diameter ratio was 0.08}0.03: these craters are very shallow relative to craters observed on other asteroids. These shallow craters are a result of (1) target curvature influencing the cratering process, (2) raised rim not being generated by this process, and (3) fines infilling the craters. As many of the crater candidates have an unusual appearance, we used a classification scheme that reflects the likelihood of an observed candidate's formation by a hypervelocity impact. We considered a variety of alternative interpretations while developing this scheme, including inherited features from a proto-Itokawa, spall scars created by the disruption of the proto-Itokawa, spall scars following the formation of a large crater on Itokawa itself, and apparent depressions due to random arrangements of boulders. The size-frequency distribution of the crater candidates was close to the empirical saturation line at the largest diameter, and then decline with decreasing diameter.

Ø          Hiroi, T., T. Nimura, Y. Ueda, S. Sasaki, and C. M. Pieters [2008a], "Deriving the Distribution of Ordinary Chondrite (H, L, LL)-like Materials in Asteroids from Their Visible and Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy," 39th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, (Lunar and Planetary Science XXXIX), held March 10-14, 2008 in League City, Texas. LPI Contribution No. 1391, p.1997.

l           We have attempted to identify asteroid surface materials similar to ordinary chondrite types by examining reflectance spectra of the S, A, R, and V asteroids over the 1- m band range, and derive their distributions.

Ø          Hiroi, T., M. Abe, T. Nimura, K. Kitazato, S. Abe, Y. Takagi, S. Sasaki, and M. Ishiguro [2008], "Danger in Interpreting the 2-Micron Band of Reflectance Spectra of Small Asteroids: A Lesson from Hayabusa/NIRS Data of Itokawa," Meteoritics and Planetary Sci. Suppl., 43, paper id. 5283.

l           Not Available

Ø          Hirota, A., N. Kuno, N. Sato, T. Tosaki, H. Nakanishi, and K. Sorai [2008b], "GMCs in the Nearby Galaxy IC 342," Proc. of the "Mapping the Galaxy and Nearby Galaxies", eds. Wada, K., and Combes, F., p.334.

l           Without abstract

Ø          Hirota, A., N. Kuno, N. Sato, H. Nakanishi, T. Tosaki, H. Matsui, A. Habe, and K. Sorai [2009], "Determination of the Pattern Speed of Barred Spiral Galaxies," Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan, vol.61, pp.441-450.

l           Hirota, T., H. Maezawa, and S. Yamamoto [2004a], "Molecular Line Observations of Carbon-Chain-Producing Regions L1495B and L1521B," Astrophys. J., vol.617, pp.399-405.

Ø          We evaluated the availability of a method proposed by Kuno et al. (2000, PASJ, 52, 775) for measuring the pattern speed of barred galaxies, and applied it to observational data. We made error estimations using a hydro-dynamical galaxy model to test the validity of the method. Error estimations suggest that the method is able to determine the pattern speed within an error of 10%-20%. The method was applied to 12CO(1-0) data of three late-type barred galaxies: NGC 2903, M 83, and NGC 3627. The derived pattern speed was 40 km s-1 kpc-1 for NGC 2903, 57 km s-1 kpc-1 for M 83, 39 km s-1 kpc-1 for NGC 3627, respectively. For the sake of a comparison with measurements in other galaxies, we used the distance-independent value R ( RCR/Rbar), and found that bars in the three late-type spirals are gslowh (R > 1.4). Our results support recent claims that bars are not always gfasth (R ≤ 1.4), at least for late-type spiral galaxies.

l           Hirota, A., N. Kuno, N. Sato, H. Nakanishi, T. Tosaki, and K. Sorai [2010], "Variation of Molecular Gas Properties Across the Spiral Arms in IC 342: Large-Scale 13CO (1-0) Emission," Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan, vol.62, pp.1261-1275.

Ø          We present a 13CO (1-0) mapping survey of the nearby galaxy IC 342 carried out with the Nobeyama 45m radio telescope. The map covers a 32" x 32" region including its center, bar, and most of one of the spiral arms. The 13CO (1-0) data were compared with 12CO (1-0), HƒΏ, 24ƒΚm, and Ks-band images to investigate spatial relations among molecular clouds, star-forming regions, and the stellar potential. The line ratio between both CO lines, I [13CO (1-0)]=I [12CO (1-0)] ί R13/12, was also derived to investigate the variation of molecular gas properties. The mean value of R13/12 in the center of IC 342 is low (~0.10}0.01) compared to the disk region (~0.15}0.01). While R13/12 in the central region is rather uniform, significant variations of R13/12 were found in the spiral arms; that is, while it is low (~0.1) at both ends of the bar and at the giant molecular cloud association (GMA) found in the spiral arm, it is high (0.14-0.20) downstream from the low R13/12 region. The low- and high-R13/12 regions in the disk correspond to the 12CO peak and star-forming regions, respectively. The low R13/12 in the galactic center is likely due to the higher gas temperature in the starburst region. The most probable explanation of the R13/12 variation in the disk is that a low R13/12 in the GMA and the ends of the bar reflects an increased fraction of the diffuse molecular component, which has a low column density and low volume density. Around the GMA and the north end of the bar, not only are the star-forming regions downstream from the CO distributions, but R13/12 is also higher downstream implying the presence of gas compression and ionized/molecular gas spatial offsets, as predicted by density wave models.

l           Hirota, T. [2008a], "Observations of H2O Maser Sources in Nearby Molecular Clouds with VERA," Proc. of the "Mapping the Galaxy and Nearby Galaxies", eds. Wada, K., and Combes, F., p.335.

Ø          Without abstract

Ø          Hirota, T., T. Bushimata, Y. K. Choi, M. Honma, H. Imai, K. Iwadate, T. Jike, S. Kameno, O. Kameya, R. Kamohara, Y. Kan-ya, N. Kawaguchi, M. Kijima, M. K. Kim, H. Kobayashi, S. Kuji, T. Kurayama, S. Manabe, K. Maruyama, M. Matsui, N. Matsumoto, T. Miyaji, T. Nagayama, A. Nakagawa, K. Nakamura, C. S. Oh, T. Omodaka, T. Oyama, S. Sakai, T. Sasao, K. Sato, M. Sato, K. M. Shibata, M. Shintani, Y. Tamura, M. Tsushima, and K. Yamashita [2008b], "Astrometry of H2O Maser Sources in Nearby Molecular Clouds with VERA," Proc. of the IAU Symp. 242, "Astrophysical Masers and their Environments", eds. Jessica Chapman and Willem Baan, pp.158-159.

l           We have carried out multi-epoch VLBI observations of the H2O maser sources associated with young stellar objects (YSOs) in nearby molecular clouds with VERA (VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry), which is a newly constructed VLBI network in Japan (Kobayashi et al. 2003). The main goal of our study is to measure the absolute proper motions and distances to nearby molecular clouds within 1 kpc from the Sun, to reveal their 3-dimensional structures and dynamical properties. Using the VERA dual-beam receiving system (Honma et al. 2003), we have carried out phase-referencing VLBI observations and measured annual parallaxes and absolute proper motions of the H2O maser features with respect to the extragalactic radio sources. We have successfully detected the annual parallax of one of the H2O maser features in Orion KL to be 2.29}0.10 mas, corresponding to the distance of 437}19 pc from the Sun (Hirota et al. 2007). In addition, the annual parallax of SVS13 in NGC 1333 is also determined to be4.10}0.17 mas, corresponding to the distance of 244}10 pc from the Sun, although the life time of the maser features are only 6 months. The absolute proper motions of the H2O maser features associated with Orion KL and NGC 1333 are derived, possibly indicating the outflow motions from the YSOs as well as the systemic motions of the powering sources.

Ø          Hirota, T., T. Bushimata, Y. K. Choi, M. Honma, H. Imai, K. Iwadate, T. Jike, O. Kameya, R. Kamohara, Y. Kan-ya, N. Kawaguchi, M. Kijima, H. Kobayashi, S. Kuji, T. Kurayama, S. Manabe, T. Miyaji, T. Nagayama, A. Nakagawa, C. S. oh, T. Omodaka, T. Oyama, S. Sakai, T. Sasao, K. Sato, K. M. Shibata, Y. Tamura, and K. Yamashita [2008c], "Astrometry of H2O Maserss in Nearby Star-Forming Regions with VERA. II. SVS13 in NGC 1333," Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan, vol.60, pp.37-44.

l           We report on the results of multiepoch very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations with VERA (VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry) of the 22 GHz H2O masers associated with the young stellar object SVS13 in the NGC1333 region. We carried out phase-referencing VLBI astrometry, and measured the annual parallax of the maser features in SVS13 of 4.25}0.32mas, corresponding to a distance of 235}18pc from the Sun. Our result is consistent with a photometric distance of 220pc, previously reported. Even though the maser features were detectable only for 6 months, the present result provides the distance to NGC1333 with much higher accuracy than photometric methods. The absolute positions and proper motions have been derived, revealing that the H2O masers with LSR (local standard of rest) velocities of 7-8kms-1 are most likely associated with VLA4A, which is a radio counterpart of SVS13. It is currently difficult to attribute the observed proper motions of the maser features to either the jet or the rotating circumstellar disk associated with VLA4A, which should be investigated through future high-resolution astrometric observations of VLA4A and other radio sources in NGC1333.

Ø          Hirota, T., K. Ando, T. Bushimata, Y. K. Choi, M. Honma, H. Imai, K. Iwadate, T. Jike, S. Kameno, O. Kameya, R. Kamohara, Y. Kan-ya, N. Kawaguchi, M. Kijima, M. K. Kim, H. Kobayashi, S. Kuji, T. Kurayama, S. Manabe, M. Matsui, N. Matsumoto, T. Miyaji, A. Miyazaki, T. Nagayama, A. Nakagawa, D. Namikawa, D. Nyu, C. S. Oh, T. Omodaka, T. Oyama, S. Sakai, T. Sasao, K. Sato, M. Sato, K. M. Shibata, Y. Tamura, K. Ueda, and K. Yamashita [2008d], "Astrometry of H2O Masers in Nearby Star-Forming Regions with VERA III. IRAS22198+6336 in Lynds 1204G," Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan, vol.60, pp.961-974.

l           We present results of multi-epoch VLBI observations with VERA (VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry) of the 22 GHz H2O masers associated with a young stellar object (YSO) IRAS 22198+6336 in a dark cloud, L1204G. Based on the phase-referencing VLBI astrometry, we derived an annual parallax of IRAS 22198+6336 to be 1.309}0.047 mas, corresponding to the distance of 764±27 pc from the Sun. Although the most principal error source of our astrometry is attributed to the internal structure of the maser spots, we successfully reduced the errors in the derived annual parallax by employing position measurements for all of the 26 detected maser spots. Based on this result, we reanalyzed the spectral energy distribution of IRAS 22198+6336 and found that the bolometric luminosity and total mass of IRAS 22198+6336 are 450Lsolar and 7Msolar, respectively. These values are consistent with an intermediate-mass YSO deeply embedded in the dense dust core, which has been proposed to be an intermediate-mass counterpart of a low-mass Class 0 source. In addition, we obtained absolute proper motions of the H2O masers for the most blue-shifted components. We propose that the collimated jets aligned along the east-west direction are the most plausible explanation for the origin of the detected maser features.

Ø          Hirota, T., M. Ohishi, and S. Yamamoto, [2009a], "A Search for Carbon-Chain-Rich Cores in Dark Clouds," Astrophys. J., vol.699, pp.585-602.

l           We present results of a survey of CCS, HC3N, and HC5N toward 40 dark cloud cores to search for "Carbon-Chain-Producing Regions (CCPRs)," where carbon-chain molecules are extremely abundant relative to NH3, as in L1495B, L1521B, L1521E, and the cyanopolyyne peak of TMC-1. We have mainly observed toward cores where the NH3 lines are weak, not detected, or not observed in previous surveys, and the CCS, HC3N, and HC5N lines have been detected toward 17, 17, and 5 sources, respectively. Among them, we have found a CCPR, L492, and its possible candidates, L1517D, L530D, L1147, and L1172B. They all show low abundance ratios of [NH3]/[CCS] (hereafter called the NH3/CCS ratio) indicating the chemical youth. Combining our results with those of previous surveys, we have found a significant variation of the NH3/CCS ratio among dark cloud cores and among molecular cloud complexes. Such a variation is also suggested by the detection rates of carbon-chain molecules. For instance, the NH3/CCS ratios are higher and the detection rates of carbon-chain molecules are lower in the Ophiuchus cores than in the Taurus cores. An origin of these systematic abundance variation is discussed in terms of the difference in the evolutionary stage or the contraction timescale. We have also identified a carbon-chain-rich star-forming core, L483, where intense HC3N and HC5N lines are detected. This is a possible candidate for a core with "Warm Carbon-Chain Chemistry."

Ø          Hirota, T., T. Bushimata, Y. K. Choi, M. Honma, H. Imai, K. Iwadate, T. Jike, S. Kameno, O. Kameya, R. Kamohara, Y. Kan-ya, N. Kawaguchi, M. Kijima, M. K. Kim, H. Kobayashi, S. Kuji, T. Kurayama, S. Manabe, K. Maruyama, M. Matsui, N. Matsumoto, T. Miyaji, T. Nagayama, A. Nakagawa, K. Nakamura, C. S. Oh, T. Omodaka, T. Oyama, S. Sakai, T. Sasao, K. Sato, M. Sato, K. M. Shibata, M. Shintani, Y. Tamura, M. Tsushima, and K. Yamashita [2009b], "Astrometry of H2O Maser Sources in Nearby Molecular Clouds with VERA," Proc. of the "Approaching Micro-Arcsecond Resolution with VSOP-2: Astrophysics and Technologies", eds. Hagiwara, Y., Fomalont, Ed., Tsuboi, M., and Murata, Y., ASP Conf. Ser. vol.402, pp.456-459.

l           We report on the recent results of astrometic observations of H2O maser sources associated with the nearby molecular clouds with VERA. We carried out phase-referencing VLBI astrometry of H2O masers in a high-mass star-forming region Orion KL and successfully detected an annual parallax of Orion KL to be 2.29}0.10 mas, corresponding to the distance of 437}19 pc from the Sun. In addition, we obtained an annual parallax of a nearby low-mass star-forming region NGC 1333 to be 4.25}0.32 mas, corresponding to the distance of 235}18 pc from the Sun. Our results demonstrate the high capability of astrometry with VERA, which can provide the most accurate distances to nearby molecular clouds.

Ø          Hirota, T., N. Sakai, and S. Yamamoto [2010], "Depletion of CCS in a Candidate Warm-Carbon-Chain-Chemistry Source L483," Astrophys. J., vol.720, pp.1370-1373.

l           We have carried out an observation of the CCS (JN = 21-10) line with the Very Large Array in its D-configuration toward a protostellar core L483 (IRAS 18140-0440). This is a candidate source of the newly found carbon-chain-rich environment called "Warm-Carbon-Chain-Chemistry (WCCC)," according to the previous observations of carbon-chain molecules. The CCS distribution in L483 is found to consist of two clumps aligned in the northwest-southeast direction, well tracing the CCS ridge observed with the single-dish radio telescope. The most remarkable feature is that CCS is depleted at the core center. Such a CCS distribution with the central hole is consistent with those of previously observed prestellar and protostellar cores, but it is rather unexpected for L483. This is because the distribution of CS, which is usually similar to that of CCS, is centrally peaked. Our results imply that the CCS (JN = 21-10) line would selectively trace the outer cold envelope in the chemically less evolved phase that is seriously resolved out with the interferometric observation. Thus, it is most likely that the high abundance of CCS in L483 relative to the other WCCC sources is not due to the activity of the protostar, although it would be related to its younger chemical evolutionary stage, or a short timescale of the prestellar phase.

Ø          Hodokuma, T., K. Kuriki, N. Asada, H. Demura, J. Terazono, H. Hirata, J. Haruyama, M. Ohtake, T. Matsunaga, and H. Araki [2009], "Integration of Multi-Instrumental Data Sets of Kaguya, LISM and LALT," 40th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, (Lunar and Planetary Science XL), held March 23-27, 2009 in The Woodlands, Texas, id.1637.

l           We report current status on integration of multi-instrumental data sets of Kaguya, LISM and LALT, such as digital terrain model, altitude profiles, multiband images, and spectral data.

Ø          Honma, M., T. Bushimata, Y. K. Choi, T. Hirota, H. Imai, K. Iwadate, T. Jike, O. Kameya, R. Kamohara, Y. Kan-ya, N. Kawaguchi, M. Kijima, H. Kobayashi, S. Kuji, T. Kurayama, S. Manabe, T. Miyaji, T. Nagayama, A. Nakagawa, C. S. Oh, T. Omodaka, T. Oyama, S. Sakai, K. Sato, T. Sasao, K. M. Shibata, M. Shintani, H. Suda, Y. Tamura, M. Tsushima, and K. Yamashita [2008a], "VERA Project," Proc. of the "Mapping the Galaxy and Nearby Galaxies", eds. Wada, K., and Combes, F., pp.27-32.

l           Is this paper we review the current status VERA (VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry) project. First, we present an overview of VERA, and then we report on recent results from VERA, particularly the parallax measurement of Galactic star forming region S269 at the distance of 5.3 kpc.

Ø          Honma, M., T. Bushimata, Y. K. Choi, T. Hirota, H. Imai, K. Iwadate, T. Jike, O. Kameya, R. Kamohara, Y. Kan-ya, N. Kawaguchi, M. Kijima, S. Manabe, T. Miyaji, T. Nagayama, A. Nakagawa, C. S. Oh, T. Omodaka, T. Oyama, S. Sakai, K. Sato, T. Sasao, K. M. Shibata, M. Shintani, H. Suda, Y. Tamura, M. Tsushima, and K. Yamashita [2008b], "Galactic Rotation Measurements Based on H2O Maser Astrometry with VERA," Proc. of the IAU Symp. 242, "Astrophysical Masers and their Environments", eds. Jessica Chapman and Willem Baan, pp.361-365.

l           We present results of astrometric observations of S269 H2O maser performed with VERA (VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry). We have monitored the positions of S269 H2O masers for 1 year and successfully detected its parallax to be 1898 micro-arcsecond. This corresponds to a source distance of 5.28-0.22+0.24 kpc, and is the smallest parallax (and thus the largest distance) that has ever been measured by means of annual parallax. Proper motions of S269 H2O maser were also measured and used to determine the Galactic rotation velocity at the position of S269. Our measurements show that the Galactic rotation velocity at S269 is the same to that at the Sun within 3%, indicating that the Galactic rotation curve is flat out to R~13 kpc.

Ø          Honma, M., T. Bushimata, Y. K. Choi, T. Hirota, H. Imai, K. Iwadate, T. Jike, S. Kameno, O. Kameya, R. Kamohara, Y. Kan-ya, N. Kawaguchi, M. Kijima, M. K. Kim, H. Kobayashi, S. Kuji, T. Kurayama, S. Manabe, N. Matsumoto, T. Miyaji, T. Nagayama, A. Nakagawa, K. Nakamura, C.-S. Oh, T. Omodaka, S. Sakai,K. Sato, M. Sato, T. Sasao, K. M. Shibata, Y. Tamura, and K. Yamashita [2008c], "Astrometry of Galactic Star-Forming Regions with VERA," Proc. of the IAU Symp. 248, "A Giant Step: from Milli- to Micro-arcsecond Astrometry", eds. Wenjing Jin, Imants Platais, Michael A. C. Perryman, pp.198-199.

l           We present an overview of recent astrometric results with VERA. Since 2004, we have been conducting astrometry of tens of Galactic maser sources with VERA, and recently obtained trigonometric parallaxes for several sources, with distances ranging from 180 pc to 5.3 kpc. In this paper, we briefly summarize the results for Galactic star-forming regions, including S269, Orion-KL, NGC 1333, ƒΟ-oph, NGC 281 and others.

Ø          Honma, M., K. Kijima, H. Suda, N. Kawaguchi, H. Kobayashi, T. Bushimata, R. Shimizu, A. Yoshimura, T. Sasao, T. Hirota, H. Imai, K. Iwadate, T. Jike, O. Kameya, R. Kamohara, S. Kuji, T. Kurayama, S. Manabe, T. Miyaji, A. Nakagawa, T. Omodaka, T. Oyama, S. Sakai, K. Sato, K. M. Shibata, and Y. Tamura [2008d], "Dual-Beam Delay Calibration for VERA," Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan, vol.60, pp.935-950.

l           We present the technique of instrumental delay calibration for the dual-beam system of VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA), namely, the horn-dish method, in which artificial noise sources are mounted on the antenna feedome base and a wide-band radio noise is injected into the dual-beam receivers after reflection by a subreflector. We introduce the basic concept of calibration with the horn-on-dish method, and also present results of the experiments to evaluate its calibration accuracy. Detailed comparisons between model path calculations and measured paths from the noise sources show that the horn-on-dish method can calibrate the dual-beam delay difference in the antenna structure and receiver within an ~ 0.1mm level. We estimated that the systematic error in the calibration does not exceed 0.127mm, which was evaluated at an elevation angle of 15‹. This error corresponds to an astrometric error of ~11ƒΚas with VERA's maximum baseline. An experimental confirmation of the systematic error in the horn-on-dish method has also been obtained by sing a pair of 10m and VERA's 20m antennas at the Mizusawa station, demonstrating that the systematic difference between the dual-beam delay difference measured with noise sources and that for celestial objects was 0.118mm, being consistent with the above estimate.

Ø          Honma, M., Y. Tamura, and M. J. Reid [2008e], "Tropospheric Delay Calibrations for VERA," Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan, vol.60, pp.951-960.

l           We present techniques for the tropospheric delay calibration, which is the key to increasing the accuracy of the phase-referencing astrometry with Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI). We study three methods, and make a comparison of these methods to discuss the accuracy in calibration. Our results show that all three methods can calibrate the tropospheric zenith delay within accuracy of ~ 2 cm. We also present simulations of positional errors in VLBI Exploration of Radio Astronomy (VERA) at the presence of an error in the tropospheric zenith delay, showing that parallax measurements with accuracy of 10ƒΚas can be readily achieved for sources at high declination and with small separation angles between the target Galactic maser and extragalactic position references.

Ø          Honma, M. [2008f], "Galaxy-Scale Astrometry and Galactic Rotation Measurement with VERA," Proc. of the 9th European VLBI Network Symposium on The role of VLBI in the Golden Age for Radio Astronomy and EVN Users Meeting, September 23-16, 2008, Bologna, Italy, pp.77-79.

l           We present results of Galaxy-scale astrometry with VERA (VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry). VERA had been conducting regular monitoring of Galactic radio sources since 2004, and we have already detected parallaxes for several sources, ranging from a few 100 pc to 5 kpc. In this paper, we summarize the recent results of astrometric measurements and discuss the Galaxy rotation obtained with VERA.

Ø          Honma, M. [2009a], "AGB Star Observations with VERA," Proc. of the "AGB Stars and Related Phenomena", eds. Toshiya Ueta, Noriyuki Matsunaga, and Yoshifusa Ita, p.54.

l           Not Available

Ø          Honma, M., T. Bushimata, Y. K. Choi, T. Hirota, H. Imai, K. Iwadate, T. Jike, S. Kameno, O. Kameya, R. Kamohara, N. Kawaguchi, M. Kijima, K. M. Kim, H. Kobayashi, S. Kuji, T. Kurayama, S. Manabe, M. Matsui, N. Matsumoto, T. Miyaji, T. Nagayama, A. Nakagawa, K. Nakamura, C. S. Oh, T. Omodaka, T. Oyama, S. Sakai, K. Sato, M. Sato, T. Sasao, K. M. Shibata, Y. Tamura, and K. Yamashita [2009b], "Maser Astrometry with VERA and VSOP-2," Proc. of the "Approaching Micro-Arcsecond Resolution with VSOP-2: Astrophysics and Technologies", eds. Hagiwara, Y., Fomalont, Ed., Tsuboi, M., and Murata, Y., ASP Conf. Ser. vol.402, pp.460-464.

l           We present recent results of maser astrometry obtained with VERA (VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry), which is a Japanese VLBI array dedicated to phase-referencing astrometry to explore the 3-D structure of the Milky Way Galaxy. Since 2004 we have been conducting regular monitoring of maser sources with VERA, and we have already detected parallaxes for several sources, ranging from a few 100 pc to 5 kpc. These results include mea- surements for Galactic star-forming regions such as ORI-KL, S269, NGC 281 as well as those for late type stars such as VY CMa. We also discuss the VERA-VSOP-2 connection in the near future, and propose astrometric observations with VSOP-2.

Ø          Hsieh, P.-Y., S. Matsushita, J. Lim, K. Kohno, and S. Sawada-Satoh [2008], "Interferometric 12CO J = 1-2 Image of the Nuclear Region of Seyfert 1 Galaxy NGC 1097," Astrophys. J., vol.683, pp.70-77.

l           We have mapped the central region of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 1097 in 12CO J=2-1 with the Submillieter Array (SMA). The 12CO J-2-1 map shows a central concentration and a surrounding ring coinciding, respectively, with the Seyfert nucleus and a starburst ring. The line intensity peaks at the nucleus, whereas in a previously published 12CO J=1-0 map the intensity peaks at the starburst ring. The azimuthally averaged 12CO J-1-0 intensity ratio R21 of the ring is about unity, which is similar to those in nearby active star-forming galaxies, suggesting that most of the molecular gas in the ring is involved in fueling the starburst. The ratio of molecular gas to dynamical mass in the starburst ring shows a somewhat lower value than that found in nearby star-forming galaxies, suggesting that the high R21 of unity may be caused by additional effects, such as shocks induced by gas infall along the bar. The molecular gas can last for about 1.2x108 yr without further replenishment, assuming a constant star formation rate. The central gas is rotating with the molecular ring in the same direction, while its velocity gradient is steeper than that of the ring, and similar to what usually observed in Seyfert 2 galaxies. To view the Seyfert nucleus without obscuration, the central gas can be a low-inclined disk or torus but not too low to be less massive than the mass of the host galaxy, or be a highly inclined thin disk or clumpy and thick torus, inner part of the galactic disk is also possible. The R21 of ~1.9 of the central gas is significantly higher than that of the ring, indicates that the activity of the Seyfert nucleus may significant influence the central gas.

Ø          Hughes, A., T. Wong, J. Ott, E. Muller, J. L. Pineda, Y. Mizuno, J.-P. Bernard, D. Paradis, S. Maddison, W. T. Reach, L. Staveley-Smith, A. Kawamura, M. Meixner, T. Kim, T. Onishi, N. Mizuno, and Y. Fukui [2010a], "Physical Properties of Giant Molecular Clouds in the Large Magellanic Cloud," Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc., vol.406, pp.2065-2086.

l           The Magellanic Mopra Assessment (MAGMA) is a high angular resolution 12CO (J = 1 -> 0) mapping survey of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and Small Magellanic Cloud using the Mopra Telescope. Here we report on the basic physical properties of 125 GMCs in the LMC that have been surveyed to date. The observed clouds exhibit scaling relations that are similar to those determined for Galactic GMCs, although LMC clouds have narrower linewidths and lower CO luminosities than Galactic clouds of a similar size. The average mass surface density of the LMC clouds is 50 Msolarpc-2, approximately half that of GMCs in the inner Milky Way. We compare the properties of GMCs with and without signs of massive star formation, finding that non-star-forming GMCs have lower peak CO brightness than star-forming GMCs. We compare the properties of GMCs with estimates for local interstellar conditions: specifically, we investigate the HI column density, radiation field, stellar mass surface density and the external pressure. Very few cloud properties demonstrate a clear dependence on the environment; the exceptions are significant positive correlations between (i) the HI column density and the GMC velocity dispersion, (ii) the stellar mass surface density and the average peak CO brightness and (iii) the stellar mass surface density and the CO surface brightness. The molecular mass surface density of GMCs without signs of massive star formation shows no dependence on the local radiation field, which is inconsistent with the photoionization-regulated star formation theory proposed by McKee. We find some evidence that the mass surface density of the MAGMA clouds increases with the interstellar pressure, as proposed by Elmegreen, but the detailed predictions of this model are not fulfilled once estimates for the local radiation field, metallicity and GMC envelope mass are taken into account.

Ø          Hughes, A. M., S. M. Andrews, D. J. Wilner, M. R. Meyer, J. M. Carpenter, C. Qi, A. S. Hales, S. Casassus, M. R. Hogerheijde, E. E. Mamajek, S. Wolf, T. Henning, and M. D. Silverstone [2010b], "Structure and Composition of Two Transitional Circumstellar Disks in Corona," Astron. J., vol.140, pp.887-896.

l           The late stages of evolution of the primordial circumstellar disks surrounding young stars are poorly understood, yet vital to constraining theories of planet formation. We consider basic structural models for the disks around two ~10 Myr old members of the nearby RCrA association: RX J1842.9-3532 and RX J1852.3-3700. We present new arcsecond-resolution maps of their 230 GHz continuum emission from the Submillimeter Array and unresolved CO(3-2) spectra from the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment. By combining these data with broadband fluxes from the literature and infrared fluxes and spectra from the catalog of the Formation and Evolution of Planetary Systems Legacy program on the Spitzer Space Telescope, we assemble a multiwavelength data set probing the gas and dust disks. Using the Monte Carlo radiative transfer code RADMC to model simultaneously the spectral energy distribution and millimeter continuum visibilities, we derive basic dust disk properties and identify an inner cavity of radius 16 AU in the disk around RX J1852.3-3700. We also identify an optically thin 5 AU cavity in the disk around RX J1842.9-3532, with a small amount of optically thick material close to the star. The molecular line observations suggest an intermediate disk inclination in RX J1842.9-3532, consistent with the continuum emission. In combination with the dust models, the molecular data allow us to derive a lower CO content than expected, suggesting that the process of gas clearing is likely underway in both systems, perhaps simultaneously with planet formation.

Ø          Iguchi, S., and T. Okuda [2008], "The FFX Correlator," Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan, vol.60, pp.857-869.

l           We established a new algorithm for a correlation process in radio astronomy. This scheme consists of a 1st-stage Fourier transform as a filter and a 2nd-stage Fourier transform for spectroscopy. The "FFX" correlator stands for Filter and FX architecture, since the 1st-stage Fourier transform is performed as a digital filter, and the 2nd-stage Fourier transform is performed as a conventional FX scheme. We developed FFX correlator hardware not only for verifying the FFX scheme algorithm, but also for applying to the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE) telescope toward high-dispersion and wideband radio observations at submillimeter wavelengths. In this paper, we present of the FFX correlator and its properties, as well as evaluation results with the production version.

Ø          Iguchi, S., K.-I. Morita, M. Sugimoto, B. Vila-Vilaro, M. Saito, T. Hasegawa, R. Kawabe, K. Tatematsu, S. Sakamoto, H. Kiuchi, S. K. Okumura, G. Kosugi, J. Inatani, S. Takakuwa, D. Iono, T. Kamazaki, R. Ogasawara, and M. Ishiguro [2009], "The Atacama Compact Array (ACA)," Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan, vol.61, pp.1-12.

l           For realizing high fidelity of imaging with mosaicing observations, the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) consists of a homogeneous array of 12 m antennas (12 m Array) and the Atacama Compact Array (ACA) in order to cover all spatial frequency Fourier components of the brightness distribution of observed sources. The array is located at an altitude site of about 5000 m with an operating wavelength range of 0.3 to 3 mm. ACA is an array composed of four 12 m dishes [TP (Total Power) Array] and twelve 7 m dishes (7 m Array). The 7 m Array has a very compact conήguration to take short-baseline data corresponding to the low spatial frequency Fourier components. The 7 m Array has two conήgurations extended over 30-50 m to avoid shadowing at low elevation. The scientific importances and operation concepts of ACA, and the system design of ACA and its performance are presented in this paper.

Ø          Ikeda, N., Y. Kitamura, and K. Sunada [2009a], "A Survey of Dense Cores in the Orion B Cloud," Astrophys. J., vol.691, pp.1560-1582.

l           We have carried out an H13CO+(J = 1-0) core survey in a large area of 1 deg2, covering most of the dense region in the Orion B molecular cloud, using the Nobeyama 45 m radio telescope with the 25-BEam Array Receiver System. We cataloged 151 dense cores using the clumpfind method. The cores have mean radius, velocity width, and mass of 0.10}0.02 pc, 0.53}0.15 km s-1, and 8.1} 6.4 M, respectively, which are very similar to those in the Orion A cloud. We examined the spatial relation between our H13CO+ cores and the 850 ƒΚm cores observed by Johnstone and colleagues in 2001 and 2006, and found that there are two types of spatial relationships: H13CO+ cores with and without the 850ƒΚm cores. Since the mean density of the 850ƒΚm cores is higher than that of the H13CO+ cores, we can interpret the H13CO+ cores with 850ƒΚm cores as being more centrally concentrated and hence more evolved, compared with those without. Considering the relationship between the masses of the H13CO+ and 850ƒΚm cores, we estimate the 850ƒΚm core mass function (CMF) using the H13CO+ CMF through the generalization of the confusion model proposed by Ikeda and colleagues in 2007. Our predicted 850ƒΚm CMF is found to be quite consistent with that directly derived by Johnstone and colleagues. Furthermore, we predict the initial mass function (IMF) by the generalized confusion model assuming a star formation efficiency of 40% for the H13CO+ cores, and found that our predicted IMF is consistent with the Galactic field-averaged IMF within uncertainties. This agreement may indicate that the origin of the IMF goes back to the cloud structures with densities of less than 104 cm-3.

Ø          Ikeda, N., and Y. Kitamura [2009b], "A C18O Study of the Origin of the Power-Law Nature in the Initial Mass Function," Astrophys. J. (Letters), vol.705, pp.L95-L98.

l           Inomata, N., H. Imai, and T. Omodaka [2007], "A Pole-on Bipolar Outflow from the AGB Star WX Piscium," Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan, vol.59, pp.799-809.          

Ø          We have performed C18O (J = 1-0) mapping observations of a 20' x 20' area of the OMC-1 region in the Orion A cloud. We identified 65 C18O cores, which have a mean radius, a velocity width in FWHM, and an LTE mass of 0.18 } 0.03 pc, 0.40 } 0.15 km s-1, and 7.2 } 4.5 Msun, respectively. All the cores are most likely to be gravitationally bound by considering the uncertainty in the C18O abundance. We derived a C18O core mass function, which shows a power-law-like behavior above 5 Mun. The best-fit power-law index of -2.3 } 0.3 is consistent with those of the dense core mass functions and the stellar initial mass function (IMF) previously derived in the OMC-1 region. This agreement strongly suggests that the power-law form of the IMF has been already determined at the density of ~103 cm-3, traced by the C18O (J = 1-0) line. Consequently, we propose that the origin of the IMF should be searched in tenuous cloud structures with densities of less than 103 cm-3.

l           Imada, S., H. Hara, T. Watanabe, A. Asai, T. Minoshima, L. K. Harra, and J. T. Mariska [2008], "Non-Gaussian Line Profiles in a Large Solar Flare Observed on 2006 December 13," Astrophys. J. (Letters), vol.679, pp.L155-L159.

Ø          We have studied the characteristics of the non-Gaussian line profile of the Fe xiv 274.20 Å line in and around a flare arcade. We found that broad non-Gaussian line profiles associated with redshifts are observed in the flare arcade. There were two typical types of broad line profiles. One was a distorted line profile caused by multiple flows, and the other was a symmetric line profile without any additional component. We successfully distinguished those two types using higher order statistical moments or M-the additional component contribution-defined in this Letter. The distorted/symmetric broad line profiles were preferentially observed in new/old flare loops, respectively.

l           Imai, H., K. Nakashima, T. Bushimata, Y. K. Choi, T. Hirota, M. Honma, K. Horiai, N. Inomata, K. Iwadate, T. Jike, O. Kameya, R. Kamohara, Y. Kan-ya, N. Kawaguchi, M. Kijima, H. Kobayashi, S. Kuji, T. Kurayama, S. Manabe, T. Miyaji, T. Nagayama, A. Nakagawa, C. S. Oh, T. Omodaka, T. Oyama, S. Sakai, S. Sakakibara, K. Sato, T. Sasao, K. M. Shibata, R. Shimizu, M. Shintani, Y. Sofue, K. Sora, H. Sudo, Y. Tamura, M. Tsushima, Y. Ueno, and K. Yamashita [2007], "Astrometry of H2O Masers in Nearby Star-Forming Regions with VERA I. IRAS 16239-2422 in ƒΟOph East," Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan, vol.59, pp.1107-1113.

Ø          We report on results of multi-epoch VLBI observations of H2O masers associated with a low-mass young stellar object, IRAS 16239-2422 in ƒΟOph East, and a fringe-phase and position reference sources, ICRF J162546.8-252738, using the VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA) for high-precision astrometry. We obtained an annual parallax of a maser feature to be ƒΞ=5.6+1.5-0.5 mas, corresponding to a distance of D=178+18-37 pc. We also found 10 relative proper motions of maser feature with respect to the maser feature mentioned above. The motion of the accompanying young stellar object (YSO) has already been found in thermal continuum emission previously observed with the Very Long Array. The intrinsic motions of masers have been estimated from the relative proper motions after the YSO's motion is subtracted from, and a systemic secular motion of the position reference feature is added to the proper motions originally measured. The intrinsic maser kinematical structure may trace a bipolar outflow.

l           Imai, H., T. Fujii, T. Omodaka, and S. Deguchi [2008a], "JVN Observations of H20 Masers around the Evolved Star IRAS 22480+6002," Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan, vol.60, pp.55-62.

Ø          We report on the H20 maser distributions around IRAS 22480+6002 (=IRC+60370) observed with the Japanese VLBI Network (JVN) at three epochs spanning 2 months. This object was identified as a K-type supergiant in 1970s, which was unusual as a stellar maser source. The spectrum of H20 masers consists of 5 peaks separated roughly equally by a few km/s each. The H2O masers were spatially resolved into more than 15 features, which spread about 50 mas along the east-west direction. However, no correlation was found between the proper motion vectors and their spatial distributions; the velocity field of the envelope seems random. A statistical parallax method applied to the observed proper-motion data set gives a distance of 1.0}0.4 kpc for this object, that is considerably smaller than previously thought. The distance indicates that this is an evolved star with L~5800 Lsun. This star shows radio, infrared, and optical characteristics quite similar to those of the population II post-AGB stars such as RV Tau variables.

l           Imai, H., T. Omodaka, T. Hirota, T. Umemoto, K. Sorai, T. Kondo, and the VERA collaboration [2008b], "A Collimated Jet and an Infalling-Rotating Disk in G192.16-3.84 Traced by H2O Maser Emission," Proc. of the IAU Symp. 242, "Astrophysical Masers and their Environments", eds. Jessica Chapman and Willem Baan, pp.340-341.

Ø          We present H2O masers associated with the massive-star forming region G192 observed with the Japan VLBI network since the year 2005, The spatio-kinematical structure of the maser feature clusters has well persisted since previous observations, in which the masers are associated with two young stellar objects (YSOs) separated by ~1200 AU and expected to be associated with a highly-collimated bipolar jet and an infalling-rotating disk in the northern and southern YSOs, respectively. We estimated a jet speed of ~100 km s-1 and re-estimated a dynamical age of the whole jet to be 5.6x104 years. The spatial distribution of maser Doppler velocities found during the previous and present observations, relative proper motions of H2O maser features in the southern cluster found in the present observations, a relative bulk motion between the two maser clusters are well explained by a model of an infalling-rotating disk with a radius of ~1000 AU and a central stellar mass of ~8 Msolar.

l           Imai, H., J.-H. He, J. Nakashima, N. Ukita, S. Deguchi, and N. Koning [2009], "CO J=3-2 Emission from the "Water Fountain" Sources IRAS 16342-3814 and IRAS 18286-0959," Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan, vol.61, pp.1365-1372.

Ø          We observed CO J=3-2 emission from "water-fountain'' sources, which exhibit high-velocity collimated stellar jets traced by H2O maser emission, with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE) 10 m telescope. We detected CO emission from two sources: IRAS 16342-3814 and IRAS 18286-0959. The IRAS 16342-3814 CO emission exhibits a spectrum that could be well fit to a Gaussian profile, rather than to a parabolic profile, with a velocity width (FWHM) of 1586 km s-1 and an intensity peak at VLSR=50}2 km s-1. The mass-loss rate of the star is estimated to be ~2.9~10-5 Myr-1. Our morpho-kinematic models suggest that the CO emission is optically thin, and associated with a bipolar outflow rather than with a (cold and relatively small) torus. The IRAS 18286-0959 CO emission has a velocity width (FWHM) of 3.0}0.2 km s-1, smaller than typically seen in AGB envelopes. The narrow velocity width of the CO emission suggests that it originates from either an interstellar molecular cloud or a slowly-rotating circumstellar envelope that harbors the H2O maser source.

l           Imai, H., J. Nakashima, S. Deguchi, A. Yamauchi, A. Nakagawa, and T. Nagayama, [2010], "Japanese VLBI Network Mapping of SiO ƒΛ=3 J=1-0 Maser Emission in W Hydrae," Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan, vol.62, pp.431-439.

Ø          We report first on two-epoch mapping observations of SiO v = 3 J = 1-0 maser emission in the semiregular variable W Hydrae using the Japanese VLBI Network. The flux density of the v = 3 J = 1-0 emission detected on 2009 February 28 was two orders of magnitude smaller than those of the v = 1 and v = 2 emissions, while a month and half later the v = 3 flux density suddenly increased by a factor of ˜25. In contrast, the v = 1 and v = 2 flux densities decreased during this period, as expected from the optical light curve. At the first epoch, the v = 3 maser features were located inside of a ring composed of the v = 1 and v = 2 features by 6 mas (gtrsim0.5 AU) toward the central star. These offsets are meaningfully larger than the error of the fitted ring radius and the difference in the ring sizes of v = 1 and v = 2 masers (lesssim 0.2 AU). The present result at the first epoch suggests that v = 3 J = 1-0 SiO masers are predominantly excited in a pumping mechanism (e.g., collisional pumping) different from that recently proposed on the basis of the line overlap with infrared H2O lines. Interestingly, the second-epoch observation revealed that the v = 3 features were located on almost the same ring as the v = 2 ring, which is consistent with what line-overlap theory suggests.

l           Imamura, T., T. Iwata, Z. Yamamoto, K.-L. Oyama, A. Nabatov, Y. Kono, M. Matsumoto, Q. Liu, H. Noda, H. Hanada, Y. Futaana, and A. Saito [2008a], "Initial Results of the Lunar Ionosphere Observation with SELENE Radio Science," 39th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, (Lunar and Planetary Science XXXIX), held March 10-14, 2008 in League City, Texas. LPI Contribution No. 1391, p.1659.

Ø          The electron density distribution near the lunar surface in various conditions are being observed by radio occultation technique in the Kaguya (SELENE) mission using the Vstar sub-satellite. Initial results from this experiment are presented.

l           Imamura, T., K.-I. Oyama, T. Iwata,Y. Kono, K. Matsumoto, Q. Liu, H. Noda, Y. Futaana, and A. Nabatov [2008b], "The Possibility of Studying the Lunar Ionosphere with the SELENE Radio Science Experiment," Earth Planets and Space, vol.60, pp.387-390.

Ø          The electron density profiles above the lunar surface will be observed by the radio occultation technique during the SELENE mission using the Vstar sub-satellite. Previous radio occultation observations have indicated the existence of an ionosphere with densities of up to 1000 cm-3 above the dayside lunar surface. The measured densities are difficult to explain theoretically when the removal of plasma by the solar wind is considered, and thus the generation mechanism of the lunar ionosphere is a major issue, with even the validity of previous observations still under debate. The SELENE radio science experiment will establish the morphology of the lunar ionosphere and will reveal its relationship with various physical conditions to provide possible clues to the mechanism.

l           Imamura, T., T. Iwata, Z. Yamamoto, N. Mochizuki, Y. Kono, K. Matsumoto, Q. Liu, H. Noda, H. Hanada, K. Oyama, A. Nabatov, Y. Futaana, A. Saito, and H. Ando [2008c], "Studying the Lunar Ionosphere with SELENE Radio Science Experiment," American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2008, abstract #P51D-04.

Ø          Lunar ionosphere is generally thought to be as thin as 1 cm-3; the process that will prevent the accumulation of newly produced ions near the lunar surface is the impingement of the solar wind magnetic field on the lunar surface, which induces an electric field that sweeps away ions. In harmony with this prediction, most of the radio occultation experiments performed with radio stars failed to detect the lunar ionosphere. Radio occultation experiments conducted with the Soviet Luna 19 and 22 spacecraft, on the other hand, detected large electron densities near the dayside lunar surface. Vyshlov (1974) obtained peak electron densities of 500-1000 cm-3 at heights of 5-10 km, with a gradual decrease at higher altitudes with a scale height of 10-30 km. The measured densities are difficult to explain theoretically, and thus the generation mechanism of the lunar ionosphere is a major issue, with even the validity of the previous observations still under debate. If a thick lunar ionosphere exists, possible mechanisms to maintain the ionized layer are the effect of the remnant magnetic field which stands off the solar wind magnetic field, certain processes that enhance the neutral gas concentration, or charged dust grains that are lifted up by the near-surface electric field. The electron density profiles above the lunar surface are being observed by radio occultation during the SELENE (KAGUYA) mission using sub-satellites. The systematic measurements will establish the morphology of the lunar ionosphere and reveal its dependence on various conditions, thereby providing clues to the generation mechanism. The S-band (2.2GHz) and X-band (8.5GHz) signals transmitted by the Vstar sub- satellite is received at the Usuda Deep Space Center in Japan. The most serious error source is the temporal variation in the terrestrial ionosphere during measurements. In the region where the contribution of the lunar ionosphere is virtually absent, i.e. at altitudes above ~100 km, a gradual variation caused by the terrestrial ionosphere is observed. This variation is extrapolated into the near-moon portion and subtracted from the observed one, thereby eliminating the influence of the terrestrial ionosphere to some extent. In addition to this method, we also use the Rstar sub- satellite, which transmits coherent two signals in S-band, to measure the terrestrial ionosphere during the lunar occultation of Vstar; the subtraction of the Rstar's measurement from the Vstar's measurement gives the lunar ionosphere. The opportunities of the latter method are rather limited, however. More than 100 measurements using Vstar and more than 10 measurements using Rstar and Vstar have been conducted during the first half of the mission. Although the error due to the fluctuation of the terrestrial ionosphere is rather significant, there seems to be a tendency that the electron density increases on the morning side of the moon.

l           Imanishi, M., K. Nakanishi, Y. Tamura, N. Oi, and K. Kohno [2007], "Millimeter Interferometric HCN(1-0) and HCO+(1-0) Observations of Luminous Infrared Galaxies," Astron. J., vol.134, pp.2366-2384.

Ø          We present the results on millimeter interferometric observations of four luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs), Arp 220, Mrk 231, IRAS 08572+3915, and VV 114, and one Wolf-Rayet galaxy, He 2-10, using the Nobeyama Millimeter Array (NMA). Both the HCN(1-0) and HCO+(1-0) molecular lines were observed simultaneously, and their brightness-temperature ratios were derived. High-quality infrared L-band (2.8-4.1ƒΚm) spectra were also obtained for the four LIRGs to better constrain their energy sources deeply buried in dust and molecular gas. When combined with other LIRGs we have previously observed with NMA, the final sample comprised nine LIRGs (12 LIRG nuclei) with available interferometric HCN(1-0) and HCO+(1-0) data, sufficient to investigate the overall trend in comparison with known AGNs and starburst galaxies. We found that LIRGs with luminous buried AGN signatures at other wavelengths tend to show high HCN(1-0)/HCO+(1-0) brightness-temperature ratios as seen in AGN-dominated galaxies, while the Wolf-Rayet galaxy He 2-10 displays a small ratio. An enhanced HCN abundance in the interstellar gas surrounding a strongly X-ray-emitting AGN, as predicted by some chemical calculations, and/or infrared radiative pumping, are possible explanations of our results.

l           Imanishi, M. [2008], "Nobeyama Millimeter Array Observations of Luminous Infrared Galaxis," EAS Publication Series, vol.31, pp.93-96.

Ø          We present the results of systematic millimeter interferometric observations of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs), using the Nobeyama Millimeter Array. We observed HCN (J = 1-0) and HCO+ (J = 1-0) emission lines simultaneously, and derived their brightness-temperature ratios, to investigate whether the observed ratios are similar to those found in AGN-dominated nuclei or starburst galaxies. LIRGs with (without) luminous buried AGN signatures in our infrared spectra tend to show high (low) HCN (J = 1-0) to HCO+ (J = 1-0) brightness-temperature ratios as seen in galaxy nuclei dominated by AGNs (starbursts). The high ratios in buried AGN candidates could be explained by the enhanced HCN abundance, and/or infrared radiative pumping of the HCN molecule, in the close vicinity of an AGN.

l           Imanishi, M., K. Nakanishi, Y. Tamura, and C.-H. Peng [2009], "Nobeyama Millimeter Interferometric HCN(1-0) and HCO+(1-0) Observations of Further Luminous Infrared Galaxies," Astron. J., vol.137, pp.3581-3598.

Ø          We report the results of interferometric HCN(1-0) and HCO+(1-0) observations of four luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs), NGC 2623, Mrk 266, Arp 193, and NGC 1377, as a final sample of our systematic survey using the Nobeyama Millimeter Array. Our survey contains the most systematic interferometric, spatially resolved, simultaneous HCN(1-0) and HCO+(1-0) observations of LIRGs. Ground-based infrared spectra of these LIRGs are also presented to elucidate the nature of the energy sources at the nuclei. We derive the HCN(1-0)/HCO+(1-0) brightness-temperature ratios of these LIRGs and confirm the previously discovered trend that LIRG nuclei with luminous buried active galactic nucleus (AGN) signatures in infrared spectra tend to show high HCN(1-0)/HCO+(1-0) brightness-temperature ratios, as seen in AGNs, while starburst-classified LIRG nuclei in infrared spectra display small ratios, as observed in starburst-dominated galaxies. Our new results further support the argument that the HCN(1-0)/HCO+(1-0) brightness-temperature ratio can be used to observationally separate AGN-important and starburst-dominant galaxy nuclei.

l           Imanishi, M., K. Nakanishi, M. Yamada, Y. Tamura, and K. Kohno [2010], "ASTE Simultaneous HCN(4-3) and HCO+(4-3) Observations of the Two Luminous Infrared Galaxies NGC 4418 and Arp 220," Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan, vol.62, pp.201-209.

Ø          We report the results of HCN (J = 4-3) and HCO+ (J = 4-3) observations of two luminous infrared galaxies, NGC 4418 and Arp 220, made using the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE). The ASTE wide-band correlator provided simultaneous observations of HCN (4-3) and HCO+(4-3) lines, and a precise determination of their fiux ratios. Both galaxies showed high HCN (4-3) to HCO+ (4-3) fiux ratios of > 2, possibly due to AGN-related phenomena. The J = 4-3 to J = 1-0 transition fiux ratios for HCN (HCO+) are similar to those expected for fully thermalized (sub-thermally excited) gas in both sources, in spite of HCNfs higher critical density. If we assume collisional excitation and neglect an infrared radiative pumping process, our non-LTE analysis suggests that HCN traces gas with signifoficantly cantly higher density than HCO+. In Arp 220, we separated the double-peaked HCN (4-3) emission into eastern and western nuclei, based on velocity information. We confirmed that the eastern nucleus showed a higher HCN (4-3) to HCN (1-0) fiux ratio, and thus contained a larger amount of highly excited molecular gas than the western nucleus.

l           Inoue, H., K. Muraoka, T. Sakai, A. Endo, K. Kohno, S. Asayama, T. Noguchi, and H. Ogawa [2008], "350 GHz Sideband Separating Receiver for ASTE," Proc. of the 19th International Symposium on Space THz Technology, ed. Wolfgang Wild, pp.281-285.

Ø          We have developed a 350 GHz Sideband Separating Receiver for ASTE (Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment). The RF frequency range is 330-360 GHz and the IF frequency range is 4-8 GHz. The receiver noise temperature was 150 - 200 K (SSB) and the image rejection ratio was typically 10 dB. This receiver was installed on the ASTE telescope in October 2007. The system noise temperature at the atmosphere condition ofƒΡ220 ~ 0.6 - 0.8 was 200 K (SSB). This is almost half of that of the previous DSB receiver.

l           Inoue, M., A. Haba, K. Asada, H. Nagai, Y. Murata, and P. Edwards [2008a], "Possible Detection of Outer Plasma Around AGN Jets," Proc. of the "Mapping the Galaxy and Nearby Galaxies", eds. Wada, K., and Combes, F., p.338.

Ø          Without abstract

l           Inoue, M., K. Asada, and H. Nagai [2008b], "A New Method to Detect Faraday Screen," Proc. of the "Extragalactic Jets: Theory and Observation from Radio to Gamma Ray", eds. Travis A. Rector and David S. De Young, ASP Conf. Ser., vol.386, pp.459-461.

Ø          We point out a possible method to investigate a plasma sheath, or Faraday screen, which has been revealed by recent Faraday rotation studies of AGN jets. When a jet is spiral in shape, it may happen to go across a jet trajectory behind the front jet. The plasma sheath around the front jet can be seen as an absorption feature against the jet behind the front jet. This configuration should not be a special case when the jet trajectory is spiral in shape, and the point overlapping the jet with each other provides opportunity to investigate the plasma sheath. However, it might be difficult if the sheath is thin, and high angular resolution observations are required. VSOP observation shows a sharp absorption feature to suggest free-free absorption by the plasma sheath, which demonstrates a reality to study the sheath.

l           Inoue, M., H. Nagai, K. Asada, H. Saito, and M. Tsuboi [2008c], "The Next Generation Space VLBI Project: VSOP-2," Proc. of the "Extragalactic Jets: Theory and Observation from Radio to Gamma Ray", eds. Travis A. Rector and David S. De Young, ASP Conf. Ser., vol.386, pp.262-264.

Ø          The second space VLBI project VSOP-2 has just approved, and started construction of the satellite Astro-G in the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS). Its key science targets are to investigate physical phenomena around massive black holes with its superb spatial resolutions up to 40 micro arcsec. By the dual polarization capability at all the three observing frequencies at 8, 22, and 43 GHz, VSOP-2 is anticipated to be a powerful tool to investigate structures of the magnetic field in AGN jets to see the acceleration and collimation mechanisms.

l           Inoue, M., M. Sato, H. Saito, and M. Tsuboi [2008d], "Next Generation Space VLBI Project: VSOP-2," Proc. of the "Observational Evidence for Black Holes in the Universe", AIP Conf. Proc., vol.1053, pp.377-379.

Ø          The second space VLBI Project (VSOP-2) was approved, and just started construction of the satellite ASTRO-G in the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS). Discussion for worldwide collaboration has also been started. Its key science targets are to investigate physical phenomena around massive black holes with its superb spatial resolutions up to 40 micro arc seconds. By the dual polarization capability at all the three observing frequencies of 8, 22, and 43 GHz, VSOP-2 is anticipated to be a powerful tool to investigate structure of accretion disk and the magnetic field structure in AGN jets to see the acceleration and collimation mechanisms.

l           Ishihara, Y., S. Sasaki, H. Araki, H. Noda, S. Tazawa, Laser Altimeter (Lalt) in Migita, E. Kaguya, and N. Kawano [2008a], "A Preliminary Lunar Topographic Model by KAGUYA/LALT - New Views of Lunar Topographic Features, Slope -," 37th COSPAR Scientific Assembly, held 13-20 July 2008, in Montreal, Canada, p.1326.

Ø          Japanese lunar explorer KAGUYA (SELENE) was successfully lunched on September 14, 2007, and installed planed lunar orbit on October 19, 2007. The Laser ALTimeter (LALT) aboard a main orbiter of KAGUYA is a ranging instrument that measures the distance between the satellite and the lunar surface with accuracy of 5m by round trip time of the laser light. As Kaguya is in a polar orbit, the first global and precise topographic map is expected to be obtained. Especially, previous experiments (ex. Clementine LIDAR) had not been gathered high latitude regions (above 75-degree north and south). Our LALT will measure those regions for the first time. The LALT nominal measurement was started on 30th, December 2007 after the some test and adjustment phase on orbit. As of the middle of February 2008, the LALT footprints cover thrice of the entire moon, and measurement points are reached 30,00,000. It is enough to make a preliminary LALT lunar topographic model. We started to build LALT lunar topographic model, and compare with a previous model. Before LALT, the Unified Lunar Control Network 2005 (ULCN2005) was most precise lunar global topographic model based on a combination of Clementine images and a previous lunar control network derived from Earth-based & Apollo photographs, and Mariner 10, & Galileo images. Comparing our preliminary model with ULCN2005, it is obviously showed that lunar topographic model would be totally (not only polar region, but also equatorial region) refined by our LALT model. Our model is already more accurate and detail model than ULCN2005. For example, our model expresses some ridge feature that had never been shown in any previous models on near-side mare regions. In our paper, we will show preliminary LALT lunar topographic map and slope map derived from topography. Moreover, we shall show the reflectance (@ 1micrometer) map derived from analysis of return laser light intensity.

l           Ishihara, Y., K. Matsumoto, S. Goossens, H. Araki, N. Namiki, H. Hanada, T. Iwata, H. Noda, and S. Sasaki [2008b], "Localized Gravity/Topography Correlation Spectra on the Moon," Meteoritics and Planetary Sci. Suppl., vol.43, paper id. 5213.

Ø          Not Available

l           Ishihara, Y., H. Noda, S. Sasaki, H. Araki, E. Migita, S. Goossens, S. Tazawa, and N. Kawano [2008c], "Investigation of Lunar Impact Structures and Ridge Features by KAGUYA Altimetry (LALT) Data," American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2008, abstract #P31B-1418.

Ø          The Laser ALTimeter (LALT) aboard a main orbiter of Japanese lunar explorer KAGUYA (SELENE) is a ranging instrument that measures the distance between the satellite and the lunar surface with accuracy of 5m by round trip time of the laser light every 1 second. Kaguya is in a polar orbit, the first global, precise, high-resolution topographic map has been obtained. Especially, previous experiments (ex. Clementine LIDAR) had not been gathered at high latitude regions (above 75-degree north and south). Our LALT measured that region for the first time. Using LALT data, we built a new lunar topographic mode and compared it with a previous model. As of LALT, the Unified Lunar Control Network 2005 (ULCN2005) was most precise lunar global topographic model based on a combination of Clementine images and a previous lunar control network derived from Earth-based & Apollo photographs, and Mariner 10, & Galileo images. Comparing our model with both ULCN2005 and Clementine LIDAR model, it is obviously shown that lunar topographic model would be totally (not only polar region, but also equatorial region) refined by our LALT model. LALT model can clarify the presence and shape of craters as well as large impact structure. Previously unresolved heights of central peaks of large craters are obtained. Several large impact structures in far side high land regions show multi-ring morphologies some of which were obscure in the previous map. LALT data clarified the presence of new ring structure around Moscoviense basin. The center of newly defined ring structure is offset from that of other Moscoviense rings. It means that, the new ring is not the third ring of Moscoviense, but it is predated impact structure. In near side, LALT data could express some tectonic ridges and rimas within the mare region.

l           Ishihara, Y., N. Namiki, S. Sugita, K. Matsumoto, S. Goossens, H. Araki, H. Noda, S. Sasaki, T. Iwata, and H. Hanada [2009a], "Localized Gravity/Topography Correlation and Admittance Spectra on the Moon," 40th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, (Lunar and Planetary Science XL), held March 23-27, 2009 in The Woodlands, Texas, id.1623.

Ø          We show the results of localized correlation and admittance analysis using new lunar gravity and topography models from Kaguya mission.

l           Ishihara, Y., S. Goossens, K. Matsumoto, H. Noda, H. Araki, N. Namiki, H. Hanada, T. Iwata, S. Tazawa, and S. Sasaki [2009b], "Crustal Thickness of the Moon: Implications for Farside Basin Structures," Geophys. Res. Letters, vol.36, CitelD L19202-1-4.

Ø          Based on the latest SELENE lunar gravity and topography model obtained by Kaguya mission, we compute the lunar crustal thickness map to investigate differences between farside basin structures. The thickest crust is located in the southern rim of the Dirichlet-Jackson basin and the thinnest crust at the Moscoviense basin. The thickest crust corresponds to the highest topography and is consistent with Airy isostasy. The thinnest crust is due to an abnormally large mantle plug. The crustal thicknesses at Apollo 12/14 sites of our crustal thickness model are 45.1 and 49.9 km. The crustal thickness map indicates that the differences between recently proposed type I and type II basins are probably controlled by the ratio between pre-impact crustal thickness and impact scale.

l           Ishihara, Y., T. Morota, T. Iwata, K. Matsumoto, S. Goossens, and S. Sasaki [2010], "Lunar Large Impact Basin Structures and Implications for Thermal History," LPI Contribution No. 1533, p.1559.

Ø          We reconstruct excavate cavity geometry of large impact basins on the Moon (including farside basins) using the Kaguya crustal thickness model. We discuss the impact structures and thermal history.

l           Isobe, N., H. Seta, M. Tashiro, Y. Yaji, M. Hayashida, M. Terashima, K. Nakanishi, T. Tosaki, K. Kohno, Y. Shimajiri, M. Fukuhara, M. Sasada, A. Arai, and M. Uemura [2008], "Suzaku Observation of the Blazar OJ287; Quiescence and Predicted Flare in 2007," 37th COSPAR Scientific Assembly, held 13-20 July 2008, in Montreal, Canada, p.1330.

Ø          OJ 287 is a famous blazar at a redshift of z = 0.306. Optical monitors of OJ 287 over more than 100 years indicate periodic flares every about 12 years, which make the source one of the most promising candidates for a supermassive binary black holes. Since OJ 287 was predicted to flare up in the autumn of 2007, based on the periodicity, we conducted a Suzaku X-ray observation of OJ 287 on 2007 November 7 - 9, in corporation with radio, optical and gamma-ray observation with Nobeyama Millimeter Array, Kanata telescope, and MAGIC telescope, respectively. Suzaku has detected the significant X-ray signals up to about 30 keV, for the first time from OJ 287, with a very hard X-ray spectrum of a photon index, Gamma ~1.5. The X-ray flux of the source, ~4.5x10-12 ergs cm-2 s-1 in the 0.5 - 10 keV range, was found to nearly double up, compared with that of the quiescent phase obtained in the Suzaku observation of 2007 April. We present a discussion on the nature of the quiescent and flare emissions of OJ 287, with the simultaneously obtained multi-wavelength information.

l           Isobe, N., M. S. Tashiro, P. Gandhi, A. Hayato, H. Nagai, K. Hada, H. Seta, and K. Matsuta [2009], "Suzaku Observation of the Giant Radio Galaxy 3C 326," Astrophys. J., vol.706, pp.454-463.

Ø          A Suzaku observation of a giant radio galaxy, 3C 326, which has a physical size of about 2 Mpc, was conducted on 2008 January 19-21. In addition to several X-ray sources, diffuse emission was significantly detected and associated with its west lobe, but the east lobe was contaminated by an unidentified X-ray source WARP J1552.4+2007. After careful evaluation of the X-ray and non-X-ray background, the 0.4-7 keV X-ray spectrum of the west lobe is described by a power-law model modified with the Galactic absorption. The photon index and 1 keV flux density were derived asƒ‘= 1.82+0.26-0.24 } 0.04 and SX = 19.4+3.3-3.2 } 3.0 nJy, respectively, where the first and second errors represent the statistical and systematic ones. The diffuse X-rays were attributed to be inverse Compton (IC) radiation by the synchrotron radio electrons scattering off the cosmic microwave background photons. This radio galaxy is the largest among those with lobes detected through IC X-ray emission. A comparison of the radio to X-ray fluxes yields the energy densities of electron and magnetic field as ue = (2.3 } 0.3 } 0.3) ~ 10-13 erg cm-3 and um = (1.2+0.2-0.1 } 0.2) ~ 10-14 erg cm-3, respectively. The galaxy is suggested to host a low-luminosity nucleus with an absorption-corrected 2-10 keV luminosity of <2 ~ 1042 erg s-1, together with a relatively weak radio core. The energetics in the west lobe of 3C 326 were compared with those of moderate radio galaxies with a size of ~100 kpc. The west lobe of 3C 326 is confirmed to agree with the correlations for the moderate radio galaxies, ue ε D-2.2}0.4 and um εD-2.4}0.4, where D is their total physical size. This implies that the lobes of 3C 326 are still being energized by the jet, despite the current weakness of the nuclear activity.

l           Iwata, T., K. Imai, H. Misawa, H. Noda, T. Kondo, T. Nakajo, H. Takeuchi, A. Kumamoto, F. Tsuchiya, Y. Nariyuki, K. Asari, and N. Kawano [2010], "A Study on the Moon-Earth Interferometry for Jovian Low Frequency Radio Observation," LPI Contribution No. 1533, p.1677.

Ø          Lunar Low Frequency Astronomy Telescope (LLFAST) is the Moon-Earth baseline interferometry which is a candidate mission instrument of JapanΥs lunar explorer SELENE-2. It will shed light on the mechanism of Jovian radio sources.

l           Jung, T., B. W. Sohn, H. Kobayashi, T. Sasao, T. Hirota, O. Kameya, Y. K. Choi, and H. S. Chung [2008], "Phase Solution Analysis for the Simultaneous Dual Frequency VLBI Observations," Proc. of the 9th European VLBI Network Symposium on The role of VLBI in the Golden Age for Radio Astronomy and EVN Users Meeting, September 23-16, 2008, Bologna, Italy, pp.2-6.

Ø          We present the results of the first simultaneous dual-frequency VLBI observation using VERA(VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry). This experiment is a pilot study to test the feasibility of multi-frequency phase referencing technique, which will be a main phase referencing method for KVN (Korean VLBI Network). A pair of bright continuum sources NRAO 512 at 22 GHz and 3C 345 at 43 GHz were simultaneously observed with dual beams of VERA, and the fringe phases obtained for the two sources were compared to monitor the phase fluctuation at the two different frequencies. The connected phase solutions clearly showed the non-dispersive characteristics of the neutral atmosphere at the observing frequencies. For the differential phases of the two sources, the Allan standard deviation shows the white phase noise behaviour up to the time scale of ~1000 sec. These preliminary results demonstrate that the multi-frequency phase referencing technique, which will be implemented in KVN is a promising tools to remove the atmospheric phase fluctuation effectively.

l           Kamata, S., S. Sugita, Y. Abe, Y. Ishihara, Y. Harada, N. Namili, H. Hanada, and H. Araki [2010], "Viscoelastic Deformation of Lunar Basins: Implications for Lunar Farside Thermal History Based on Selenodetic Data of Kaguya," LPI Contribution No. 1533, p.1727.

Ø          Using our newly developed numerical code for viscoelastic motion of a Maxwell body, we analyzed the result of lunar farside gravity and topography data obtained by Kaguya, yielding several important constraints on lunar farside thermal history.

Ø           Kameno, S., M. Tsuboi, Y. Murata, A. Doi, Y. Asaki, N. Mochizuki, Y. Hagiwara, M. Kino, H. Nagai, K. Asada, M. Inoue, H. Sudou, and S. Sawada-Satoh [2010], "VSOP-2 : A Space VLBI Mission to Image Central Engines and Jet Launching Regions," 38th COSPAR Scientific Assembly, 18-25 July 2010, symposium E, p.2(E11-0036-10).

Ø          VSOP-2 is a space VLBI program using the spacecraft ASTRO-G to be launched in 2015 by the Japan Aerospace eXploration Agency. The array consisting of a 9-m antenna in orbit and ground radio telescopes offers angular resolutions of 40, 80, and 210 microarcsec at 43, 22, and 8 GHz, respectively. The resolution allows us to image accretion disks and jet launching regions in nearby active galactic nuclei such as M 87. Dual polarization receivers enable full Stokes images at all frequency to illustrate magnetic fields in jets. Phase referencing is capable for astrometry by 60-sec-cycle switching maneuvers. Higher sensitivity than the VSOP (HALCA) is achieved by cooled receivers at 22 and 43 GHz, 1-Gbps wideband downlink, and longer coherent integration. We will introduce the mission overview, observational specifications, and key sciences of the VSOP-2. We call for community's scientific contributions to the mission.

l           Kameya, O., and VERA Team [2009], "Water Vapor Masers in the NGC7538 Region," Proc. of the "Approaching Micro-Arcsecond Resolution with VSOP-2: Astrophysics and Technologies", eds. Hagiwara, Y., Fomalont, Ed., Tsuboi, M., and Murata, Y., ASP Conf. Ser. vol.402, pp.369-371.

Ø          Water vapor masers in the NGC7538 molecular cloud were observed with VERA. This region has at least three active regions (IRS1-3,IRS9, and IRS11) in a dense molecular gas core. Each region consists of IR sources, ultra-compact HII regions, CO outflows, high-dense gas cores, water vapor masers, OH masers, methanol masers, etc. We have performed multi epoch observations of water vapor masers in IRS1-3 and IRS11 regions with VERA for more than one year. The purpose of these observations are to determine the detailed distribution of water vapor spots. The detailed distribution of the maser spots are compared with the position and shape of velocity structure of the other activities.

l           Kamikura, M., M. Naruse, S. Asayama, N. Satou, W. Shan, and Y. Sekimoto [2010], "Development of a Submillimeter Double-Ridged Waveguide Ortho-Mode Transducer (OMT) for the 385-500 GHz Band," J. of Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, vol.31, pp.697-707.

Ø          We present design and evaluations of a submillimeter double-ridged waveguide ortho-mode transducer (OMT) for ALMA Band 8 (385-500 GHz) cartridge receiver. The measured transmission loss of the OMT at 4 K was 0.4-0.5 dB according to noise measurements with an SIS mixer. The polarization isolation was measured to be larger than 29 dB from quasioptical measurements. The OMT consists of a B ifot junction and a double-ridged guide. A robust design with allowable mechanical errors of 20ƒΚm has been demonstrated.

l           Kamohara, R., and the VERA team [2008a], "VLBI Phase-Referencing Observations of SiO Masers towards R Aquarii," Proc. of the IAU Symp. 242, "Astrophysical Masers and their Environments", eds. Jessica Chapman and Willem Baan, pp.322-323.

Ø          We show a phase-referenced image of the SiO maser emissions towards the Mira variable R Aqr. These data have been obtained using the VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA). The proper motion we have obtained is different from that obtained using the HST. The proper motion from 2004 to 2005 is not different from that of 1991 to 2005 and supports the current orbital elements.

l           Kamohara, R., V. Bujarrabal, T. Bushimata, Y. K. Choi, T. Hirota, M. Honma, H. Imai, K. Iwadate, T. Jike, T. Kameya, Y. Kan-ya, N. Kawaguchi, M. K. Kim, M. Kijima, H. Kobayashi, S. Kuji, T. Kurayama, S. Manabe, T. Miyaji, T. Nagayama, A. Nakagawa, C. S. Oh, T. Omodaka, T. Oyama, S. Sakai, T. Sasao, K. Sato, M. Sato, K. M. Shibata, Y. Tamura, and K. Yamashita [2008b], "VERA Observations of SiO Masers in the Symbiotic Star R Aquarii," Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan, vol.60, pp.1023-1029.

Ø          We present phase-referenced maps of the SiO maser transitions ƒΛ=1 J=1-0 and ƒΛ=2 J=1-0 from the symbiotic stellar system R Aquarii, which hosts an evolved AGB star plus a hot companion. Observations were performed at two epochs: 2004.98 and 2005.98. Accurate absolute coordinates and proper motions of the emission centroid were obtained; the errors expected for these parameters are also given. We compare the VERA data with the previous astrometry by Hipparcos. This represents a possibility to improve the orbital parameters of the system in a different way than that done before. Thanks to our accurate astrometry, we have also estimated the percentage of spot coincidences between both maser transitions, a parameter that has been proposed to be relevant to discriminate between different maser pumping schemes. Although the overall distributions of both lines are always similar, the spots are rarely coincident, in a percentage ranging between 3% and 20% of the cases. The lack of systematic coincidence favors, in principle, radiative pumping. However, we argue that no firm conclusion can be reached due to a lack of models that include an overlap of rovibrational lines, and that accurately address the coincidence of very intense spots of different maser transitions.

l           Kaneko, H., N. Kuno, D. Iono, T. Tosaki, T. Sawada, H. Nakanishi, and A. Hirota [2010], "Molecular Gas in the Early Stage of Interacting Galaxies: The NGC 4567/8 Pair," Proc. of the "Galaxy Wars: Star Formation and Stellar Populations in Interacting Galaxies", eds. B. J. Smith, N. Bastian, S. J. U. Higdon, and J. L. Higdon, ASP Conf. Ser. vol.423, pp.26-31.

Ø          We present the results of 12CO(J=1-0) observations with the NRO 45m radio telescope of the interacting galaxy pair NGC4567/8, known to be in the early stage of the interaction. Our goal is to investigate the influence of the interaction of galaxies on molecular gas in the early stage. This is the first CO observations covering the whole system for this galaxy pair. Their CO and HI gas distributions suggest NGC 4567/8 are surely colliding. We found high molecular gas fraction, fmol and high star formation efficiency (SFE) in their overlap region though the low surface density of molecular gas is low. The discrepancy of the regions with high fmol and high SFE may be reflecting the progression of the interaction.

l           Kano, R., T. Sakao, H. Hara, S. Tsuneta, K. Matsuzaki, K. Kumagai, M. Shimojo, K. Minesugi, K. Shibasaki, E. E. Deluca, L. Golub, J. Bookbinder,D. Caldwell, P. Cheimets, J. Cirtain, E. Dennis, T. Kent, and M. Weber [2008], "The Hinode X-Ray Telescope (XRT): Camera Design, Performance and Operations," Solar Physics, vol.249, pp.263-279.

Ø          The X-ray Telescope (XRT) aboard the Hinode satellite is a grazing incidence X-ray imager equipped with a 2048~2048 CCD. The XRT has 1 arcsec pixels with a wide field of view of 34~34 arcmin. It is sensitive to plasmas with a wide temperature range from < 1 to 30 MK, allowing us to obtain TRACE-like low-temperature images as well as Yohkoh/SXT-like high-temperature images. The spacecraft Mission Data Processor (MDP) controls the XRT through sequence tables with versatile autonomous functions such as exposure control, region-of-interest tracking, flare detection, and flare location identification. Data are compressed either with DPCM or JPEG, depending on the purpose. This results in higher cadence and/or wider field of view for a given telemetry bandwidth. With a focus adjust mechanism, a higher resolution of Gaussian focus may be available on-axis. This paper follows the first instrument paper for the XRT (Golub et al., Solar Phys. 243, 63, 2007) and discusses the design and measured performance of the X-ray CCD camera for the XRT and its control system with the MDP.

l           Kato, M., Y. Takizawa, S. Sasaki, and Selene Project Team [2008a], "The Kaguya (SELENE) Mission: Present Status and Science Goals," 39th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, (Lunar and Planetary Science XXXIX), held March 10-14, 2008 in League City, Texas. LPI Contribution No. 1391, p.1232.

Ø          Japanese lunar orbiter Kaguya (SELENE) was successfully launched on September 14, 2007. We report the present status of the Kaguya mission and its science goals in this session.

l           Kato, M., Y. Takizawa, S. Sasaki, and Project Team [2008b], "The Kaguya (SELENE) Mission: Present Status and Lunar Science," Meteoritics and Planetary Sci. Suppl., 43, paper id. 5209.

Ø          Not Available

l           Kato, Y., M. Miyoshi, R. Takahashi, H. Negoro, and R. Matsumoto [2010], "Measuring Spin of a Supermassive Black Hole at the Galactic Center - Implications for a Unique Spin," Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. (Letters,) vol.403, pp.L74-L78.

Ø          We determine the spin of a supermassive black hole in the context of disc-seismology by comparing newly detected quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) of radio emission in the Galactic centre, Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), as well as infrared and X-ray emissions with those of the Galactic black holes. We find that the spin parameters of black holes in Sgr A* and in Galactic X-ray sources have a unique value of ≈0.44 which is smaller than the generally accepted value for supermassive black holes, suggesting evidence for the angular momentum extraction of black holes during the growth of supermassive black holes. Our results demonstrate that the spin parameter approaches the equilibrium value where spin-up via accretion is balanced by spin-down via the Blandford-Znajek mechanism regardless of its initial spin. We anticipate that measuring the spin of black holes by using QPOs will open a new window for exploring the evolution of black holes in the Universe.

l           Kawaguchi, N. [2008], "eVLBI Technical Development in Japan," Proc. of the 9th European VLBI Network Symposium on The role of VLBI in the Golden Age for Radio Astronomy and EVN Users Meeting, September 23-16, 2008, Bologna, Italy, p.41.

Ø          Not Available

l           Kawaguchi, N. [2009], "HALCA Data Recording and ASTRO-G?," Proc. of the "Approaching Micro-Arcsecond Resolution with VSOP-2: Astrophysics and Technologies", eds. Hagiwara, Y., Fomalont, Ed., Tsuboi, M., and Murata, Y., ASP Conf. Ser. vol.402, pp.18-21.

Ø          Three different types of a data acquisition terminals were used for VSOP: the K4, the S2 and the Mark-IV, which were developed in Japan, Canada and the U.S.A., respectively. The compatibility was achieved by translating proceedures among the recording media, an IDR cassette of K4, a VHS cassette of S2 and a 14=81h reel tape of Mark-IV. In the next generation of space VLBI for ASTRO-G, the strongly recommended unified interface will be the Vlbi Standard Interface (VSI) established in 2001. Also, the successful accomplishment of the phase transfer from a ground tracking station to the space orbiting telescope is presented in this paper by showing the statistical analysis of the loop phase fluctuations. A similar phase transfer system is suggested to follow for the ASTRO-G project.

l           Kawaguchi, T., K. Nakanishi, K. Kohno, K. Ohta, and K. Aoki [2008a], "First Detection of 12CO (1-0) Emission from Two Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxie," Astrophys. J., vol.676, pp.137-146.

Ø          In order to investigate how the growth of galactic bulges progresses with the growth of central black holes (BHs), we observed molecular gas (fuel for the coming star formation) in possibly young active galaxies: narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s). We present the results of radio observations of 12CO(1¨0) using the Nobeyama Millimeter Array (with 2-4 kpc spatial resolution) for two FIR-bright NLS1s, yielding the first detection of their CO emission. Corresponding molecular gas masses M(H2) of (1-3)x109 Msolar are the second and fourth largest among NLS1s. By estimating dynamical masses and bulge masses Mbulge for these two NLS1s using CO channel maps and CO line widths, we found that M(H2) amounted to 13%-35% of these masses. Taking into account the star formation efficiency (~0.1), the increase in Mbulge in those NLS1s in the near future (<~107.5 yr) is not expected to be a huge fraction (1%-5% of the preexisting stars). Bulge growth may have finished before BH growth, or bulge-BH coevolution may proceed with many occasionally discrete events, where one coevolution event produces only a small amount of mass growth of BHs and bulges. We also discuss the ratios of star formation rate to gas accretion rate onto BHs, finding that two NLS1s have very small ratios (~1) compared with the Mbulge/MBH ratios found in active and inactive galaxies (~700). This huge difference suggests either nonoverlapped coevolution, a long star formation duration, or a temporarily high accretion rate during the NLS1 phase.

l           Kawaguchi, T., K. Nakanishi, K. Kohno, K. Ohta, and K. Aoki, [2008b], "12CO Observations on Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies," Proc. of the IAU Symp. 245, "Formation and evolution of galaxy buldge", eds. Bureau, M., Athanassoula, E., Barbuy, B., pp.249-250.

Ø          In order to investigate how the growth of galactic bulges is accompanied with the growth of central black holes (BHs), we observed molecular gas (fuel for the coming star formation) in possibly young active galaxies, narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s). We present the results of pilot observations of 12CO (1¨0) line using the Nobeyama Millimeter Array for two FIR-bright NLS1s, ending in the first detection of their CO emission. Corresponding molecular-gas masses M(H2) of (1-3) 109 M are the 2nd and 4th largest ones among NLS1s. Together with CO data for other NLS1s (including our sub-kpc observations) and for broad-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (BLS1s), we found that NLS1s and BLS1s contain a similar amount of molecular-gas. We do not see a significant difference in M(H2)/MBH ratios and in M(H2)/Mbulge ratios between NLS1s and BLS1s. The lack of a clear difference in M(H2) between them indicates either that bulge and BH growth phases are not overlapped or that the duration of star formation is much longer than that of active galaxies.

l           Kawaguchi, T., K. Nakanishi, K. Kohno, K. Ohta, and W. Aoki [2008c], "Molecular Gas in Narrow-Line seyfert 1 Galaxy: A Search for Coevolving Massive Black Holes and Galaxies," Proc. of the "Panoramic views of galaxy formation and evolution", eds. T. Kodama, T. Yamada, and K. Aoki, ASP Conf. Ser. vol.399, pp.427-428.

Ø          In order to investigate how the growth of galactic bulges progresses with the growth of central black holes (BHs), we observed molecular gas (fuel for the upcoming star formation) in narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s, possibly young active galaxies). We present the results of radio observations of 12CO (1¨0) line using the Nobeyama Millimeter Array for two far infrared (FIR)-bright NLS1s, yielding the first detection of their CO emission. Corresponding molecular-gas masses M(H2) of (1-3) 109M are the 2nd- and 4th-largest among NLS1s. We found that these M(H2) amounted to 13%-35% of their dynamical or bulge masses.

l           Kawakatu, N., H. Nagai, and M. Kino [2008], "The Fate of Young Radio Galaxies: Decelerations Inside Host Galaxies?" Astrophys. J., vol.687, pp.141-155.

Ø          We examine the evolution of variously sized radio galaxies (i.e., compact symmetric objects [CSOs], medium-size symmetric objects [MSOs], Fanaroff-Riley type II (FR II) radio galaxies by comparing the relation between the hot spot size and the projected linear size with a coevolution model of hot spots and a cocoon. We take account of the deceleration effect by the cocoon head growth. We find that the advance speed of hot spots and lobes inevitably show the deceleration phase (CSO-MSO phase) and the acceleration phase (MSO-FR II phase). This is ascribed to the change of the power-law index of ambient density profile in the MSO phase (~1 kpc). It is also found that the cocoon shape becomes nearly spherical or disrupted for MSOs, while an elongated morphology is predicted for CSOs and FR II galaxies. This seems to be consistent with the higher fraction of distorted morphology of MSOs than that of CSOs and FR II galaxies. Finally, we predict that only CSOs whose initial advance speed is higher than about 0.1 c can evolve into FR II galaxies, comparing the hot spot speed with the sound speed of the ambient medium.

l           Kawakatu, N., M. Kino, and H. Nagai, [2009], "On the Origin of Fanaroff-Riley Classification of Radio Galaxies: Deceleration of Supersonic Radio Lobes," Astrophys. J. (Letters), vol.697, pp.L173-L176.

Ø          We argue that the origin of "FRI/FRII dichotomy"- the division between Fanaroff-Riley class I (FRI) with subsonic lobes and class II (FRII) radio sources with supersonic lobes is sharp in the radio-optical luminosity plane (Owen-White diagram)Ρcan be explained by the deceleration of advancing radio lobes. The deceleration is caused by the growth of the effective cross-sectional area of radio lobes. We derive the condition in which an initially supersonic lobe turns into a subsonic lobe, combining the ram pressure equilibrium between the hot spots and the ambient medium with the relation between "the hot spot radius" and "the linear size of radio sources" obtained from the radio observations. We find that the dividing line between the supersonic lobes and subsonic ones is determined by the ratio of the jet power Lj to the number density of the ambient matter at the core radius of the host galaxy na. It is also found that the maximal ratio of Lj/na exists and its value resides in (Lj/na)max ≈1044-47 erg s-1 cm3, taking into account considerable uncertainties. This suggests that the maximal value (Lj/na)max separates between FRIs and FRIIs.

l           Kawamura, A. [2008], "Molecular Clouds and Star Formation in the Magellanic Clouds and the Milky Way," Astrophys. Sp. Sci., vol.313, pp.145-151.

Ø          Star formation is a fundamental process that dominates the life-cycle of various matters in galaxies: Stars are formed in molecular clouds, and the formed stars often affect the surrounding materials strongly via their UV photons, stellar winds, and supernova explosions. It is therefore revealing the distribution and properties of molecular gas in a galaxy is crucial to investigate the star formation history and galaxy evolution. Recent progress in developing millimeter and sub-millimeter wave receiver systems has enabled us to rapidly increase our knowledge on molecular clouds. In this proceedings, the recent results from the surveys of the molecular clouds in the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds as well as the Galactic center as the most active regions in the Milky Way are presented. The high sensitivity with unrivaled high resolution of ALMA will play a key role in detecting denser gas that is tightly connected to star formation.

l           Kikuchi, F., Q. Liu, N. Petrova, K. Matsumoto, Y. Ishihara, S. Goossens, K. Asari, S. Tsuruta, T. Ishikawa, H. Noda, H. Hanada, T. Iwata, N. Namiki, N. Kawano, and S. Sasaki [2008a], "Preliminary Results for VRAD Mission of Kaguya (SELENE)," 39th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, (Lunar and Planetary Science XXXIX), held March 10-14, 2008 in League City, Texas. LPI Contribution No. 1391, p.1562.

Ø          The preliminary analysis of VRAD mission of Kaguya has been carried out and the performance of the system is confirmed. The differential phase delay of the signal from two satellites is derived without the cycle ambiguity within an error of 2 pico-seconds.

l           Kikchi, F., Q. Liu, K. Matsumoto, H. Hanada, and N. Kawano [2008b], "Simulation Analysis of Differential Phase Delay Estimation by Same Beam VLBI Method," Earth, Planets and Space, vol.60, pp.391-406.

Ø          The same beam VLBI method (SBV) is newly applied to the multi-frequency VLBI method in the VRAD mission of SELENE (KAGUYA). By simultaneously observing two nearby spacecraft with one antenna, the error sources of VLBI measurement common in two propagation paths can be almost canceled out. In this paper, error estimation and simulation analysis are carried out for a feasibility study to apply the SBV method to the VRAD mission. Differential phase delay can be estimated without cycle ambiguity even if tropospheric fluctuation is large and/or traveling ionospheric disturbance occurs. The sensitivity of the differential phase delay with respect to the average elevation angle and the elongation of two spacecraft is also investigated. Moreover, a method is developed for estimating differential phase delay in switching VLBI observations using the cycle ambiguity derived from SBV observations. This method can be performed in more than 90% of the VRAD mission's total paths. Precise positioning with SBV contributes to accurate estimation of the low degree coefficients of lunar gravity fields by more than one order of magnitude than previous results.

l           Kikuchi, F., Q. Liu, N. Petrova, H. Noda, K. Matsumoto, Y. Ishihara, S. Goossens, T. Iwata, N. Namiki, H. Hanada, N. Kawano, and S. Sasaki [2008c], "VLBI Observations in VRAD Mission of KAGUYA (SELENE)," 37th COSPAR Scientific Assembly, held 13-20 July 2008, in Montreal, Canada, p.1508.

Ø          One of the important questions still remaining about the Moon is the existence and state of a lunar core. The size and density of the lunar core estimated from the moment of inertia of the Moon are important constraints for investigating the origin of the Moon. However, the lack of accurate gravity field information especially for the far side and the limb region of the Moon restrict the accuracy of the moment of inertia of the Moon. In Japanese lunar exploring program KAGUYA (SELENE), VRAD (the differential VLBI RADio sources) mission is carried out to improve the accuracy of the lunar gravity field. Two VLBI radio sources are loaded on two sub-satellites called Rstar and Vstar. These on-board radio sources transmit four carrier wave signals and the differential VLBI observations between Rstar and Vstar are carried out. The differential phase delay (DPD), which is the measurement of the differential VLBI, is highly sensitive to the relative position and velocity of the two sub-satellites in the direction perpendicular to the line-of-sight (LOS). VRAD is expected to contribute to the improvement of the gravity field over the limb region. After combining with the 2-way and 4-way Doppler observation in the RSAT (the Relay SAtellite Transponder) mission, which is sensitive to the LOS direction, the spacecraft's three-dimensional motion can be determined and precise global lunar gravity field estimation will be possible. Highlight of this work is the application of the same-beam VLBI method for DPD estimation. By simultaneously observing two nearby spacecraft, most of tropospheric and ionospheric delays that are major error sources of VLBI can be canceled out. This makes it possible to derive the cycle ambiguity of the DPD by multi-frequency VLBI (MFV) method. As the result of the data analysis, the DPD can be estimated without the cycle ambiguity. The error of DPD is smaller than 2 ps in 30-second integration interval. The desired accuracy of the VRAD mission is successfully achieved and it is expected that VRAD will contribute to improve the accuracy of the lunar gravity field estimation. In the presentation, the results of the DPD estimation as well as the process of the cycle ambiguity reduction are shown. The details of the dedicated VRAD system, the analysis software, and the same-beam VLBI observation method are also shown.

l           Kikuchi, F., Q. Liu, H. Hanada, N. Kawano, K. Matsumoto, T. Iwata, S. Goossens, K. Asari, Y. Ishihara, S. Tsuruta, T. Ishikawa, H. Noda, N. Namiki, N. Petrova, Y. Harada, J. Ping, and S. Sasaki [2009], "Picosecond Accuracy VLBI of the Two Subsatellites of SELENE (KAGUYA) Using Multifrequency and Same Beam Methods," Radio Sci.vol.44, pp.RS2008-1-7.

Ø          Same beam very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations of the two subsatellites of SELENE (KAGUYA) are demonstrated for purpose of the precise gravimetry of the Moon. Same beam VLBI contributes a great deal to cancel out the tropospheric and ionospheric delays and to determine the absolute value of the cycle ambiguity by using the multifrequency VLBI method. As a result, the differential phase delay of the X-band signal is estimated within an error of below 1 ps. This accuracy is more than 1 order of magnitude smaller than former VLBI results. The preliminary results for the orbit determination of the subsatellites show a decrease of the orbit error from a few hundreds of meters to around 10 m when the differential phase delay data are added to the conventional range and Doppler data. These results reveal the possibility of precise gravimetry.

l           Kikuchi, F., Q. Liu, N. Petrova, Y. Harada, H. Hanada, T. Iwata, N. Namiki, N. Kawano, and S. Sasaki, [2010], "Differential Phase Delay Estimation in VRAD Mission of SELENE (KAGUYA)," Trans. of Sp. Tech. Japan, vol.7, Ppp.k7-Pk10.

Ø          In the very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) radio sources mission of selenological and engineering explorer, the differential phase delay between the Rstar and Vstar sub-satellites is obtained by using the multifrequency VLBI method during the switching VLBI observation period. The cycle ambiguity is successfully determined and the differential phase delay is estimated within an error of 7 picoseconds. The RMS error is somewhat larger than that for the case of same-beam VLBI because fluctuations of propagation delays whose periods are shorter than the switching interval cannot be canceled out between Rstar and Vstar. However, the differential phase delay during the switching VLBI period is sufficiently accurate and, together with Doppler and range measurements, can be a useful means for precisely determining satellite orbits and precisely estimating the lunar gravity field.

l           Kim, M. K., T. Hirota, M. Honma, H. Kobayashi, T. Bushimata, Y. K. Choi, H. Imai, K. Iwadate, T. Jike, S. Kameno, O. Kameya, R. Kamohara, Y. Kan-ya, N. Kawaguchi, S. Kuji, T. Kurayama, S. Manabe, M. Matsui, N. Matsumoto, T. Miyaji, T. Nagayama, A. Nakagawa, C. S. Oh, T. Omodaka, T. Oyama, S. Sakai, T. Sasao, K. Sato, M. Sato, K. M. Shibata, Y. Tamara, and K. Yamashita [2008], "SiO Maser Observations toward Orion-KL with VERA," Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan, vol.60, pp.991-999.

Ø          We present results of phase-referencing VLBI observations of SiO masers in the Orion-KL region made with VERA. Using a strong maser spot in the 43 GHz ƒΛ=1-0 emission, we derived the trigonometric parallax of Orion-KL to be 2.39}0.03 mas, corresponding to a distance of 418}6pc, with the highest accuracy among existing parallax measurements of the source. We made a superimposed image of ƒΛ=1 J=1-0 and ƒΛ=2 J=1-0 maser features in Orion-KL based on absolute positions obtained from the phase-referencing with a common reference source. The maser features of both transitions show similar X-shaped distributions centered at Source I. However, in each of the four arms of the X-shape, the SiO ƒΛ=2 features tend to lie closer to Source I than the SiO ƒΛ=1 features. The radial velocities of the maser emission decrease with the distance from Source I. The spatial and radial velocities distributions of the SiO masers suggest that the SiO masers lie in the rotating materials associated with a disk around Source I, rather than a decelerating outflow.

l           Kim, M. K., T. Hirota, M. Honma, H. Kobayashi, and other VERA members [2009], "SiO Maser Observations toward Orion-KL with VERA," Proc. of the "Approaching Micro-Arcsecond Resolution with VSOP-2: Astrophysics and Technologies", eds. Hagiwara, Y., Fomalont, Ed., Tsuboi, M., and Murata, Y., ASP Conf. Ser. vol.402, pp.469-472.

Ø          We present results of phase-referencing VLBI observations of SiO masers in the Orion KL region made with VERA. The goal of our study is to investigate the dynamics of the gas surrounding Source I, as well as to determine the distance to Orion-KL. We imaged SiO v=1, J=1-0 and v=2, J=1-0 maser emission in Orion-KL and compared the absolute positions of the maser spots with that of Source I. The maser emission shows an X-shaped distribution centered at Source I, and the SiO v=2 emission lies closer to Source I than the SiO v=1 emission. The radial velocities and proper motions of the maser spots indicate that the gas around Source I is rotating and expanding. In addition, we present the preliminary result of the measurement of the annual parallax using the SiO v=2 emission. The parallax of Orion-KL is 2.39}0.03 mas, corresponding to the distance of 418}6 pc.

l           Kimura, K., H. Iwashita, S. Asayama, M. Sugimoto, G. Kikuchi, and H. Ogawa [2008], "Antenna Performance of a Directory Dug Corrugated Feedhorn for the 150-GHz Bnad," Int. J. of IR and MM Waves, vol.29, pp.713-723.

Ø          We have developed a 150 GHz band corrugated feed horn. These corrugated feed horns have been established by a new machining method, which involves digging corrugations through a metal material. We were able to realize E plane and H plane symmetry, low side lobe level, and low cross-polarization level. Measured co-polarization beam patterns above -35 dB were consistent with the simulated patterns within a designed frequency range. The peak levels of cross-polarization beam patterns were less than -30 dB. And, the performances were uniform in several horns. In the present paper, we describe the corrugated horn produced by this methods.

l           Kimura, K., T. Toshikawa, N. Shiroyama, A. Kurozumi, T. K. Ojima, Y. Abe, Y. Yonekura, H. Ogawa, H. Ujihara, Y. Murata, M. Tsuboi, and T. Kasuga [2009], "Simulation of the Optical System for the ASTRO-G Offset Cassegrain Antenna," Proc. of the "Approaching Micro-Arcsecond Resolution with VSOP-2: Astrophysics and Technologies", eds. Hagiwara, Y., Fomalont, Ed., Tsuboi, M., and Murata, Y., ASP Conf. Ser. vol.402, pp.74-76.

Ø          We are developing the satellite (ASTRO-G) for the space VLBI mission, called VSOP-2 (Hirabayashi et al. 2004). This system will have an offset cassegrain antenna, and the three multi-mode feed horns (8, 22, 43 GHz bands) will be chosen by the Cassegrain focus position. We are designing the antenna optics of the three band receivers by using the GRASP physical optics software package on simulated feed configurations. The result of these simulations shows low cross-polarization level, a good radiation pattern, and the antenna efficiencies are 63Π68 percent in these bands, assuming a perfect reflector. In this paper, we present these results of simulation of ASTRO-G antenna optics.

l           Kino, M., K. Asada, Y. Hagiwara, P. G. Edwards, and VSOP-2 Science Working Group [2009], "Direct Observations of the Dynamics and Variability at High Energy Emission Regions in TeV Blazars," Proc. of the "Approaching Micro-Arcsecond Resolution with VSOP-2: Astrophysics and Technologies", eds. Hagiwara, Y., Fomalont, Ed., Tsuboi, M., and Murata, Y., ASP Conf. Ser. vol.402, pp.270-273.

Ø          VSOP-2 observations of gblazarh may be part of the VSOP-2 Key Science Program for Active Galactic Nuclei. We propose VSOP-2 observations of nearby blazars together with a multi-frequency campaign observations. For example, in two nearby TeV blazars Mrk 421 and Mrk 501, the 38 micro-arcsec resolution corresponds to about 0.03 pc in linear scale, which is comparable to the size of the high energy emission region in the standard one-zone model. We show the advantages of VSOP-2 observation of these blazars compared with previous VLBI studies, and discuss some relevant unresolved problems.

l           Kobayashi, H., N. Kawaguchi, S. Manabe, K. M. Shibata, M. Honma, Y. Tamura, O. Kameya, T. Hirota, T. Jike, H. Imai, and T. Omodaka [2008a], "Phase Referencing VLBI Astrometry Observation System: VERA," Proc. of the IAU Symp. 248, "A Giant Step: from Milli- to Micro-arcsecond Astrometry", eds. Wenjing Jin, Imants Platais, Michael A. C. Perryman, pp.148-155.

Ø          VERA aims at astrometric observations using phase referencing VLBI techniques, whose goal is a 10 micro arc-second accuracy for annual parallax measurements. VERA has four 20-m diameter VLBI radio telescopes in Japanese archipelago with the maximum baseline length of 2,300 km. They have the two-beam observing system, which makes simultaneous observations of two objects possible. This leads to very accurate phase referencing VLBI observations. An important science goal is to make a 3-dimensional map of the Galaxy and reveal its dynamics. In order to achieve this, VERA has the 22GHz and 43GHz bands for H2O and SiO maser objects, respectively. Maser objects are compact and suitable for astrometry observations. VERA's construction was started in 2000 and the array became operational in 2004. We have already measured annual parallaxes and proper motions of some galactic objects. In the future, VERA will collaborate with Korean and Chinese VLBI stations.

l           Kobayashi, H. [2008b], "Recent Activities of VERA and East Asia VLBI Network," Proc. of the 9th European VLBI Network Symposium on The role of VLBI in the Golden Age for Radio Astronomy and EVN Users Meeting, September 23-16, 2008, Bologna, Italy, p.48.

Ø          Not Available

l           Kobayashi, M., H. Ohashi, S. Sasaki, T. Iwai, M. Fujii, K. Nogami, H. Kimura, M. Nakamura, and T. Hirai [2010], "Lunar Dust Monitor for the Orbiter of the Next Japanese Lunar Mission SELENE2," LPI Contribution No. 1533, p.1964.

Ø          A dust particle detector is proposed to be onboard the orbiter of SELENE-2 mission. We summarize the significance of circumlunar dust and report an overview of our instrument proposed to accompany the SELENE-2 mission.

l           Koda, J., and CARMA team [2007], "CARMA M51 Project: Dynamically-Driven ISM Evolution," American Astron. Soc., AAS meeting #211, #153.04, BAAS, vol.39, p.1005.

Ø          The entire M51 disk is observed in CO(1-0) line with the CARMA interferometer and Nobeyama 45m telescope. With the unprecedented high image fidelity and spatial resolution, we detect many giant molecular clouds (GMCs) both on spiral arms and in interarm regions. Associations of giant molecular clouds (GMAs) are found only on spiral arms, and thus, they are unbound, short-lived structures. Molecular gas fraction is high even in interarm regions. Therefore, the GMA destruction is not caused by stellar feedback, which is likely to destroy molecules as well as GMAs and GMCs. We will discuss dynamically-driven ISM evolution -- strong shear motions in spiral arms cause GMA destruction and trigger ISM evolution.

l           Koda, J. [2008], "Star Formation and Interstellar Medium Evolution in Galaxies," Proc. of the "Formation and evolution of galaxy disks", eds. J. G. Funes, and E. M. Corsini, ASP conf. Ser., vol.396, pp.97-104.

Ø          I review recent studies of star formation in galaxies, and discuss the underlying structure of the interstellar medium (ISM). Studies of star formation in galaxies have been limited by spatial resolution, and focused mostly on empirical correlations between star formation rate and gas properties averaged over large areas. With recent and upcoming facilities (e.g., Spitzer, GALEX, CARMA, Herschel, and ALMA), studies of star formation are transitioning to the regime in which the star forming regions and their local environment are well-resolved. With this in mind, I re-consider classical arguments for star formation (e.g., Toomre criterion) by taking into account the underlying gas structure. With new CO(1-0) data from CARMA and Nobeyama 45-m telescope, I show the evolution of the ISM in M 51, and argue that the evolution is largely triggered by global galactic dynamics.

l           Koda, J., and Nearby Galaxies CO survey Group [2009a], "CARMA & Nobeyama CO Survey of Nearby Galaxies," American Astron. Soc., AAS meeting #213, #485.04.

Ø          Our observations of M51 in CO(1-0) line with CARMA and Nobeyama 45m telescope has revealed a new picture of ISM evolution in galaxies, namely one driven by galaxy's global dynamics -- the most massive GMCs (Giant Molecular Associations - GMAs) are first assembled and then broken up as the gas flow through the spiral arms. The GMAs and their H2 molecules are not fully dissociated into atomic gas as predicted in stellar feedback scenarios, but are fragmented into smaller GMCs upon leaving the spiral arms. We have initiated a new survey of nearby galaxies in CO(1-0) line with CARMA and Nobeyama 45m telescope, probing the generality of the scenario of dynamically-driven ISM evolution. The sample is selected from that of the Spitzer SINGS survey, and comprises the most famous nearby galaxies with the full range of ancillary data; those data are crucial in our study of ISM evolution (CARMA, Nobeyama \& VLA) and star formation (Spitzer, GALEX \& Herschel). We will present initial results from this new CO survey.

l           Koda, J., N. Scoville, T. Sawada, M. A. La Vigne, S. N. Vogel, A. E. Potts, J. M. Carpenter, S. A. Corder, M. C. Wright, S. M. White, B. A. Zauderer, J. Patience, A. I. Sargent, D. C. J. Bock, D. Hawkins, M. Hodges, A. Kemball, J. W. Lamb, R. L. Plambeck, M. W. Pound, S. L. Scott, P. Teuben, and D. P. Woody [2009b], "Dynamically Driven Evolution of the Interstellar Medium in M51," Astrophys. J. (Letters), vol.700, pp.L132-L136.

Ø          Massive star formation occurs in giant molecular clouds (GMCs); an understanding of the evolution of GMCs is a prerequisite to develop theories of star formation and galaxy evolution. We report the highest-fidelity observations of the grand-design spiral galaxy M51 in carbon monoxide (CO) emission, revealing the evolution of GMCs vis-a-vis the large-scale galactic structure and dynamics. The most massive GMCs (giant molecular associations (GMAs)) are first assembled and then broken up as the gas flow through the spiral arms. The GMAs and their H2 molecules are not fully dissociated into atomic gas as predicted in stellar feedback scenarios, but are fragmented into smaller GMCs upon leaving the spiral arms. The remnants of GMAs are detected as the chains of GMCs that emerge from the spiral arms into interarm regions. The kinematic shear within the spiral arms is sufήcient to unbind the GMAs against self-gravity. We conclude that the evolution of GMCs is driven by large-scale galactic dynamics-their coagulation into GMAs is due to spiral arm streaming motions upon entering the arms, followed by fragmentation due to shear as they leave the arms on the downstream side. In M51, the majority of the gas remains molecular from arm entry through the interarm region and into the next spiral arm passage.

l           Kohno, K., K. Nakanishi, T. Tosaki, K. Muraoka, R. Miura, H. Ezawa, and R. Kawabe [2008a], "Dense Gas in Normal and Active Galaxies," Astrophys. and Sp. Sci., vol.313, pp.279-285.

Ø          Dense molecular medium plays essential roles in galaxies. As demonstrated by the tight and linear correlation between HCN(1-0) and FIR luminosities among star-forming galaxies, from very nearby to high-z ones, the observation of a dense molecular component is indispensable to understand the star formation laws in galaxies. In order to obtain a general picture of the global distributions of dense molecular medium in normal star-forming galaxies, we have conducted an extragalactic CO(3-2) imaging survey of nearby spiral galaxies using the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE). From the survey (ADIoS; ASTE Dense gas Imaging of Star-forming galaxies), CO(3-2) images of M 83 and NGC 986 are presented. Emphasis is placed on the correlation between the CO(3-2)/CO(1-0) ratio and the star formation efficiency in galaxies. In the central regions of some active galaxies, on the other hand, we often find enhanced or overluminous HCN(1-0) emission. The HCN(1-0)/CO(1-0) and HCN(1-0)/HCO+(1-0) intensities are often enhanced up to ~0.2-0.3 and ~2-3, respectively. Such elevated ratios have never been observed in the nuclear starburst regions. One possible explanation for these high HCN(1-0)/CO(1-0) and HCN(1-0)/HCO+(1-0) ratios is X-ray induced chemistry in X-ray dominated regions (XDRs), i.e., the overabundance of the HCN molecule in the X-ray irradiated dense molecular tori. If this view is true, the known tight correlation between HCN(1-0) and the star-formation rate breaks in the vicinity of active nuclei. Although the interpretation of these ratios is still an open question, these ratios have a great potential for a new diagnostic tool for the energy sources of dusty galaxies in the ALMA era because these molecular lines are free from dust extinction.

l           Kohno, K. [2008b], "ASTE Surveys of Galactic Star-Forming Regions," Bulletin of American Astronomical Society, vol.40, p.272.

Ø          We report some recent highlights on the observational studies of Galactic star formation based on surveys using the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE), a new 10 m telescope in the Atacama desert in northern Chile (Kohno et al., 2008, ApSS, 313, 279). The highlights will include (1) a large scale CO(3-2) imaging survey of the Galactic Center, unveiling the presence of numerous compact high velocity clouds with high CO(3-2)/CO(1-0) ratios as a "fossil'' of the recent burst of star formation in the Galactic Center region (Oka et al., 2007, PASJ, 59, 15; Nagai et al., 2007, PASJ, 59, 25; Tanaka et al., 2007, PASJ, 59, 323), (2) a large scale CO(3-2) imaging survey of the Sgr arm and inter-am regions, revealing the distinct difference on the morphology and physical property of molecular gas between the arm and inter-arm regions for the first time (Sawada, Koda, et al., in prep.), and (3) a wide area 1.1 mm imaging survey of Southern low mass star-forming regions such as Chamaeleon and Lupus molecular clouds using the bolometer camera AzTEC (Wilson et al., 2008, MNRAS, in press) mounted on ASTE, yielding detections of starless cores with a very low mass detection limist down to 0.1 solar masses (Hiramatsu, Tsukagoshi, Kawabe et al., in prep.). Related topics on the massive star-forming regions in very nearby galaxies such as LMC (Minamidani et al., 2008, ApJS, in press) and M 33 (Tosaki et al., 2007, ApJ, 664, L27; Onodera et al., in prep.; Komugi et al., in prep.) will also be reviewed.

l           Kohno, K., T. Tosaki, R. Miura, K. Muraoka, T. Sawada, K. Nakanishi, N. Kuno, T. Sakai, K. Sorai, K. Kamegai, K. Tanaka, T. Okuda, A. Endo, B. Hatsukade, M. Sameshima, H. Ezawa, S. Sakamoto, T. Kamazaki, N. Yamaguchi, J. Cortes, Y. Tamura, M. Fukuhara, D. Iono, and R. Kawabe [2008c], "ASTE CO(3-2) Observations of the Southern Barred Spiral Galaxy NGC 986: a Large Gaseous Bar Filled with Dense Molecular Medium," Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan, vol.60, pp.457-464.

Ø          We present CO(3-2) emission observations toward the 3'x3' (or 20x20kpc at a distance of 23Mpc) region of the southern barred spiral galaxy NGC 986 using the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE). This effort is a part of our on-going extragalactic CO(3-2) imaging project ADIoS (ASTE Dense gas Imaging of Spiral galaxies). Our CO(3-2) image revealed the presence of a large (the major axis is 14 kpc in total length) gaseous bar filled with dense molecular medium along the dark lanes observed in optical images. This is the largest "dense-gas rich bar'' known to date. The dense gas bar discovered in NGC 986 could be a huge reservoir of possible "fuel'' for future starbursts in the central region, and we suggest that the star formation in the central region of NGC 986 could still be in a growing phase. We found a good spatial coincidence between the overall distributions of dense molecular gas traced by CO(3-2) and the massive star formation depicted by H . The global CO(3-2) luminosity L'CO(3-2) of NGC 986 was determined to be (5.4 } 1.1) ~108 K km s-1 pc2. The CO(3-2)/CO(1-0) integrated intensity ratio was found to be 0.60 } 0.13 at a spatial resolution of 44'' or 5 kpc, and a CO(3-2)/CO(2-1) ratio was 0.67 } 0.14 at a beam size of ~25'' or ~2.8 kpc. These line ratios suggest moderate excitation conditions of CO lines (nH2 ~ 103-4 cm-3) in the central a few kpc region of NGC 986.

l           Kohno, K., K. Muraoka, B. Hatuskade, K. Tanaka, D. Iono, K. Nakanishi, T. Tosaki, T. Sawada, R. Kawabe, H. Ezawa, N. Yamaguchi, Y. Tamura, G. Wilson, M. S. Yun, D. Hughes, S. Matsushita, and P.-Y. Hsieh [2008d], "Tracing Star Formation in Galaxies with Molecular Line and Continuum Observations," EAS Publication Series, vol.31, pp.65-71.

Ø          We report our recent progress on extragalactic spectroscopic and continuum observations, including HCN(J=1-0), HCO+(J=1-0), and CN(N=1-0) imaging surveys of local Seyfert and starburst galaxies using the Nobeyama Millimeter Array, high-J CO observations (J=3-2 observations using the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE) and J=2-1 observations with the Submillimeter Array) of galaxies, and ƒΙ1.1 mm continuum observations of high-z violent starburst galaxies using the bolometer camera AzTEC mounted on ASTE. continue from the offset ridges along the bar to a radius of less than 50 pc.

l           Kohno, K., Y. Tamura, B. Hatsukade, K. Nakanishi, D. Iono, T. Takata, G. W. Wilson, M. S. Yun, T. Perera, J. E. Austermann, K. S. Scott, H. Hughes, I. Aretxaga, K. Tanaka, N. Yamaguchi, H. Matsuo, H. Ezawa, and R. Kawabe [2008e], "AzTEC on ASTE Survey of Submillimeter Galaxies," Proc. of the "Panoramic views of galaxy formation and evolution", eds. T. Kodama, T. Yamada, and K. Aoki, ASP Conf. Ser. vol.399, pp.264-267.

Ø          We have conducted an unprecedented survey of submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) using the 144 pixel bolometer camera AzTEC mounted on the ASTE 10-m dish in Chile. We have already obtained many (>20) wide (typically 12' x 12' or wider) and deep (1 ƒΠ sensitivity of 0.5-1.0 mJy) 1.1 mm continuum images of known blank fields and over-density regions/protoclusters across a wide range of redshifts with a spatial resolution of ~30". It has resulted in the numerous (~ a few 100, almost equivalent to the total number of the previously known SMGs) new and secure detections of SMGs. In this paper, we present initial results of two selected fields, SSA 22 and AKARI Deep Field South (ADFS). A significnat clustering of bright SMGs toward the density peak of LAEs is found in SSA 22. We derived the differential and cumulative number counts from the detected sources in ADF-S, which probe the faintest flux densities (down to -1 mJy) among 1-mm blank field surveys to date.

l           Komugi, S., Y. Sofue, H. Nakanishi, S. Onodera, F. Egusa, K. Muraoka, and J. S. Young [2008a], "Molecular Gas and Star Formation in Nearby Galaxies," Proc. of the "Mapping the Galaxy and Nearby Galaxies", eds. Wada, K., and Combes, F., pp.231-236.

Ø          The quantitative relationship between molecular gas and star formation, or the Schmidt Law, was derived for the central kpc of nearby spiral galaxies using 12CO(J=1-0) line data and H alphaimaging. The CO spectra were obtained at the 45m telescope at Nobeyama Radio Observatory (NRO). The derived Schmidt law index is found to be affected significantly depending on galaxy distance, ranging from 0.7 to 1.3. The data covers the densest regions of normal spirals, and overlaps with starburst galaxies. We categorize the Schmidt law according to existence of bars. Barred galaxies are found to display a Schmidt law with higher gas density, but on the same Schmidt law track as non-barred samples.

l           Komugi, S., Y. Sofue, S. Onodera, F. Egusa, K. Muraoka, H. Nakanishi, and J. S. Young [2008b], "The Star Formation Law as a Function of Galactic Properties," Proc. of the "Pathways Through an Eclectic Universe", eds. J. H. Knapen, T. J. Mahoney, and A. Vazdekis, ASP Conf. Ser., vol.390, pp.161-165.

Ø          The relation between molecular gas quantity and star formation rate, known as the Schmidt law, is tested for its dependency on galactic morphology, with an emphasis on the presence of bars. The galaxy sample is based on a survey of the 12CO(J = 1¨0) emission in nearby galaxies completed at the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45m telescope, combined with previous surveys with similar resolution. These data were compared to star formation rates derived using internal extinction corrected HƒΏ. The slope of the Schmidt law is found to vary considerably with sample distance, from 0.7 to 1.4. The Schmidt law is categorized according to the presence of bars. Consequently, we find that barred galaxies occupy the denser regime of the Schmidt law, but with no apparent difference in the star formation efficiency, indicating that bars stimulate central inflow of gas, but that star formation still occurs according to a common star formation law as with non-barred galaxies.

l           Komugi, S., Y. Sofue, K. Kohno, H. Nakanishi, S. Onodera, F. Egusa, and K. Muraoka [2008c], "Molecular Gas Distribution in Barred and Non-Barred Galaxies along the Hubble Sequence," Astrophys. J. Suppl, vol.178, pp.225-246.

Ø          We present results from a survey of 12CO (J=1-0) spectra obtained for the central regions of 68 nearby galaxies at an angular resolution of 16" using the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m telescope, aimed at characterizing the properties of star-forming molecular gas. Combined with observations of similar resolution in the literature, the compiled sample set of 166 galaxies span a wide range of galactic properties. NGC 4380, which was previously undetected in CO, was detected. This initial paper of a series will focus on the data and the gaseous properties of the samples, and particularly on the degree of central concentration of molecular gas in a range of morphological types, from early (S0/Sa) to late (Sd/Sm) galaxies with and without bars. The degree of molecular central concentration in the central kiloparsec, compared with the central several kiloparsecs of galaxies, is found to vary smoothly with Hubble type, so that early-type galaxies show larger central concentration. The comparison of barred and nonbarred galaxies within early- and late-type galaxies suggest that difference in Hubble type, representing the effect of bulges, is the more important factor in concentrating gas into the central regions than bars.

l           Kotani, T., S. Fabrika, N. Kawai, K. Kinugasa, K. Kubota, S. Trushkin, and M. Tsuboi [2009], "Multi-Wavelength Observations of the Microquasar SS433," Proc. of "Astrophysics with All-Sky X-Ray Observations", pp.108-113.

Ø          A radio-IR-optical-X-ray observation campaigns have been performed in 2006 April and 2006 December for SS433, the unique microquasar known for the very stable continuous jet emanating at a quarter of the speed of light. The participating observatories/telescopes include Suzaku, RXTE, BTA, 150-cm Telescope at Gunma, Nayuta at Nishi-Harima, Crimean Observatory, MITSuME, VSOLJ, 1.4-m Telescope at SAAO, RATAN-600, RT-32 at IAA RAS, and Nobeyama Millimeter Array. In the April campaign, five radio flares have been detected and the source seems to be in the active state. In the December campaign, a simple radio flare has been detected, and we triggered a series of observations with RXTE.

l           Kuno, N., A. Hirota, T. Tosaki, and R. Miura [2008a], "Observations of molecular clouds in nearby galaxies with ALMA," Astrophys. and Sp. Sci., vol.313, pp.293-296.

Ø          We present recent results of the observations of giant molecular clouds in nearby galaxies with the Nobeyama 45 m telescope and Millimeter Array. We give some brief comments about observations of GMCs in nearby galaxies with ALMA.

l           Kuno, N., N. Sato, H. Nakanishi, A. Hirota, T. Tosaki, Y. Shioya, K. Sorai, N. Nakai, K. Nishiyama, and B. Vila-Vilaro [2008b], "Nobeyama CO Atlas of Nearby Spiral Galaxies," Proc. of the "Mapping the Galaxy and Nearby Galaxies", eds. Wada, K., and Combes, F., pp.170-177.

Ø          The results of a CO(1-0) mapping survey of 40 nearby spiral galaxies performed with the Nobeyama 45-m telescope are presented. The maps of CO cover most of the optical disk of the galaxies. We investigated the influence of bar on distribution of molecular gas in spiral galaxies using these data. We confirmed that the degree of central concentration is higher in barred spirals than in non-barred spirals as shown by previous works. Furthermore, we show that bars are efficient in driving molecular gas that lies within their radial scales toward the center, while the role in the accumulation from the larger spatial scales on the disks is small. The transported gas accounts for about half of molecular gas within the central region in barred spiral galaxies. We found a correlation between the degree of central concentration and bar strength. Galaxies with stronger bars tend to have higher central concentration. The correlation implies that stronger bars accumulate molecular gas toward the center more efficiently. These results are consistent with long-lived bars.

l           Kuno, N., K. Nakanishi, K. Sorai, and T. Shibatsuka [2008c], "Central Spiral Structure of Molecular Gas in Maffei 2," Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan, vol.60, pp.475-485.

Ø          The distribution and kinematics of molecular gas in the central region of the barred spiral galaxy Maffei 2 were investigated using a data set of 12CO(1-0), 12CO(2-1), CS(2-1) lines, and 103 GHz continuum. We found that the offset ridges along the kpc-scale bar continue to the central spiral structure embedded in a weak oval structure, which is regarded as ƒΤ2 orbit in the bar potential. The spiral structure continues toward the center, diverging from the oval structure. The size of these structures is less than R ~ 100 pc. The mass concentration within R = 35 pc is estimated to be 2 X 108 M. The high mass concentration is consistent with theoretical predictions concerning the creation of such a nuclear spiral structure. A comparison with the tracers of dense gas and star-forming region suggests that the dense molecular gas traced by the CS(2-1) line is formed at the crossing points of the x1 and x2 orbits and the star-forming region appears after 2 X 105 yr, which is comparable to the free-fall time of dense gas traced by the CS line (~ 105 cm-3).

l           Kuno, N., T. Tosaki, S. Onodera, K. Muraoka, H. Kaneko, T. Sawada, K. Nakanishi, S. Komugi, Y. Tamura, K. Kohno, R. Kawabe, N. Arimoto, and S. Okamoto [2010], "NRO Legacy Project: Survey of Giant Molecular Clouds in M33," Highlights of Astronomy, 1vol.5 : XXVIIth IAU General Assembly, August 2009, ed. Ian F. Corbett, pp.416-416.

Ø          As the Nobeyama Radio Observatory Legacy Project: Survey of Giant Molecular Clouds in M33, we have been mapping M33 in CO(1-0) with the multi-beam receiver BEARS equipped on the 45-m telescope using the OTF mapping technique since 2007. The purpose of this project is to investigate the physical properties of GMCs and understand the evolutionary process from GMC formation to star formation in GMCs by comparing with various data such as CO(3-2), 1.1 mm continuum obtained with ASTE10m telescope at Atacama and the optical data obtained with SUBARU. We identified 87 GMCs using the first year data of CO(1-0) and observed 28 GMCs among them in CO(3-2) with ASTE (Onodera 2009, PhD thesis, University of Tokyo). From the comparison of these lines, it was shown that the CO(3-2)/CO(1-0) ratio increases with star forming activity in the GMCs. Furthermore, we found that more massive GMCs tend to have higher CO(3-2)/CO(1-0) ratio. Since the ratio is thought to be an indicator of the fraction of warm and dense molecular gas, our results imply that the fraction of warm and dense gas increases with GMC mass. Especially, since the ratio in the GMCs with low star forming activity is in the range where the ratio depends mainly on the density, we speculate that dense gas fraction increases with GMC mass.

l           Kurayama, T. [2008], "VERA Observation of the Massive Star Forming Region G34.4+0.23," Proc. of the IAU Symp. 248, "A Giant Step: from Milli- to Micro-arcsecond Astrometry", eds. Wenjing Jin, Imants Platais, Michael A. C. Perryman, pp.202-203.

Ø          We observed with VERA the massive star forming region G34.4+0.23, to obtain parallaxes and proper motions. Four infrared dark clouds were observed and water maser were found in two dark clouds, MM1 and MM4. In MM1, the distribution of maser spots shows a "V-shaped" structure and most features co-moving with this structure. Phase-referenced images have peaks and their motion is much larger than the expected parallax. Further analysis is needed to correctly interpret our measurement of parallax.

l           Kurayama, T. [2009], "VERA Observation of G34.4+0.23 and Matters that Require Attention for VSOP-2 Phase Referencing," Proc. of the "Approaching Micro-Arcsecond Resolution with VSOP-2: Astrophysics and Technologies", eds. Hagiwara, Y., Fomalont, Ed., Tsuboi, M., and Murata, Y., ASP Conf. Ser. vol.402, pp.473-475.

Ø          We observed the massive star forming region G34.4+0.23 with VERA to determine parallaxes and proper motions. Four infrared dark clouds were observed and water masers are found from two dark clouds, MM1 and MM4. In MM1, the distribution of the maser spots shows a gV-shapeh structure and most features move along this structure. The peaks on the phase (position)-referenced images are detected, but their motions indicate a parallax that is larger than expected and with a large scatter. The analysis processes should be checked to confirm the measurement of the parallax.

l           Kurono, Y., K.-I. Morita, and T. Kamazaki [2009], "A Study of Combining Technique of Single-Dish and Interferometer Data: Imaging Simulations and Analysis," Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan, vol.61, pp.873-894.

Ø          We have investigated a technique of combining single-dish data and interferometer data in the spatial frequency domain, using imaging simulations and analytical considerations. Our study shows that there is an optimum of the relative weights between the visibility data of a single-dish and an interferometer The quality of the reconstructed combined image achieves the highest values at relative weights where the mean of the difference between the synthe-sized beam and the CLEAN beam is close to zero. We also examined the (u,v)-range that can be effectively used for the data combining by considering a blurring effect due to a pointing error. The error in single-dish deconvolution caused by the beam approximation is small with a large diameter of the single-dish aperture. The diameter should be at least 1.7-times larger than the minimum baseline of the interferometer for an amplitude accuracy better than 10%. Furthermore, we derived an estimate of the noise variance in the combined image, which agrees with our simulation results. The noise-added simulations demonstrate that there is a threshold of the noise level of the single-dish image, beyond which a large-scale error is emphasized in the combined image. We should take observation times to make at least the same noise level at the border of the spatial frequency between the single-dish and the interferometer. Although our examinations were assumed to use the 45 m telescope and NMA, our results concerning the required conditions for observations and data processes can be used in a general case of heterogeneous array imaging.

l           Levshakov, S. A., P. Molaro, M. G. Kozlov, A. V. Lapinov, C. Henkel, D. Reimers, T. Sakai, and I. I. Agafonova [2010], "Search for Chameleon-Like Scalar Fields," JENAM 2010, Joint European and National Astronomy Meeting held 6-10 September, 2010 in Lisbon Portugal, p.68.

Ø          Using the 32-m Medicina, 45-m Nobeyama, and 100-m Effelsberg telescopes we found a statistically significant velocity offset ƒ’V ≈ 27}3 m s-1 between the inversion transition in NH3(1,1) and low-J rotational transitions in N2H+(1-0) and HC3N(2-1) arising in cold and dense molecular cores in the Milky Way. Systematic shifts of the line centers caused by turbulent motions and velocity gradients, possible non-thermal hyperfine structure populations, pressure and optical depth effects are shown to be lower than or about 1 m s-1 and thus can be neglected in the total error budget. The reproducibility ofƒ’V at the same facility (Effelsberg telescope) on a year-to-year basis is found to be very good. Since the frequencies of the inversion and rotational transitions have different sensitivities to variations in ƒΚ = me/mp, the revealed non-zeroƒ’V may imply that mu changes when measured at high (terrestrial) and low (interstellar) matter densities as predicted by chameleon-like scalar field models - candidates to the dark energy carrier. Thus we are testing whether scalar field models have chameleon-type interactions with ordinary matter. The measured velocity offset corresponds to the ratio ƒ’ƒΚ/ƒΚ = (ƒΚspace - ƒΚlab)/ƒΚlab of (26}3)x10-9 (1ƒΠ).

l           Li, J., Z.-Q. Shen, A. Miyazaki, L. Huang, R. J. Sault, M. Miyoshi, M. Tsuboi, and T. Tsutsumi [2009], "The Variability of Sagittarius A* at 3 Millimeter," Astrophys. J., vol.700, pp.417-425.

Ø          We have performed monitoring observations of the 3 mm flux density toward the Galactic center compact radio source Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*) with the Australia Telescope Compact Array since 2005 October. Careful calibrations of both elevation-dependent and time-dependent gains have enabled us to establish the variability behavior of Sgr A*. Sgr A* appeared to undergo a high and stable state in the 2006 June session, and a low and variable state in the 2006 August session. We report the results, with emphasis on two detected intraday variation events during its low states. One is on 2006 August 12 when Sgr A* exhibited a 33% fractional variation in about 2.5 hr. The other is on 2006 August 13 when two peaks separated by about 4 hr, with a maximum variation of 21% within 2 hr, were seen. The observed short timescale variations are discussed in light of two possible scenarios, i.e., the expanding plasmon model and the sub-Keplerian orbiting hot spot model. The fitting results indicate that for the adiabatically expanding plasmon model, the synchrotron cooling cannot be ignored, and a minimum mass-loss rate of 9.7 ~ 10-10 M yr-1 is obtained based on parameters derived for this modified expanding plasmon model. Simultaneous multiwavelength observation is crucial to our understanding of the physical origin of rapid radio variability in Sgr A*.

l           Li, J., T. An, Z.-Q. Shen, and A. Miyazaki [2010], "ATCA Observations of SiO Masers in the Galactic Center," Astrophys. J. (Letters), vol.720, pp.L56-L61.

Ø          We present the Australia Telescope Compact Array observations of the SiO masers in the Galactic center (GC) in transitions of v = 1, J = 2-1 at 86 GHz and v = 1, J = 1-0 at 43 GHz. Two 86 GHz SiO masers were detected within the central parsec, and they are associated with IRS 10EE and IRS 15NE, respectively. We detected eighteen 43 GHz SiO masers within a projected separation of ≤2 pc from Sagittarius A*, among which seven masers are newly discovered from our observations. This raises the total number of 43 GHz SiO masers within the central 4 pc of the GC region to 22. Simultaneous observations at 86 and 43 GHz showed that the intensity of 43 GHz SiO maser is ~3 times higher than that of 86 GHz maser in IRS 10EE (an OH/IR star), while the integrated flux of the SiO maser emission at 43 GHz is comparable with that at 86 GHz in IRS 15NE (an ordinary Mira variable). These results are consistent with previous observations of massive late-type stars in the Galaxy in which the 86 GHz SiO maser is in general weaker than the 43 GHz SiO maser in OH/IR stars, while the two transitions are comparably strong in Mira stars.

l           Lightfoot, J., G. Kosugi, F. Wyrowski, L. Zapata, D. Muders, F. Boone, T. Tsutsumi, L. Davis, C. Wilson, and D. Shepherd [2008], "ALMA Pipeline Heuristics," Proc. of the "Astronomical data analysis software and systems", eds. Robert W. Argyle, Peter S. Bunclark, and James R. Lewis, ASP conf. ser., vol.394, p.573.

Ø          The ALMA Pipeline Heuristics system is being developed to reduce automatically data taken with the standard observing modes. The goals are to make ALMA comfortable to use for astronomers who are new to radio interferometry and to provide reduced results of publishable quality. The reduction sequence will continue to develop as experience is gained at the telescope, so it is important that the system has a framework and interface that are flexible and easy to use. Observing modes to be handled include single field interferometry, mosaics, single dish 'on the fly' maps, and combinations of these. The data will be produced by the main ALMA array, the Alma Compact Array, and single dish antennas. The reduction sequence is logged to a collection of html files that can examined using a standard browser for verification of the process. The reduction is performed by a Python script and classes bound to the CASA libraries.

l           Lisenfeld, U., D. Espada, S. Leon, L. Lerdes-Montenegro, N. Kuno, and N. Sato [2010], "Molecular Gas Properties in the Most Isolated Galaxies," Proc. of the "Galaxies in Isolation: Exploring Nature Versus Nurture", eds. Verdes-Montenegro, L., del Olmo, A., Sulentic, J. W., ASP Conf. Ser., vol.421, p.262.

Ø          We present results obtained from CO(1-0) data of a velocity-restricted subsample of isolated galaxies from the AMIGA project.

l           Liszt, H. S., J. Pety, and K. Tachihara [2009], "Imaging Galactic Diffuse Clouds: CO Emission, Reddening and Turbulent Flow in the Gas aroundƒΔOph,Astron. " Astrophys., vol.499, pp.503-513.

Ø          Context. Most diffuse clouds are only known as kinematic features in absorption spectra, but those with appreciable H2 content may be visible in the emission of such small molecules as CH, OH, and CO. Aims. We interpret in greater detail the extensive observations of 12CO emission from diffuse gas seen around the archetypical line of sight toƒΔOph. Methods. The 12CO emission is imaged in position and position-velocity space, analyzed statistically, and then compared with maps of total reddening E‡B-V and with models of the C+- CO transition in H2-bearing diffuse clouds. Results. AroundƒΔOph, 12CO emission appears in two distinct intervals of reddening centered near E‡B-V ≈ 0.4 and 0.65 mag, of which ≤0.2 mag is background material. Within either interval, the integrated 12CO intensity varies up to 6-12 K km s-1, compared to 1.5 K km s-1 toward ƒΔOph. Nearly 80% of the individual profiles have velocity dispersionsƒΠv < 0.6 km s-1, which are subsonic at the kinetic temperature derived from H2 towardƒΔOph, 55 K. Partly as a result, 12CO emission exposes the internal, turbulent, supersonic (1-3 km s-1) gas flows with especial clarity in the cores of strong lines. The flows are manifested as resolved velocity gradients in narrow, subsonically-broadened line cores. Conclusions. The scatter between N(CO) and EB-V in global, CO absorption line surveys toward bright stars is present in the gas seen aroundƒΔOph, reflecting the extreme sensitivity of N(12CO) to ambient conditions. The two-component nature of the optical absorption towardƒΔOph is coincidental and the star is occulted by a single body of gas with a complex internal structure, not by two distinct clouds. The very bright 12CO lines in diffuse gas arise at N(H2) ≈ 1021 cm-2 in regions of modest density n(H) ≈ 200-500 cm-3 and somewhat more complete C+-CO conversion. Given the variety of structure in the foreground gas, it is apparent that only large surveys of absorption sightlines can hope to capture the intrinsic behavior of diffuse gas.

l           Liu, G., D. Calzetti, M. S. Yun, G. W. Wilson, B. T. Draine, K. Scott, J. Austermann, T. Perera, D. Hughes, I. Aretxaga, K. Kohno, R. Kawabe, and H. Ezawa [2010a], "From Near-Infrared to Millimeter: An Investigation of the Content in the NGC 1512/1510 Pair," American Astron. Soc., AAS Meeting #215, #432.18.

Ø          We combine new ASTE/AzTEC 1.1 mm maps of the galaxy pair NGC1512/1510 with archival Spitzer IRAC and MIPS images covering the wavelength range 3.6-160ƒΚm from the SINGS project. The two galaxies form a high-metallicity, large spiral (NGC1512)/low-metallicity compact dwarf (NGC1510) pair. Using the models of Draine & Li (2007), the derived total dust masses are (2.4}0.6)~107 and (1.7}3.6)~105 Msun for NGC1512 and NGC1510, respectively. The derived dust/H I ratio is within expectations of low-metallicity galaxies for NGC1510, but it is much lower, by at least a factor of 3, than expected for NGC1512, as previously found by Draine et al. (2007). In contrast, regions within NGC1512, specifically the central region and the arms, do not show such unusually low dust/H I values, suggesting the possibility that some of the H I included in the determination of the dust/H I ratio of NGC1512 is not associated with the star forming disk. Simple two-temperature modified-blackbody fits to the far-infrared/mm data of the two galaxies and the sub-regions of NGC1512 are also performed to derive the dust masses associated with warm and cool dust components. As generally expected, the warm dust temperature of the low-metallicity, low-mass NGC1510 (~36 K) is substantially higher than the corresponding warm temperature of the high-metallicity spiral NGC1512 (~24 K). In both galaxies, our fits indicate that a substantial fraction (>93%) of the total dust mass is in a cool dust component (~14-16 K for NGC1512 and ~15-24 K for NGC1510). This result is similar to what is determined for a few other nearby galaxies. The warm dust component in the sub-galactic regions of NGC1512 represents a much larger fraction of the total dust content (17-40%), in agreement with the fact that all three regions have higher specific star formation rates than the average in the galaxy.

l           Liu, G., D. Calzetti, M. S. Yun, G. W. Wilson, B. T. Draine, K. Scott, J. Austerman, T. Perera, D. Hughes, I. Aretxaga, K. Kohno, R. Kawabe, and H. Ezawa [2010b], "An Investigation of the Dust Content in the Galaxy Pair NGC 1512/1510 from Near-Infrared to Millimeter Wavelengths," Astron. J., vol.139, pp.1190-1198.

Ø          We combine new ASTE/AzTEC 1.1 mm maps of the galaxy pair NGC 1512/1510 with archival Spitzer IRAC and MIPS images covering the wavelength range 3.6-160ƒΚm from the SINGS project. The availability of the 1.1 mm map enables us to measure the long-wavelength tail of the dust emission in each galaxy, and in sub-galactic regions in NGC 1512, and to derive accurate dust masses. The two galaxies form a pair consisting of a large, high-metallicity spiral (NGC 1512) and a low-metallicity, blue compact dwarf (NGC 1510), which we use to compare similarities and contrast differences. Using the models of Draine and Li, the derived total dust masses are (2.4 } 0.6) ~107 Msun and (1.7 } 3.6) ~ 105 Msun for NGC 1512 and NGC 1510, respectively. The derived ratio of dust mass to H I gas mass for the galaxy pair, Md/MHI ~0.0034, is much lower (by at least a factor of 3) than expected, as previously found by Draine et al. In contrast, regions within NGC 1512, specifically the central region and the arms, do not show such unusually low Md/MHI ratios; furthermore, the dust-to-gas ratio is within expectations for NGC 1510. These results suggest that a fraction of the HI included in the determination of the Md/MHI ratio of the NGC 1512/NGC 1510 pair is not associated with the star-forming disks/regions of either galaxy. Using the dust masses derived from the models of Draine & Li as references, we perform simple two-temperature modified blackbody fits to the far-infrared/millimeter data of the two galaxies and the sub-regions of NGC 1512, in order to derive and compare the dust masses associated with warm and cool dust temperature components. As generally expected, the warm dust temperature of the low-metallicity, low-mass NGC 1510 (Tw ~ 36 K) is substantially higher than the corresponding warm temperature of the high-metallicity spiral NGC 1512 (Tw ~ 24 K). In both galaxies (albeit with a large uncertainty for NGC 1510), our fits indicate that a substantial fraction (>93%) of the total dust mass is in a cool dust component, with temperatures ~14-16 K for NGC 1512 and ~15-24 K for NGC 1510. This result is similar to what is determined for a few other nearby galaxies. In contrast, the warm dust component in the sub-galactic regions of NGC 1512 represents a much larger fraction of the total dust content, in agreement with the fact that all three regions have higher specific star formation rates than the average in the galaxy; in the center, the warm dust represents about 40% of the total, while in the arms the fractions are close to ~20%.

l           Liu, Q., X. Shi, F. Kikuchi, Q. Huang, S. Kamata, K. Matsumoto, H. Hanada, X. Hong, A. Yu, J. Ping, Q. Fan, B. Xia, T. An, Z. Qian, W. Yang, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, and N. Wang, [2009], "High-Accuracy Same-Beam VLBI Observations using Shanghai and Urumqi Telescope," Science in China Ser. G: Phys. Mathe. & Astron., vol.52, pp.1858-1866.

Ø          The same-beam VLBI observations of Rstar and Vstar, which were two small satellites of Japanese lunar mission, SELENE, were successfully performed by using Shanghai and Urumqi 25-m telescopes. When the separation angle between Rstar and Vstar was less than 0.1 deg, the differential phase delay of the X-band signals between Rstar and Vstar on Shanghai-Urumqi baseline was obtained with a very small error of 0.15 mm rms, which was reduced by 1-2 order compared with the former VLBI results. When the separation angle was less than 0.56 deg, the differential phase delay of the S-band signals was also obtained with a very small error of several mm rms. The orbit determination for Rstar and Vstar was performed, and the accuracy was improved to a level of several meters by using VLBI and Doppler data. The high-accuracy same-beam differential VLBI technique is very useful in orbit determination for a spacecraft, and will be used in orbit determination for Mars missions of China Yinghuo-1 and Russia Phobos-grunt.

l           Liu, Q., F. Kukuchi, K. Matsumoto, S. Goossens, H. Hanada, Y. Harada, X. Shi, Q. Huang, T. Ishikawa, S. Tsuruta, K. Asari, Y. Ishihara, N. Kawano, S. Kamata, T. Iwata, H. Noda, N. Namiki, S. Sasaki, S. Elingsen, K. Sato, K. Shibata, Y. Tamura, T. Jike, K. Iwadate, O. Kameya, J. Ping, B. Xia, T. An, Q. Fan, X. Hong, W. Yang, H. Zhang, Y. Aili, B. Reid, W. Hankey, J. McCallum, G. Kronschnabl, and W. Schluter [2010], "Same-Beam VLBI Observations of SELENE for Improving Lunar Gravity Field Model," Radio Sci., 45, CitelID RS2004(1-16).

Ø          The Japanese lunar mission, Selenological and Engineering Explorer (Kaguya), which was successfully launched on 14 September 2007, consists of a main satellite and two small satellites, Rstar and Vstar. Same-beam very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations of Rstar and Vstar were performed for 15.4 months from November 2007 to February 2009 using eight VLBI stations. In 2008, S band same-beam VLBI observations totaling 476 h on 179 days were undertaken. The differential phase delays were successfully estimated for most (about 85%) of the same-beam VLBI observation periods. The high success rate was mainly due to the continuous data series measuring the differential correlation phase between Rstar and Vstar. The intrinsic measurement error in the differential phase delay was less than 1 mm RMS for small separation angles and increased to approximately 2.5 mm RMS for the largest separation angles (up to 0.56 deg). The long-term atmospheric and ionospheric delays along the line of sight were reduced to a low level (several tens of milimeters) using the same-beam VLBI observations, and further improved through application of GPS techniques. Combining the eight-station (four Japanese telescopes of VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry and four international telescopes) S band same-beam VLBI data with Doppler and range data, the accuracy of the orbit determination was improved from a level of several tens of meters when only using Doppler and range data to a level of 10 m. As a preliminary test of the technique, the coefficient sigma degree variance of the lunar gravity field was compared with and without 4 months of VLBI data included. A significant reduction below around 10 deg (especially for the second degree) was observed when the VLBI data were included. These observations confirm that the VLBI data contribute to improvements in the accuracy of the orbit determination and through this to the lunar gravity field model.

l           Maeda, T., H. Imai, T. Omodaka, H. Kobayashi, K. M. Shibata, T. Bushimata, Y. K. Choi, T. Hirota, M. Honma, K. Horiai, N. Inomata, K. Iwadate, T. Jike, S. Kameno, O. Kameya, R. Kamohara, Y. Kan-ya, N. Kawaguchi, S. Kuji, T. Kurayama, S. Manabe, T. Miyaji, T. Nagayama, A. Nakagawa, K. Nakashima, C. S. Oh, T. Oyama, S. Sakai, S. Sakakibara, K. Sato, R. Shimizu, M. Shintani, K. Sora, H. Suda, Y. Tamura, and K. Yamashita [2008], "A Bipolar Outflow of the M-Type Giant IRC 10414 Traced by H2O Maser Emission," Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan, vol.60, pp.1057-1067.

Ø          We report on results of five-epoch VLBI observations of H2O maser emission in the M-type star IRC - 10414, carried out with the VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA). The maser distribution extends over an area of 70 mas x 260 mas and exhibits a bipolar structure. The relative proper motions of 17 maser features were measured during the monitoring observations spanning nine months. The distance to IRC - 10414 was re-estimated on the basis of the statistical treatment of parallax and the model-fitting method, yielding D = 3.1}0.4 kpc and D = 2.0}0.2 kpc, respectively. The estimated distance, D = 2-3 kpc, is much larger than that previously adopted. The stellar luminosity of IRC - 10414 is also re-estimated to be L* ~ 9 x 104 (D/2 kpc)2 L , much brighter by a factor of 10-20 than previously adopted (L* ~ 10000 L ). The maser motions exhibit not only a spherically expanding flow with a velocity of ~ 10(D/2 kpc) km s-1, but also a faster bipolar outflow with a major axis in the north-south direction and at a small inclination angle with respect to the celestial sphere. These characteristics of the star and the circumstellar envelope seen in IRC - 10414 are very similar to those in some supergiants exhibiting bipolar stellar mass loss.

l           Mamyoda, K., N. Nakai, A. Yamauchi, P. Diamond, and J.-M. Hurè [2009], "Detection of a Sub-Keplerian Water Maser Disk at the Active Galactic Nuclear of the Galaxy IC 481," Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan, vol.61, pp.1143-1151.

Ø          We present a study of H2O maser emission from the LINER, IC 1481, based on single-dish and highly sensitive VLBI observations. The Nobeyama 45-m telescope detected new maser features near the systemic velocity and blue-shifted by 124-205 km s-1. In addition, the known features red-shifted by ≈97-155 km s-1 were monitored. VLBI observations with the High Sensitivity Array (HSA) revealed that the maser features are distributed along a line, with a velocity gradient, strongly suggesting a nearly edge-on molecular gas disk. The radius and thickness of the disk are r = 2.8-14.0 pc and 2H = 1.5-4.2 pc, respectively, which are the largest among the maser disks detected in active galactic nuclei. The disk is rotating at Vrot = 124-168 km s-1, having a large velocity dispersion of ΔV≈31 km s-1. The rotation curve of the disk is sub-Keplerian (Vrot ε r-0.19}0.04), indicating a massive disk. The disk mass is estimated to be (4.3}0.3) ~107 M and the mass of a putative central black hole is <107 M. The massive disk is gravitationally unstable. A radio continuum source was also detected to be offset from the maser disk by 1.6 pc.

l           Marsher, A., S. Jorstad, D. Murphy, D. Meier, R. Preston, S. Unwin, K. Kellermann, J. Wrobel, J. Romney, D. Homan, M. Lister, G. Piner, L. Greenhill, M. Reid, G. Taylor, A. Weshrle, D. Roberts, A. Readhead, M. Böttcher, M. Georganopoulos, S. Bloom, K. Johnston, C. C. Cheung, T. Krichbaum, M. Tsuboi, M. Inoue, and S. Kameno [2009], "Exploring the Most Compact Regions of Relativistic Jets with the Ultra-High Angular Resolution of Space VLBI," Astro2010: The Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey, Science White Papers, no. 193-1-8.

Ø          Without abstract

l           Maruta, H., F. Nakamura, R. Nishi, N. Ikeda, and Y. Kitamura [2010], "Physical Properties of Dense Cores in the Ophiuchi Main Cloud and A Significant Role of External Pressures in Clustered Star Formation," Astrophys. J., vol.714, pp.680-698.

Ø          Using the archive data of the H13CO+ (J = 1-0) line emission taken with the Nobeyama 45 m radio telescope with a spatial resolution of ~ 0.01 pc, we have identified 68 dense cores in the central dense region of theƒΟOphiuchi main cloud. The H13CO+ data also indicate that the fractional abundance of H13CO+ relative to H2 is roughly inversely proportional to the square root of the H2 column density with a mean of 1.72 ~10-11. The mean radius, FWHM line width, and LTE mass of the identified cores are estimated to be 0.045 } 0.011 pc, 0.49 } 0.14 km s-1, and 3.4 } 3.6 M sun, respectively. The majority of the identified cores have subsonic internal motions. The virial ratio, the ratio of the virial mass to the LTE mass, tends to decrease with increasing LTE mass and about 60% of the cores have virial ratios smaller than 2, indicating that these cores are not transient structures but self-gravitating. The detailed virial analysis suggests that the surface pressure often dominates over the self-gravity and thus plays a crucial role in regulating core formation and evolution. By comparing theƒΟOph cores with those in the Orion A molecular cloud observed with the same telescope, we found that the statistical properties of the core physical quantities are similar between the two clouds if the effect of the different spatial resolutions is corrected. The line widths of theƒΟOph cores appear to be nearly independent of the core radii over the range of 0.01-0.1 pc and deviate upward from the Heyer & Brunt relation. This may be evidence that turbulent motions are driven by protostellar outflows in the cluster environment.

l           Matsumoto, K., S. Goossens, Q. Liu, T. Iwata, N. Namiki, H. Noda, H. Hanada, F. Kikuchi, Y. Ishihara, N. Kawano, S. Tsuruta, K. Asari, T. Ishikawa, and S. Sasaki [2008a], "Current Status of Acquisition and Processing of Tracking Data from SELENE (Kaguya) Satellites for Lunar Gravity Field Estimation," 39th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, (Lunar and Planetary Science XXXIX), held March 10-14, 2008 in League City, Texas. LPI Contribution No. 1391, p.1541.

Ø          This presentation summarizes the current status of acquisition and processing of tracking data from Kaguya. A special emphasis will be on the four-way Doppler data coverage over the lunar far-side and its impact on lunar gravity field estimation.

l           Matsumoto, K., H. Hanada, N. Namiki, T. Iwata,S. Goossens, S. Tsuruta, N. Kawano, and D. D. Rowlands [2008b], "A Simulation Study for Anticipated Accuracy of Lunar Gravity Field Model by SELENE Tracking Data," Adv. Sp. Res., vol.42, pp.331-336.

Ø          Results of numerical simulations are presented to examine the global gravity field recovery capability of the Japanese lunar exploration project SELENE (SELenological and ENgineering Explorer) which will be launched in 2007. New characteristics of the SELENE lunar gravimetry include 4-way satellite-to-satellite Doppler tracking of main orbiter and differential VLBI tracking of two small free-flier satellites. It is shown that the proposed satellite constellation will provide the first truly global satellite tracking data coverage. The expected results from these data are; (1) drastic reduction in far-side gravity error, (2) estimation of many gravity coefficients by the observation, not by a priori information, and (3) one order of magnitude improvement over existing gravity models for low-degree field.

l           Matsumoto, K., S. Goossens, Y. Ishihara, Q. Liu, T. Iwata, N. Namiki, H. Noda, H. Hanada, F. Kikuchi, N. Kawano, S. Tsuruta, K. Asari, T. Ishikawa, and S. Sasaki [2008c], "Initial Results of Global Lunar Gravity Field Recovery from SELENE Tracking Data," 37th COSPAR Scientific Assembly, held 13-20 July 2008, in Montreal, Canada, p.1953.

Ø          Two small spin-stabilized sub-satellites, Rstar (OKINA) and Vstar (OUNA), have successfully been separated from Main satellite of SELENE (KAGUYA) and inserted into planned elliptical orbits on October 9 and 12, 2007, respectively. These spacecraft are dedicated to improving our knowledge of the global lunar gravity field with the mission instruments on-board, i.e., RSAT (a satellite-to-satellite Doppler tracking sub-system) and VRAD (artificial radio sources for VLBI). We have started collecting new types of tracking data for the lunar-orbiting satellites, i.e., 4-way Doppler tracking between the Main satellite and Rstar (i.e., a direct far-side gravity observation), and multi-frequency differential VLBI tracking between Rstar and Vstar. A global lunar gravity field with unprecedented accuracy is expected to be estimated through precision orbit determination by using these tracking data. A preliminary global lunar gravity field model (degree and order up to 60) was developed from about 3-month of SELENE tracking data which include 2-way Doppler, 2-way range, and 4-way Doppler data. Although the current far-side data coverage is incomplete and a Kaula-type a priori constraint is necessary for meaningful inversion, some of ring-shaped gravity anomalies are more clearly resolved in the far-side compared with existing lunar gravity models. We will present concept of tracking data acquisition scheduling, current status of tracking data acquisition, and preliminary results of global lunar gravity filed recovery.

l           Matsumoto, K., S. Goossens, Y. Ishihara, Q. Liu, F. Kikuchi, T. Iwata, H. Noda, H. Hanada, N. Kawano, F. G. Lemoine, and D. D. Rowlands [2010], "An Improved Lunar Gravity Field Model from SELENE and Historical Tracking Data: Revealing the Farside Gravity Features,J" . Geophys. Res., vol.115, pp.E06007(1-20).

Ø          A new spherical harmonic solution of the lunar gravity field to degree and order 100, called SGM100h, has been developed using historical tracking data and 14.2 months of SELENE tracking data (from 20 October 2007 to 26 December 2008 plus 30 January 2009). The latter includes all usable 4-way Doppler data collected which allowed direct observations of the farside gravity field for the first time. The new model successfully reveals farside features in free-air gravity anomalies which are characterized by ring-shaped structures for large impact basins and negative spots for large craters. SGM100h produces a correlation with SELENE-derived topography as high as about 0.9, through degree 70. Comparison between SGM100h and LP100K (one of the pre-SELENE models) shows that the large gravity errors which existed in LP100K are drastically reduced and the asymmetric error distribution between the nearside and the farside almost disappears. The gravity anomaly errors predicted from the error covariance, through degree and order 100, are 26 mGal and 35 mGal for the nearside and the farside, respectively. Owing to the 4-way Doppler measurements the gravity coefficients below degree and order 70 are now determined by real observations with contribution factors larger than 80 percent. With the SELENE farside data coverage, it is possible to estimate the gravity field to degree and order 70 without applying any a priori constraint or regularization. SGM100h can be used for global geophysical interpretation through degree and order 70.

l           Matsumoto, N., T. Omodaka, H. Imai, R. Shimizu, T. Bushimata, Y. K. Choi, T. Hirota, M. Honma, N. Inomata, K. Iwadate, T. Jike, S. Kameno, O. Kameya, R. Kamohara, Y. Kan-ya, N. Kawaguchi, H. Kobayashi, S. Kuji, T. Kurayama, T. Maeda, S. Manabe, T. Miyaji, A. Nakagawa, T. Nagayama, K. Nakashima, K., C. S. Oh, T. Oyama, S. Sakai, S. Sakakibara, T. Sasao, K. Sato, K. M. Shibata, M. Shintani, Y. Sofue, K. Sora, H. Suda, Y. Tamura, M. Tsushima, and K. Yamashita [2008], "Variable Asymmetry of the Circumstellar Envelope in IK Tauri Traced by SiO Maser Emission," Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan, vol.60, pp.1039-1050.

Ø          We observed the SiO (ƒΛ=1 andƒΛ=2, J=1-0) maser emissions toward the Mira variable IK Tauri (IK Tau, NML Tau, IRC+10050) over nine epochs from 2002 November to 2005 April using the VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA) telescope array. We found that the SiO maser distributions around IK Tau are highly variable, depending on the stellar pulsation phase. The velocity structures were complex and also time-variable, and are inconsistent with a simply rotating shell that was suggested by previous observations. Based on fittings of the SiO maser distributions to elliptical ring models, we found that the ring size seems to vary in correlation with the pulsation phase, as previously found for TX Cam. Comparisons of theƒΛ=1 andƒΛ=2 maser distributions reveal that 42-50% of the maser pairs have a positional offset less than 0.5 mas, suggesting that the maser pumping in these spots is likely to be dominated by line overlapping or collisional pumping, rather than pure radiative pumping. In order to model the velocity structure of the spoke-like features observed in IK Tau, we propose a ballistic-orbit model, in which a gas clump ejected from the stellar surface moves radially outward with a gravitational deceleration, and argue that the stellar mass can be deduced from that model.

l           Matsushita, S., A. L. Tsai, R. Kawabe, K. Nakanishi, B. Vola-Vilaro, K. Kohno, T. Inui, H. Matsumoto, T. G. Tsuru, and A. B. Peck [2008], "Molecular Bubbles and Outflows in the Edge-on Starburst Galaxies M82 and NGC 2146," Proc. of the "Mapping the Galaxy and Nearby Galaxies", eds. Wada, K., and Combes, F., p.352.

Ø          Without abstract

l           Matsushita, S., R. Kawabe, K. Kohno, T. Tosaki, and B. Vila-Vilaro [2010], "Dense and Warm Molecular Gas and Warm Dust in Nearby Galaxies," Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan, vol.62, pp.409-421.

Ø          We performed 12CO(1-0), 13CO(1-0), and HCN(1-0) single-dish observations (beam size ~14" -18") toward nearby starburst and non-starburst galaxies using the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. The 13CO(1-0) and HCN(1-0) emissions were detected from all the seven starburst galaxies, with the intensities of both lines being similar (i.e., the ratios are around unity). On the other hand, for case of the non-starburst galaxies, the 13CO(1-0) emission was detected from all three galaxies, while the HCN(1-0) emission was weakly or not detected in past observations. This result indicates that the HCN/13CO intensity ratios are significantly larger (~1.15}0.32) in the starburst galaxy samples than the non-starburst galaxy samples (< 0.31 } 0.14). The large-velocity-gradient model suggests that the molecular gas in the starburst galaxies have warmer and denser conditions than that in the non-starburst galaxies, and the photon-dominated-region model suggests that the denser molecular gas is irradiated by stronger interstellar radiation field in the starburst galaxies than that in the non-starburst galaxies. In addition, HCN/13CO in our sample galaxies exhibit strong correlations with the IRAS 25ƒΚm flux ratios. It is a well established fact that there exists a strong correlation between dense molecular gas and star formation activities, but our results suggest that molecular gas temperature is also an important parameter.

l           Migita, E., H. Araki, H. Noda, S. Tazawa, Y. Ishihara, and T. Iwata [2009], "Laser Altimeter Lunar Crater Measurement by SELENE (Kaguya)," 40th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, (Lunar and Planetary Science XL), held March 23-27, 2009 in The Woodlands, Texas, id.1981.

Ø          Laser Altimeter (LALT) on board SELENE (Kaguya) can determine anew crater diameter. LALT data is accurate as compared with Clementine LIDAR data. Especially, central peaks seen in LALT data are clearer than those seen in LIDAR data.

l           Minamidani, T., N. Mizuno, Y. Mizuno, A. Kawamura, T. Onishi, T. Hasegawa, K. Tatematsu, M. Ikeda, Y. Moriguchi, N. Yamaguchi, J. Ott, T. Wong, E. Muller, J. L. Pineda, A. Hughes, L. Staveley-Smith, U. Klein, A. Mizuno, S. Nikolic, R. S. Booth, A. Heikkila, L. A. Nyman, M. Lerner, G. Garay, S. Kim, M. Rubio, and Y. Fukui [2008a], "An Observational Study of the GMCs in the Magellanic Clouds in Millimeter and Submillimeter Wavelengths," Proc. of the "Galaxies in the Local Volume", eds. B. S. Koribalski and H. Jerjen, Astrophys. Sp. Sci. Proc., pp.311-312.

Ø          Not Available

l           Minamidani, T., N. Mizuno, Y. Mizuno, A. Kawamura, T. Onishi, T. Hasegawa, K. Tatematsu, M. Ikeda, Y. Moriguchi, N. Yamaguchi, J. Ott, T. Wong, E. Muller, J. L. Pineda, A. Hughes, L. Staveley-Smith, U. Klein, A. Mizuno, S. Nikolic, R. S. Booth, A. Heikkilä, L.-A. Nyman, M. Lerner, G. Garay, S. Kim, M. Fujishita, T. Kawase, M. Rubio, and Y. Fukui, ]2008b], "Sub-millimeter Observations of Giant Molecular Clouds in the Large Magellanic Cloud: Temperature and Density as Determined from J=3-2 and J=1-0 transitions of CO," Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser., vol.175, pp.485-508.

Ø          We have carried out submillimeter 12CO(J=3-2) observations of six giant molecular clouds (GMCs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) with the ASTE 10 m submillimeter telescope at a spatial resolution of 5 pc and very high sensitivity. We have identified 32 molecular clumps in the GMCs and revealed significant details of the warm and dense molecular gas with n(H2)~103-105 cm-3 and K. These data are combined with 12CO(J=1-0) and 13CO(J=1-0) results and compared with LVG calculations. The results indicate that clumps that we detected are distributed continuously from cool (~10-30 K) to warm ( 30-200 K), and warm clumps are distributed from less dense (103 cm-3) to dense (103.5-105 cm-3). We found that the ratio of 12CO(J=3-2) to 12CO(J=1-0) emission is sensitive to and is well correlated with the local HƒΏ flux. We infer that differences of clump properties represent an evolutionary sequence of GMCs in terms of density increase leading to star formation. Type I and II GMCs (starless GMCs and GMCs with Hii regions only, respectively) are at the young phase of star formation where density does not yet become high enough to show active star formation, and Type III GMCs (GMCs with Hii regions and young star clusters) represent the later phase where the average density is increased and the GMCs are forming massive stars. The high kinetic temperature correlated with HƒΏ flux suggests that FUV heating is dominant in the molecular gas of the LMC.

l           Minamidani, T., N. Mizuno, Y. Mizuno, A. Kawamura, T. Onishi, K. Tatematsu, T. Hasegawa, M. Ikeda, and Y. Fukui [2009], "An Observational Study of GMCs in the Magellanic Clouds with the ASTE Telescope," Proc. of the IAU Symp. 256, "The Magellanic System: Stars, Gas, and Galaxies", eds. Van Loon. Borin, Joana M. Oliveira, pp.256-260.

Ø          We report the results of the submillimeter observations with the ASTE 10 m telescope toward the giant molecular clouds (GMCs) in the Magellanic Clouds to reveal the physical properties of dense molecular gas, the principle sites of star and cluster formation. Six GMCs in the Large Magellanic Cloud have been mapped in the 12CO(J = 3-2) transition and 32 clumps are identified in these GMCs at a resolution of 5 pc. These data are combined with 12CO(J = 1-0) and 13CO(J = 1-0) results and compared with LVG calculations to derive the density and temperature of clumps. The derived density and temperature are distributed in wide ranges. We have made small mapping observations in the 13CO(J = 3-2) transition toward 9 representative peak positions of clumps to determine the density and temperature of clumps. These physical properties are constrained well and there are differences in density and temperature among clumps. We suggest that these differences of clump properties represent an evolutionary sequence of GMCs in terms of density increase leading to star formation.

l           Miura, R., Y. Tamura, S. K. Okumura, R. Kawabe, T. Tosaki, N. Kuno, K. Nakanishi, S. Sakamoto, and T. Hasegawa [2008], "Dense Clouds and Star Formation on Spiral Arm in M33 -deep CO and HCN Observation in NGC604-," Proc. of the "Mapping the Galaxy and Nearby Galaxies", eds. Wada, K., and Combes, F., p.354.

Ø          Without abstract

l           Miyawaki, R., M. Hayashi, and T. Hasegawa [2009], "A Large-Scale 13CO Mapping of the W49A molecular Cloud Complex," Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan, vol.61, pp.39-49.

Ø          We present 13CO (J = 1-0) and C18O (J = 1-0) maps of the W 49 A molecular cloud complex observed at a resolution of 1700 (HPBW). Fourteen features (MHH-1 to MHH-14) were identified in the 13CO velocity channel maps, most of them distributed within an area of 60 (20 pc) in diameter with their total mass amounting to 1.7x 106 M . The features have a three-dimensional velocity dispersion of 8 km s-1, which leads to a mean free time per feature of 106 yr. This suggests that they are interacting one another in a region of ~20 pc in diameter. The feature MHH-1, which corresponds to W 49 N, is unique in that it exhibits a large velocity width (15 km s-1 FWHM) and is compact in size (2.3 pc x 3.0 pc FWHM), while containing a large mass of 2.4 x105 M. This indicates that the free-fall time of MHH-1 is on the order of 105 yr, an order of magnitude smaller than that of the entire complex. It has turned out that MHH-1 has a smaller spatial width at VLSR ≤ 8 km s-1 than at ≥ 8 km s-1. This result, together with the line-proήle characteristics of various optically thin lines, suggests that at least two massive clouds with different radial velocities exist toward MHH-1. The massive compact feature may have been produced by the interaction of the two different velocity clouds.

l           Miyazaki, A., Z.-Q. Shen, M. Miyoshi, M. Tsuboi, and T. Tsutsumi [2008], "Flux variability of Sgr A* at Short Millimeter Wavelengths," Proc. of the "Mapping the Galaxy and Nearby Galaxies", eds. Wada, K., and Combes, F., p.355.

Ø          Without abstract

l           Miyazaki, A., Z.-Q. Shen, J. Li, M. Miyoshi, M. Tsuboi, and T. Tsutsumi [2009], "Flux Variability of Sagittarius A* at Short mm-wavelengths," Proc. of the "Approaching Micro-Arcsecond Resolution with VSOP-2: Astrophysics and Technologies", eds. Hagiwara, Y., Fomalont, Ed., Tsuboi, M., and Murata, Y., ASP Conf. Ser. vol.402, pp.376-379.

Ø          We performed the monitoring observations of the flux density toward Sgr A*, which is a compact radio source associated with a super-massive black hole located at the dynamical center of the Galaxy, using the Nobeyama Millimeter Array (NMA) and the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) at mm-wavelengths. Since 1996, the flux monitoring observations using the NMA were carried out in the 3- and 2-mm bands. Then we detected several flares of Sgr A* with typical durations of a few weeks. We also found some intraday variations (IDVs) of Sgr A* in both observing bands. The 3-mm flux observations of Sgr A* using the ATCA in the southern hemisphere were also carried out to detect IDVs with a longer observing window. In the ATCA observations, we detected IDVs of Sgr A* with timescale of a few hour. In these IDVs, the short flux-doubling timescale was estimated to be a few hours, constraining the physical size of flare-emitting region within about a few tens of AU.

l           Miyoshi, M., S. Kameno, J. K. Ishitsuka, Z.-Q. Shen, R. Takahashi, and S. Horiuchi [2007], "An Approach Detecting the Event Horizon of Sgr A*," Publ. Natl. Obs. Japan, vol.10, pp.15-23.

Ø          Imaging the vicinity of a black hole is one of the ultimate goals of VLBI astronomy. The closest massive black hole, Sgr A*, located at the Galactic center, is the leading candidate for such observations. Combined with recent VLBI recording technique and submillimeter radio engineering, we now have sufficient sensitivity for the observations. Here we show performance simulations simulations of submilllimeter VLBI arrays for imaging Sgr A*. Good images are obtained from submillimeter VLBI arrays in the southern hemisphere composed of more than 10 stations. We also note that even with a small array, we can estimate the shadow size and then the mass of the black hole from visibility analysis. Now, all we need is to construct a submillimeter VLBI array in the southern hemisphere if we wish unveil the black hole environment of Agr A*.

l           Miyoshi, M. [2008], "Slit-Modulation Imaging Method for Detecting Any Periodic Structure Change in Interferometric Data," Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan, vol.60, pp.1371-1386.

Ø          We propose a slit-modulation imaging (SMI) method, a new imaging technique for detecting shorter periodic structural changes of interferometric data. Using simulations with artificial visibility data, we show that the SMI method is highly effective in detecting periodic change patterns, of which period is shorter than the observing time span, of interferometric data.

l           Miyoshi, M. [2009a], "Re-Analysis of the First Fringe with 2-Beam in the VERA System from the Archive Data," Publ. Natl. Astron. Obs. Japan, vol.12, pp.1-9.

Ø          We report results from re-analysis of the visibility data of the first 2-beam observations with VERA (VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry), previously reported by Honma et al., 2003 (hereafter A2003). Independently we checked the archival data and found the features noted in A2003 were not from the effect of phase referencing by simultaneous differential VLBI but mainly from a removal of large phase change by subtracting an arbitrary fitted curve to the phase variations. The differential phase of the observed H2O masers between W49 North (W49N) and OH~43.8-0.1 did not show a sinusoidal variation with a period of one sidereal day due to a positional offset from the real celestial positions. We therefore could not reproduce the results in A2003 by a normal positional correction estimated from all time data, but could reproduce almost the same phases only for the first hour by adjusting parameters. Using the parameters, we could not suppress the large amount of phase variations for the successive time data that A2003 did not show in their paper. It is appropriate to regard the analysis in A2003 as not being proper for showing the performance of the instrument for phase referencing, which should be demonstrated by other experiments observing several pairs of continuum sources.

l           Miyoshi, M., S. Kameno, J. K. Ishitsuka, Z.-Q. Shen, R. Takahashi, and S. Horiuchi [2009b], "An Approach to Detect the Event Horizon in SgrA* Using Ground Based Submillimeter VLBI Array," Proc. of the "Approaching Micro-Arcsecond Resolution with VSOP-2: Astrophysics and Technologies", eds. Hagiwara, Y., Fomalont, Ed., Tsuboi, M., and Murata, Y., ASP Conf. Ser. vol.402, pp.380-383.

Ø          We present here ground-based array simulations for detecting the black hole shadow in Sgr A*. With modest super resolutions, it is easy to obtain the detection and imaging the black hole shadow. Also it is noteworthy that the visibilities from short baselines ranging from 1000 to 2000 km are quite important to the detection. Miyoshi et al. (2007) show the details.

l           Mizuno, N. [2009], "The Properties of Molecular Clouds Across the Magellanic System," Proc. of the IAU Symp. 256, "The Magellanic System: Stars, Gas, and Galaxies", eds. Van Loon. Borin, Joana M. Oliveira, pp.203-214.

Ø          Most stars form in Giant Molecular Clouds (GMCs) and regulate the evolution of galaxies in various respects. The formed stars affect the surrounding materials strongly via their UV photons, stellar winds, and supernova explosions, which lead to trigger the formation of next-generations of stars in the GMCs. It is therefore crucial to reveal the distribution and properties of GMCs in a galaxy. The Magellanic System is a unique target to make such detailed comprehensive study of GMCs. This is because it is nearby and the LMC is nearly face-on, making it feasible to unambiguously identify associated young objects within GMCs. Recent millimeter and sub-millimeter observations in the Magellanic System have started to reveal the distribution and properties of the individual GMCs in detail and their relation to star formation activities. From the NANTEN CO surveys, three types of GMCs can be classified in terms of star formation activities; Type I is starless, Type II is with H ii regions only, and Type III is associated with active star formation indicated by huge H ii regions and young star clusters. The further observations to obtain detailed structure of the GMCs by Mopra and SEST and to search for the dense cores by ASTE and NANTEN2 in higher tansition lines of CO have been carried out with an angular resolution of about 5 to 10 pc. These observations revealed that the differences of the physical properties represent an evolutionary sequence of GMCs in terms of density increase leading to star formation. Type I and II GMCs are at the early phase of star formation where density does not yet become high enough to show active star formation, and Type III GMCs represent the later phase where the average density is increased and the GMCs are forming massive stars.

l           Mizuno, Y., A. Kawamura, T. Onishi, T. Minamidani, E. Muller, H. Yamamoto, T. Hayakawa, N. Mizuno, A. Mizuno, J. Stutzki, J. L. Pineda, U. Klein, F. Bertoldi, B.-C. Koo, M. Rubin, M. Burton, A. Benz, H. Ezawa, N. Yamaguchi, K. Kohno, T. Hasegawa, K. Tatematsu, M. Ikeda, J. Ott, T. Wong, A. Hughes, M. Meixner, R. Indebetouw, K. D. Gordon, B. Whitney, J.-P. Bernard, and Y. Fukui [2010], "Warm and dense Molecular Gas in the N159 Region: 12CO J=4-3 and 13CO J=3-2 Observations with NANTEN2 and ASTE," Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan, vol.62, pp.51-67.

Ø          New 12CO J = 4-3 and 13CO J = 3-2 observations of the N 159 region, an active site of massive star formation in the Large Magellanic Cloud, have been made with the NANTEN2 and ASTE submillimeter telescopes, respectively. The 12CO J = 4-3 distribution is separated into three clumps, each associated with N 159 W, N 159 E, and N 159 S. These new measurements toward the three clumps are used in coupled calculations of molecular rotational excitation and line radiation transfer, along with other transitions of the 12CO J = 1-0, J = 2-1, J = 3-2, and J = 7-6 as well as the isotope transitions of 13CO J = 1-0, J = 2-1, J = 3-2, and J = 4-3. The 13CO J = 3-2 data were newly taken for the present work. The temperatures and densities were found to be ~70-80 K and ~3 x 103 cm-3 in N 159 W and N 159 E, and ~30 K and ~1.6 x 103 cm-3 in N 159 S. These results were compared with the star-formation activity based on data of young stellar clusters and H II regions as well as midinfrared emission obtained with the Spitzer MIPS. The N 159 E clump is associated with cluster(s) embedded, as observed at 24 ƒΚm by the Spitzer MIPS, and the derived high temperature, 80 K, is interpreted as being heated by these sources. The N 159 E clump is likely to be responsible for a dark lane in a large H II region by dust extinction. On the other hand, the N 159 W clump is associated with clusters embedded mainly toward the eastern edge of the clump only. These clusters show offsets of 20" -40" from the 12CO J = 4-3 peak, and are probably responsible for heating indicated by the derived high temperature, 70 K. The N 159 W clump exhibits no sign of star formation toward the 12CO J = 4-3 peak position and its western region that shows enhanced R4-3/1-0 and R3-2/1-0 ratios. We therefore suggest that the N 159 W peak represents a pre-star-cluster core of ˜105 M which deserves further detailed studies. The N 159 S clump shows little sign of star formation, as is consistent with the lower temperature, 30 K, and has a somewhat lower density than N 159 W and N 159 E. The N 159 S clump is also a candidate for future star formation.

l           Mochizuki, N., K. Hachisuka, and T. Umemoto [2009], "Survey of Outer Galaxy Molecular Lines Associated with Water Masers," Proc. of the "Approaching Micro-Arcsecond Resolution with VSOP-2: Astrophysics and Technologies", eds. Hagiwara, Y., Fomalont, Ed., Tsuboi, M., and Murata, Y., ASP Conf. Ser. vol.402, pp.384-387.

Ø          H2O masers in Young stellar objects (YSOs) in our Galaxy are one of the targets of the VSOP-2 science. The advantage of VSOP-2 observation is the highest angular resolution which can detect a proper motion of H2O masers for distant objects over short time intervals. To find candidate sources, we observed H2O maser sources in the outer Galaxy using the VLA, and we surveyed the molecular lines toward these sources to understand the environment of YSOs. Higher H2 column densities of YSOs were found for objects with active H2O masers.

l           Momose, M., M. Hiramatsu, T. Tsukagoshi, Y. Shimajiri, N. Ikeda, Y. Kitamura, K. Kamegai, H. Ezawa, R. Kawabe, and M. Saito, [2009], "Wide-field Imaging Survey of Dust Continuum Emissions atƒΙ= 1.1 mm toward the Chamaeleon and Lupus Regions with AzTEC on ASTE," Proc. of the "Exoplanets and disks: their formation and diversity", eds. Usuda, T., Tamura, M., and Ishii, M., AIP Conf. Proc., vol.1158, pp.141-142.

Ø          We carried out an imaging survey of dust continuum emissions toward the Chamaeleon and Lupus regions. Observations were made with the 144-element bolometer array camera AzTEC mounted on the 10-meter sub-millimeter telescope ASTE during 2007-2008. The preliminary results of disk search and the cloud structure of Lupus III are presented.

l           Momose, R., S. K. Okumura, J. Koda, and T. Sawada [2010], "Star Formation Efficiency in the Barred Spiral Galaxy NGC 4303," Astrophys. J., vol.721, pp.383-394.

Ø          We present new 12CO (J = 1 - 0) observations of the barred galaxy NGC 4303 using the Nobeyama 45 m telescope (NRO45) and the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA). The HƒΏ images of barred spiral galaxies often show active star formation in spiral arms, but less so in bars. We quantify the difference by measuring star formation rate (SFR) and star formation efficiency (SFE) at a scale where local star formation is spatially resolved. Our CO map covers the central 2'3 region of the galaxy; the combination of NRO45 and CARMA provides a high fidelity image, enabling accurate measurements of molecular gas surface density. We find that SFR and SFE are twice as high in the spiral arms as in the bar. We discuss this difference in the context of the Kennicutt-Schmidt (KS) law, which indicates a constant SFR at a given gas surface density. The KS law breaks down at our native resolution (~250 pc), and substantial smoothing (to 500 pc) is necessary to reproduce the KS law, although with greater scatter.

l           Morita, K.-I., and M. A. Holdaway [2008], "The Array Configuration Design of the Atacama Compact Array," Proc. of the SPIE, vol.7012, pp.701200-1-12.

Ø          The Atacama Compact Array (ACA) is an array composed of twelve 7-m dishes and four 12-m dishes. The ACA is designed for use as a part of the ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter / Submillimeter Array) to provide high fidelity imaging capability for large extended objects. Basic parameters of the array configuration of the ACA were selected based on the analysis of the sensitivity in uv plane for mosaicing observations with the ACA and the ALMA. For detailed design of the sub-array with 7-m dishes (7-m Array), we adopted the compact spiral concept, which realizes higher uv response at the short uv spacings and better sidelobe performance. To satisfy the sky coverage requirement, the north-south elongation is needed. The 7-m Array was designed to have two configurations, one (Inner Array) is a compact spiral array with small north-south elongation (~1.1) and the other (NS Array) is a dedicated configuration with large north-south elongation (~1.7). In actual design, inner 6 antenna pads are shared by both configurations because of construction constraints.

l           Morota, T., J. Haruyama, C. Honda, M. Ohtake, Y. Yokota, J. Kimura, T. Matsunaga, Y. Ogawa, N. Hirata, H. Demura, A. Iwasaki, H. Miyamoto, R. Nakamura, Y. Ishihara, and S. Sasaki [2009a], "Ages and Thicknesses of Mare Basalts in Mare Moscoviense: Results from SELENE (KAGUYA) Terrain Camera Data," 40th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, (Lunar and Planetary Science XL), held March 23-27, 2009 in The Woodlands, Texas, id.1280. We investigate ages and thicknesses of mare basalts in Mare Moscoviense, which is in the northern hemisphere of the lunar farside, using high-resolution images and digital terrain models (DTMs) obtained by SELENE Terrain Camera (TC).

Ø          Morota, T., J. Haruyama, C. Honda, M. Ohtake, Y. Yokota, J. Kimura, T. Matsunaga, Y. Ogawa, N. Hirata, H. Demura, A. Iwasaki, H. Miyamoto, R. Nakamura, H. Takeda, Y. Ishihara, and S. Sasaki [2009b], "Mare Volcanism in the Lunar Farside Moscoviense Region: Implication for Lateral Variation in Magma Production of the Moon," Geophys. Res. Letters, vol.36, CiteID L21202-1-5.

l           Accurate estimates of the duration and volume of extrusive volcanism of the Moon are essential for understanding the lunar thermal evolution. Here, using new high-resolution images obtained by the SELENE Terrain Camera, we determined the thicknesses and ages of basalts in Mare Moscoviense, one of the most prominent mare deposits on the farside. Mare volcanism in Mare Moscoviense was active for at least ~1.5 Ga following the formation of the Moscoviense basin. Mare basalts are estimated to be at least 600 m thick, corresponding to a total volume of 9,500-16,000 km3. The long duration and large volume of extrusive volcanism are plausibly attributed to the thinner crust of the Moscoviense basin relative to those of other farside basins. From a comparison with mare volume within a same-sized nearside basin, we concluded that a magma production in the farside mantle was 3-10 times less than that of the nearside.

Ø          Morota, T., J. Haruyama, M. Ohtake, T. Matsunaga, Y. Yokota, C. Honda, T. Sugihara, J. Kimura, Y. Ishihara, T. Kawamura, A. Iwasaki, K. Saiki, and H. Takeda [2010], "Mare Volcanism on the Farside and in the Oriental Region of the Moon," LPI Contribution No. 1533, p.1309.

l           Dating of lunar mare basalts is necessary for understanding the volcanic history of the Moon. Here we performed new crater counts in mare deposits on the farside and in the Orientale region, using new images obtained by SELENE Terrain Camera.

Ø          Motogi, K., Y. Watanabe, K. Sorai, M. Honma, H. Imai, A. Yamauchi, H. Kobayashi, K. Fujisawa, T. Omodaka, H. Takaba, K. M. Shibata, T. Minamidani, K. Wakamatsu, H. Sudou, E. Kawai, and Y. Koyama [2008], "Microstructure and Kinematics of H2O Masers in the Massive Star Forming Region IRAS 06061+2151," Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc., vol.390, pp.523-234.

l           We have made multi-epoch very long baseline interferometer (VLBI) observations of H2O maser emission in the massive star-forming region IRAS 06061+2151 with the Japanese VLBI network (JVN) from 2005 May to 2007 October. The detected maser features are distributed within a 1 x 1 arcsec2 area (2000 x 2000 au2 at the source position) around the ultracompact Hii