**COMMISSION
B : Fields and Waves (November 2004 - October 2007)**

*Edited by Toru Sato*

This
report presents a summary of Japanese contributions, including those of international
collaborations, in the field related to URSI Commission B during the last three
years. It is not intended to be an exhaustive survey of all relevant works, but
rather an omnibus of important works around the authors of each section or
subsection. If important contributions in some field are missing, it is due to
the limited knowledge and effort of the editor.

**B1. Scattering and Diffraction **

**1.1 Basic Electromagnetic Fields Analysis **

The problem is to obtain the step response of
a system when its amplitude function is given [Hosono and Hosono, 2004]. Two
conventional methods are (1) factorization method that uses the factorization
of the amplitude function, and (2)_{ } domain method
that uses the Kramers-Kronig relation to get the phase function from the
attenuation function. Both methods are poor as computer algorithms. They
introduced a new algorithm that uses the kramers-Kronig relation extended to
complex frequency domain, and that can easily be carried out by a computer. As
an application, the problem of negative group velocity have been analyzed, and
it is showed that the group velocity of a wave packet is nothing but the phase
velocity of the enbelope.

Gaussian pulse has no beginning point, so has no

(T. Yamasaki)

**1.2 Periodic
Array Structures **

Ozaki *et
al. *[2007] proposes a new technique for the scattering problems of
multilayered in-homogeneous columnar dielectric gratings loaded rectangular
dielectric constant both TM and TE waves using the combination of improved Fourier
series expansion method, the multilayer method, and the eigenvalue matrix
method. Numerical results are given for the power transmis-sion coefficients in
the parameters of rectangular cylinders to obtain the basic characteristic of
the power transmission coefficients and reflection coefficients switching or
frequency selective devices for both TM and TE waves. The influence of the
incident angle and frequency of the transmitted power are also discussed in the
connection with the propagation constant in the free mode.

Yamasaki
*et al. *[2005] proposes a new method for the electromagnetic fields with
inhomogeneous media mixed a positive and negative regions by the combination of
improved Fourier series expansion method using the extrapolation method which
obtains the correct value of the eigen-value and eigenvectores for the case of
TM wave. Numerical results are given for the power reflection and transmission
coefficient, the energy absorption, the electromagnetic fields, and the power
flow in the inhomogeneous medium mixed the positive and negative regions
including the case when the permittivity profiles touches zero for the TM wave.
The results of the proposed method are in good agreement with exact solution
which is obtained the modified multilayer approximation method.

The scattering from a periodic array of elliptical cylinders with
coated circular shaped dielectric body has been analyzed by moment method
together with lattice sums technique [Sesay and Yokota, 2007]. This coated
material can act as a wavelength selection surface and can be apply in the
design of transmitting narrow band filters. We can also conclude that the
variation in the relative permittivity of the coated cylinder strongly
influence the resonance scattering characteristic, reflection and transmission
properties of the periodic structure.

The scattering of an electromagnetic wave from the periodic array of
the dielectric cylinder has been examined numerically [Yokota *et al.*,
2007]. The reflection and transmission properties have been shown.

(T. Yamasaki and
M. Yokota)

**1.3 Cavity Structures **

The
plane wave diffraction by a terminated, semi-infinite parallel-plate waveguide
with four-layer material loading is rigorously analyzed by the Wiener-Hopf
technique [Shang and Kobayashi, 2007]. Exact and approximate solutions are
obtained. The scattered field inside and outside the waveguide is evaluated
explicitly. Numerical results on the radar cross section are presented and the
far field backscattering characteristics are discussed.

Two
canonical cavities formed by a semi-infinite parallel-plate waveguide and a
finite parallel-plate waveguide are considered, and the problem of plane wave
diffraction is analyzed rigorously by using the Wiener-Hopf technique
[Kobayashi and Koshikawa, 2006]. Numerical examples on the radar cross section
are presented, and the far field backscattering characteristics are discussed.

The problem of axial symmetric
scattering inside a circular waveguide with an interior planar termination is
rigorously analyzed by using the Wiener-Hopf technique [Kuryliak *et al.*,
2005]. The scattered field inside and outside the waveguide is evaluated
analytically. Numerical examples on the far field pattern are presented, and
the radiation characteristics of the waveguide are discussed.

Electromagnetic scattering from
conducting polygons is studied [Ohnuki and Hinata, 2005a]. Tehir computational
technique can perform precise EM simulation and the radar cross sections for
various shapes and sizes of targets maintain more than eight-digit accuracy in
double precision.

Radar cross sections of
conducting polygons are investigated by using the point matching method [Ohnuki
*et al.*, 2006]. Computational results are highly accurate in order to
study the scattered waves from the shadow region. The proposed method will
clarify the contribution of the waves to the far field in terms of the size of
the scatterer and the incident polarization.

(K. Kobayashi and T. Yamasaki)

**1.4 Canonical
Structures **

The
plane wave diffraction by a semi-infinite parallel-plate waveguide with
sinusoidal wall corrugation is analyzed by means of the Wiener-Hopf technique
together with the use of a perturbation scheme [Zheng and Kobayashi, 2007]. The
scattered field inside and outside the waveguide is evaluated analytically. The
final solution is valid for the corrugation amplitude small compared with the
wavelength.

The
E-polarized plane wave diffraction by a finite parallel-plate waveguide with
three-layer material loading is rigorously analyzed by means of the Wiener-Hopf
technique [Zheng and Kobayashi, 2006]. The scattered field inside and outside
the waveguide is explicitly derived. Numerical examples on the radar cross
section are presented, and the far field scattering characteristics of the
waveguide are discussed. Also, the diffraction by a finite parallel-plate
waveguide with three-layer material loading is rigorously analyzed using the
Wiener-Hopf technique for the H-polarized plane wave incidence [Shang and
Kobayashi, 2006].

The
SH elastic wave diffraction by a finite crack located at the plane interface
between two dissimilar materials is analyzed for the plane wave incidence by
means of the Wiener-Hopf technique [Voytko, *et al.*, 2006]. Exact and
asymptotic solutions are obtained. The scattered far field is evaluated
asymptotically using the saddle point method. Numerical results on the
diffracted pattern are presented for broad frequency range, and the far field
scattering characteristics are discussed.

(K. Kobayashi)

**B2. Inverse Scattering **

UWB (ultra-wideband) pulse radar is a
promising candidate for environment measurement in robotics. Radar imaging for
nearby targets is an fill-posed inverse problemf, on which vari-ous studies
have been undertaken. Conventional algorithms require too much computational
time for ready application to real-time tasks in robotics. Sakamoto [2007a]
developed the SEABED algorithm to resolve this problem, which is based on a
reversible transform IBST (Inverse Boundary Scattering Transform) between real
and data spaces. The effectiveness of the SEABED algorithm was investigated
only with numerical simulations. Sakamoto *et al. *[2005a, 2005b] applied
the SEABED algorithm to experimental data and confirmed its fast imaging
capability. Experimental data contains noise, and images estimated by the
SEABED algorithm in a noisy environment are degraded because the IBST uses
differential operations that is sensitive to noise.

Sakamoto
and Sato[2006a], and Sakamoto[2007b] expanded the IBST to FIBST (Fractional
IBST). The FIBST enables us deal with the intermediate space between the real
and data spaces, and data in the intermediate space is guaranteed to be smooth
regardless of the target shape. Furthermore, Sakamoto and Sato[2006b] expanded
the FIBST to 3-D FIBST to apply to 3-Dimaging. And then, Sakamoto *et al.*[2006]
analytically clarified the theoretical limit of the smoothness in the data
space. This theoretical limit can be used to prevent image distortion of the
SEABED by adaptively changing the correlation length of a smoothing function.
Kidera *et al.*[2006a, 2007a, 2007b] proposed an derivative-free imaging
algorithm, Enverope, that is robust for noisy data. This method estimate target
image by using enverope of multiple circles whose center is at antenna position
and radius corresponds to delay time. Kidera *et al.*[2007c] expand the
Enverope algorithm to 3-dimensional case

The
SEABED algorithm works quickly, but its image has a certain error because the
scattered waveform is different from the transmitted one depending on the shape
of targets. These differences cause estimation errors in the SEABED method.
Kidera *et al.*[2005, 2006b] pro-posed a waveform compensation method with
an integral of Greenfs function along the ray path. By using this method, the
accuracy of the SEABED was improved to about 0.01 wave-length with a mono-cycle
pulse waveform. Kidera *et al.*[2007d, 2007e] introduced this accurate
technique to the Enverope algorithm and confirmed its quick and accurate
imaging capability with numerical simulations and experiments. However, for the
application of this method to 3-dimensional problem, the calculation time
cannot be neglected. Kidera *et al. *[2007f] simplified this waveform
compensation method by using the spectrum shape of the scattered waveform, and
realize robust 3-dimensional imaging with 3-D Enverope algorithm.

The
conventional SEABED algorithm and the Enverope algorithm require antenna
scanning that takes long time, and spoil the fast processing of the algorithm
itself. Kidera *et al.*[2006c, 2007g] investigated the UWB radar imaging
with linear antenna array, which does not need antenna scanning. They used RF
switches to arbitrarily select a pair of transmit and receive antennas, and
realized quick 3-dimensional radar imaging. Sakamoto and Sato[2007a] introduced
spread spectrum signals to realize code-division multiple transmission for UWB
radar imaging, which does not need RF switches. And they found a sub-optimum
code set for the system. By using the proposed code set, the direct waves
without scattering cancel one another and the signal-to-interference ratio was
improved. Sakamoto and Sato[2007b] proposed a method for UWB imaging of human
bodies by using walking motion instead of antenna scanning. This method was
developed by expanding the conventional SEABED algorithm, and does not need
antenna scanning only with a pair of antennas to obtain cross-section image of
a human body. This technique can be applied for security systems.

Orbit
estimation of space debris, which is unnecessary objects orbiting around the
earth, is an important task in avoiding the collision with spacecrafts. *et al. *[2006] proposed fast
algorithms for signal detection and orbit estimation for faint radar echoes
from space debris by utilizing the characteristic of the motion of space
debris.

Ishida
and Tateiba [2005] introduced a T-matrix expression of the scattered wave and
expressed the equivalent current in terms of orthonormal basis functions. Using
the expressions, they have formulated the inverse scattering problem of
reconstructing a two dimensional object. As a result, we can directly connect
the noise-removed scattered waves to the measured equivalent current. They
proposed an iterative algorithm that the object and the unmeasured equivalent
current are updated by decreasingthe cost functional in the least square
approximation. The algorithm avoids employing a nonlinear optimization
algorithm, solving the direct scattering problem, and using a special
additional regularization. Numerical examples show that the algorithm works
well under noisy conditions.

An
algorithm for reconstructing a dielectric cylinder is formulated and discussed
through numerical examples [Ishida and Tateiba, 2005]. An extended T-matrix is
introduced in order to remove ineffective data of scattered waves and to
explicitly separate the measured and the un-measured elements related to the
equivalent currents. The object and the unmeasured elements are obtained by
solving two linear equations repeatedly. The algorithm avoids employing a
nonlinear optimization algorithm, solving the direct scattering problem, and
using a special additional regularization. Numerical examples show that the
algorithm works well under noisy conditions, and gives a good profile for a
high-contrast object by use of multifrequency scattering data.

(T. Sakamoto and K. Ishida)

**B3. Computational Techniques **

**3.1 Finite-Difference and Finite-Element
Methods **

Finite-element methods have been applied to
designing photonic devices based on linear and/or nonlinear photonic crystal
waveguides [*et al.*, 2005b], nonlinear slot
waveguides [*et al.*,
2006a]. Acurvilinear triangular-prism element has been developed for
computation of band structures in a photonic crystal slab [Hirayama, K. *et
al.*, 2006]. An efficient frequency-dependent finite-element time-domain
method for the analysis of dispersive media has been presented
[Rodriguez-Esquerre, V.F. *et al.*, 2005a].

(M. Koshiba)

**3.2 Integral Equation Methods **

Singular volume integral equations
describing the electromagnetic wave scattering in three-dimensional bounded
inhomogeneous media are considered [Budko *et al.*, 2007]. The problem of
finding the spectrum of these operators has been analyzed for the low-frequency
case. A closed-form expression describing the spectrum in the complex plane is
obtained. Numerical results on the convergence of the proposed method are also
presented.

Three
mathematical models based on approximate surface integral equations for the
electromagnetic analysis of scalar wave scattering from thin extended target
are considered [Nazarchuk and Kobayashi, 2005]. Such models include different
systems of the second kind singular integral equations determined by the target
media. Verification of the mathematical models and their comparison are performed
in the case of a penetrable cylindrical shell in homogeneous non-magnetic
media.

Nakashima
and Tateiba [2005] describe an estimation of the computational and memory
complexities of Greengard-Rokhlinfs Fast Multipole Algorithm (GRFMA). GRFMA
takes a quad tree structure and six calculation processes. They consider a
perfect a-ary tree structure and the number of floating-point operations for
each calculation process. The estimation for both complexities shows that the perfect
quad tree is the best and the perfect binary tree is the worst. When GRFMA is
applied to the computation of realistic problems, volume scattering are the
best case and surface scattering are the worst case. In the worst case, the
computational and memory complexities of GRFMA are and, , respectively. The computational complexity of GRFMA is
higher than that of the multilevel fast multipole algorithm.

A

The scattering of a Gaussian beam by a
dielectric cylinder has been analyzed by the moment method combined with the
multigrid method [Yokota, 2004]. It has been shown that the modified multigrid method has a little
advantage to the conventional one. The effect of the reduction of the CPU time
for the multigrid method appears as the number of unknowns is large. It has
also been shown that the scattered light is concentrated near the optical axis
by using the dielectric cylinder with a smaller curvature [Aoyama and YokotaC 2006] .

The scattering of a two-dimensional Gaussian
beam by arbitrary configuration dielectric cylinders has been considered and
the effectiveness of the multigrid-moment method has been shown from the
residual norm and the CPU time viewpoints [Yokota and Aoyama, 2007]. It has
been seen that the convergence speed is improved in comparison with that
obtained by conventional method.

(K. Kobayashi, N. Nakashima and M. Yokota)

**3.3 Modal
Expansion Methods **

Ohnuki and
Chew [2005] focused on the truncation error of the multipole expansion for the
fast multipole method and the multilevel fast multipole algorithm. When the
buffer size is large enough, the error can be controlled and minimized by using
the conventional selection rules. On the other hand, if the buffer size is
small, the conventional selection rules do not hold anymore, and the new
approach which have recently been proposed is needed. However, this method is
still not sufficient to minimize the error for small buffer cases. The
technique clarifies this fact and show that the information about the placement
of true worst-case interaction is needed. A novel algorithm to minimize the
truncation error is proposed.

The computational error of the multilevel fast
multipole algorithm is studied [Ohnuki and Chew, 2006]. The error convergence
rate, achievable minimum error, and error bound are investigated for various
element distributions. They discuss the boundary between the large and small buffer
cases in terms of machine precision. The needed buffer size to reach double
precision accuracy is clarified.

(T. Yamasaki)

**B4. High Frequency Technique **

The approximation principle of Physical
Optics (PO) has been reviewed in view of diffraction theory [Ando, 2005]. Two
key error factors are identified for *et al.*, 2004].
EYE function used as the weighting is determined so as not to disturb the
cancellation effects while retain the enough resolution. The visualization
demonstrated local property of the HF phenomena and defects associated with the
ray techniques. The PO visualization even suggests the ways out of *et al.*, 2004] includes visualization of slot array
with the finite ground plane.

The *et
al.*, 2005] is the concept to be used in the line integral approximation for
computing the surface radiation integrals of diffraction. The MER as applied to
the physical optics (PO-MER), has remarkable accuracy in the surface-to-line
integral reduction even for the curved surfaces and for sources very close to
the scatterer. The unique concept of the modified edge representation (MER) was
proposed for the surface to the line integral reduction of the physical optic (*et al.*, 2007]. The equivalence
between the MER line and the

The
Modified Edge Representation (MER) line integration was introduced in [Rodriguez
*et al.*, 2005] and [Rodriguez *et al.*, 2007] as an alternative
methodology, for the physical optics (

Locality
in high frequency diffraction is embodied in the Method of Moments (MoM) in
view of the method of stationary phase. In [Shijo *et al.*, 2005],
local-domain basis functions accompanied with the phase detour, which are not
entire domain but are much larger than the segment length in the usual MoM, are
newly introduced to enhance the cancellation of mutual coupling over the
local-domain; the off-diagonal elements in resultant reaction matrix evanesce rapidly.
The Fresnel zone threshold is proposed for simple and effective truncation of
the ma-trix into the sparse band matrix. Numerical examples for the 2-D strip
and the 2-Dcorner reflector demonstrate the feasibility as well as difficulties
of the concept; the way mitigating computational load of the MoM in high
frequency problems is suggested.

Target
reconstruction algorithm from its monostatic radar cross section (RCS) has been
proposed for polygonal cylinders with curved surfaces [Shirai *et al.*,
2005]. This algorithm is based on their previous finding that the main
contribution to the back scattering is due to edge diffracted fields excited at
a facet of nearly specular reflection direction. Dimension of this constitutive
facet of the target is estimated from the local maxima and its lobe width in
the angular RCS variation. Half and quarter circular cylinders are used as
canonical scattering objects, and their measured and numerically simulated
monostatic RCS values have been studied extensively to find scattering pattern
characteristic difference between flat and circularly curved surfaces. Thus
estimated constitutive facets are connected in order, and this procedure will
be continued until the distance between the first and the final edges would be minimized.
Their algorithm has been tested for other targets, and it is found that it
works well for predicting metal convex targets with flat and curved facets. A
simple target reconstruction algorithm is also proposed for cylindrical metal
scatterers using monostatic RCS data in the time domain as well as in the
frequency domain. By using the time domain RCS response at the local frequency
maxima at possible specular reflection angle, the locations of the facets can
be estimated by measuring the wavefront arrival time difference from the
scattering center [Shiarai and Hiramatsu, 2005].

The
radio propagation characteristics for line-of-sight (LOS) inter-vehicle
communication (IVC) at 60 GHz on an actual road with an undulating surface have
been investigated in [Amornthipparat *et al.*, 2006] and [Yamamoto *et
al.*, 2007a]. Radio propagation tests between two moving vehicles were
carried out on a test course. From this, it was found that the measured
received power on the actual road and the results calculated for a flat road
approximately follow logarithmic normal distributions. To investigate this
phenomenon in detail, a propagation test between two stationary vehicles on a
road was performed. Furthermore, calculations using geometrical optics taking
road undulation into consideration demonstrated that undulation in the road can
cause variations in the received power that follow a logarithmic normal
distribution. The received power for moving vehicles on an undulating road was
also calculated using the model. In [Yamamoto *et al.*, 2007b], the
authors also applied a ray-tracing method to estimation of the received power
when there was a blocking vehicle between communicating vehicles. The uniform
theory of diffraction (UTD) technique was used for the calculation of waves
propagating through the intermediate vehicles. In comparison with measured
data, the propagation path model is capable of accurately representing the
received power in a non line-of-sight (NLOS) situation with an obstructing
vehicle.

For
indoor multihop-or relaying-based wireless systems, it is important to
comprehend the complex propagation mechanisms, and, hence, a high speed
propagation estimation method is required. Indoor electromagnetic wave
propagation through dielectric walls is analyzed using a ray tracing method,
which is based on a high frequency ray launching or SBR (shooting and bouncing
ray) technique. In the previous SBR analysis for indoor environment with many
walls [Sato *et al.*, 2005a], three fundamental GO components, direct,
reflected and transmitted rays, have been considered. However, the contribution
of multiple reflections inside the wall has not been included in the study. To
derive the multiple reflections representation analytically, the Greenfs
function problem for a line source in the presence of a dielectric slab is
considered, and the asymptotic Greenfs function representation for each ray is
obtained using the collective ray approximation [Sato *et al.*, 2005b].
Taking into account the derived complementary terms for the multiple
reflections inside the slab, an accurate numerical result for a simple indoor
model is obtained. In comparison with the FDTD result, the validity of this SBR
solution with multiple reflections is confirmed.

In
the ray-launching procedure, the complex refraction angle must be replaced real
shooting angle, when one needs to calculate the transmitted ray through such
high lossy wall [Sato *et al.*, 2006a]. However, it is not clear how one
determines the appropriate real shooting direction inside the wall when the
refracted angle becomes complex. In order to make this question clear, authors
considered how to determine the appropriate real refracted angle by comparing
the numerical ray-launching solution with an analytical reference one. Here, as
the reference field representation, the asymptotic solution for the Greenfs
function problem in the presence of lossy dielectric slab is utilized, where
the contribution of the complex transmission coefficient for the high lossy
slab is also taken into account in the reference one. Discussion on the
accuracy of the transmitted ray through the lossy wall (slab) will be done not
only for two dimensional problem but also for simplified three dimensional one
[Sato *et al.*, 2006b]. The field interaction between multiple scattered
rays and the edge diffracted rays are also analyzed and included to fill the
field map [Otoi *et al.*, 2006]. The authors applied an accuracy
improvement to the ray-launching solution by making the path length inside the
wall slightly longer [Sato and Shirai, 2007a]. By this simple improvement, one
can easily compensate for the shortage of the internal attenuation in the
ray-launching approximation [Sato and Shirai, 2007b]. The validity of the
improvement is confirmed by some numerical experiments.

When
a cylindrically curved concave conducting surface is terminated abruptly at the
edge, the whispering gallery (WG) mode propagating toward the edge direction is
radiated into the free space from the aperture plane at the edge as is
scattered by the edge [Goto and Ishihara,2005], [Ishihara *et al.*, 2006].
The uniform asymptotic solution for the WG mode radiation field applicable
uniformly in the transition region near the geometrical boundaries has been
derived in [Ishihara *et al.*, 2006], [Ajiki *et al.*, 2006a], and
[Goto *et al.*, 2007a]. The uniform solution is represented by the
summation of the geometrical ray solution converted from the modal ray of the
WG mode and the uniform edge diffracted ray solution scattered at the edge
[Ajiki *et al.*, 2006b], [Goto *et al.*, 2007a]. Also derived are the
uniform asymptotic solutions for the scattered fields by a thin cylindrically
curved conducting surface applicable near the geo-metrical boundaries produced
by the incident waves (or rays) and near the cylindrically curved surface [Goto
*et al.*, 2004]. The theories have been extended to the transient
scattered fields by various complex objects [Goto *et al.*, 2006a], [Goto *et
al.*, 2006b].The time-domain uniform asymptotic solution (TD-UAS) [Goto *et
al.*, 2006c] for the transient scattered field excited by the high-frequency
(HF) pulse wave have been derived in [Goto *et al.*, 2007b] and [Goto *et
al.*, 2007c]. The TD-UAS is composed of the geometrical rays (GO), the edge
diffracted (ED) rays, the surface diffracted (SD) rays, and the lowest order
whispering gallery (WG) mode radiation field. The validity of the TD-UAS has
been confirmed by comparing both with the hybrid experimental-numerical results
obtained by using the frequency-domain (FD) experimental results measured in an
anechoic chamber and the numerical code for the fast Fourier transform (FFT)
and with the purely numerical reference solution.

The
applicable range of the GTD in the asymptotic analysis of the scattered field
by an aperture in a thin screen have been reexamined in [Kawano and Ishihara,
2004a]. It is clarified analytically the reason why the geometrical optics
field disappears at the far field in the illuminated region. The authors have
derived the criterion for applying the GTD. The theory is extended to analyze
the scattered fields by a conducting strip whose width is sufficiently larger
than the wavelength of an incident wave [Kawano and Ishihara, 2004b]. Two
versions of the GTD solutions are derived analytically, one of which contains
the geometrically reflected ray (the first version) and the other does not
contain the reflected ray term (the second version). Without applying the
gtrickh introduced in the Kellerfs GTD, the reason why the geometrical ray term
is disappeared in the second version of the GTD is clarified. Also derived is
the novel criterion for applying the GTD.

The
high-frequency uniform asymptotic analysis methods are applied also for
scattered fields by the circular cylinders and the dielectric plane boundary.
Novel uniform asymptotic solutions(UTD) for the scattered fields by an
impedance cylinder and a dielectric cylinder with a radius of curvature
sufficiently larger than the wavelength, are presented in [Ida *et al.*,
2004], [Ida *et al.*, 2005a], and [Ida *et al.*, 2005b]. The
frequency-domain novel extended UTD and the modified UTD solutions, derived by
retaining the higher-order terms in the integrals for the scattered fields, may
be applied in the deep shadow region in which the conventional UTD solutions
produce the substantial errors. The novel time-domain uniform asymptotic
solutions are derived by applying the saddle point technique in evaluating the
inverse Fourier transform. The accuracy of the uniform asymptotic solutions
both in the frequency-domain and in the time-domain has been confirmed by
comparing those solutions with the reference solutions calculated from the
eigenfunction expansion and fast Fourier transform(FFT) method (time-domain).
Also, the new uniform asymptotic solution, which uses the parabolic cylinder
functions, for the Gaussian beam scattered at the plane dielectric interface
has been derived[Yamada *et al.*, 2007]. It is shown that the asymptotic
solution agrees very well with the reference solution calculated numerically.
Also shown is the Goos-Hänchen shift appeared for the beam angle close to the
critical angle.

The
new solutions for the medium-frequency and the high-frequency ground wave
propagation in a surface duct over mixed-paths have been derived in [Kawano and
Ishihara, 2005], [Kawano and Ishihara, 2006a], [Kawano and Ishihara, 2006b],
and [Kawano *et al.*, 2007a]. It is shown newly that the solution for the
ground wave propagation in a standard atmosphere can be obtained directly from
the solution for the surface duct problem by applying the analytic continuation
from the negative equivalent radius of curvature of the earth to the positive
one. Through the theoretical and experimental studies, it is confirmed that the
radio wave propagating over the sea in the land-to-sea mixed-paths is enhanced
by the recovery effect [Kawano *et al.*, 2006a]. It is clarified that the
ground wave is also enhanced in the surface duct in a long range
propagation[Kawano *et al.*, 2007b]. It is shown that the unexpected
attenuation and the anomalous variation with distance are appeared in the
propagation in the urban area due to the emergence of the slow-wave type
trapped surface wave[Kawano *et al.*, 2006b], [Kawano *et al.*,
2007c].

Propagation
mechanisms which degrade the performance of mobile communication system in
urban areas are basically wall reflections, building edges and roof
diffractions. From the experiment results, the scattering from some objects in
the environment can have strong impact on the urban propagation channel.
Careful analysis of these results reveals that these scattered objects, which
can be any surrounding metallic object, such as signboards, street lights,
traffic lights and traffic signs, are involved in scattering transmitted
signals to the receiver. Physical optics (*et al.*, 2006]. The simulation results showed good
agreement with the experimental results and in the same manner, the

In
the study in [Lertsirisopon *et al.*, 2006], to represent the data
structures of scatterers, polygon meshes are used to model scatterer
constructions including 2 dimensional (2D) and 3 dimensional (3D) geometrical
objects. Polygon meshes represented by regular triangles can be easily
generated by using intrinsic functions in MATLAB for 2D cases. For 3D cases, a
mapping first of the 3D object to a 2D object is necessary to be able to use
the MATLAB intrinsic functions. Then, the corresponding height is put back to
the meshed 2D object to obtain the meshed 3D object. Using this gPolygon Meshed
POh method, the complex calculation of the induced current to examine the
scattered field can also be simplified by summing the contribution on each
triangle mesh. By defining the polygon mesh ratio as the ratio of the average
triangle area to the square of the wavelength, the convergence of the simulated
scattered field can be found. This simulation program will then be used to
evaluate scattering objects that cause significant amount of scattering in the
wireless communication environment specifically from previously mentioned
objects in an urban propagation channel. By utilizing the size and shape of
these surrounding metallic objects, and parameters used in the experiments, the
scattered fields can be calculated and compared with experimental results to
help verify observations in the experiments. In addition, this simulation tool
can give us an idea on the amount of scattered fields caused by both regular
and irregular shaped objects in certain scenarios. Knowing these scattering
characteristics can help better explain the effects of surrounding objects on
the propagation channel.

The
high-frequency Physical Optics (PO) technique has been applied in designing the
millimeter-wave system. Passive millimeter-wave (PMMW) imaging systems are now spreading
to various applications such as security, intelligent transport systems (ITS),
and military uses, giving a key advantage. However, conventional systems are
very large because they require large antennas in an arrayed configuration. In
order to realize commercially usable imaging array systems, miniaturizing
antennas are essential. In the paper [Sato *et al.*, 2007], authors
demonstrate their developed tapered slot antenna with its slot profile defined
by the Fermi-Dirac function (Fermi antenna) for 94 GHz band PMMW imaging. The
portion of this antenna has been designed by applying the

With the recent
development of fast algorithms, the difference in capability between
high-frequency techniques and numerical techniques becomes smaller. Therefore,
the advantage of high-frequency techniques is in the much higher frequency
range where fast algorithms still cannot compete due to the lack of current
computational resources. However, the drive to-ward higher frequencies gives
rise to another difficulty in solving the high frequency scattering problem.
Ohnuki *et al. *[2005] clarifies the difficulties to apply conventional
techniques to electromagnetic scattering problems under this condition, and
develops a strategy to solve them in terms of high-frequency approximations.

(T. Ishihara and
T. Yamasaki)

**B5. Transient Fields
**

**5.1 Scattering and
Diffraction **

Transient scattering from parallel plate waveguide cavities is studied
by using the combination of a point matching technique and numerical inversion
of

**5.2 Guided Waves and Propagation **

Kobayashi *et al.*[2004] numerically
analyze the transient response of pulse propagation in a multi-layered printed
circuit board with a via and a bump. FDTD method is used for our models. It is
found from numerical results that; (1) Even if the lengths of the striplines
are equal, pulse waveforms passed through a via and a bump are different
according to the direction of the striplines. (2) The propagating pulses are
influenced by the pad size connecting the bump rather than the bump size. (3)
For the model consisted of a via and a bump pulse distortion of responses are
substantially improved, if the smaller bump part (including pads) can be designed.

It
is of great importance to investigate the influence for the pulse wave
propagation by vias and bumps in multilayer interposer used in SiP
(System-in-a-Package) technology. Kobayashi [2006] analyzed the transient
response of the pulse propagation characteristics of the via structure by using
the FDTD method. The via structure is optimized by peak value of pulse
responses, and the radius of via, the radius of pad, and the radius of
clearance hole are investigated so as to maximize the peak value of pulse
responses. It is found that the pulse width is limited by the radius of via and
the radius of pad.

(T. Yamasaki)

**B6. Wave in
random, inhomogeneous, nonlinear and complex media **

**6.1 Wave propagation and scattering in
random media **

Tateiba *et al. *[2004] shows that
scattering by a body in a random medium consists of the following two issues;
one is scattering of spatially partially coherent wave by the body and the
other is coupling between incident and scattered waves through the random
medium. Investigating separately each issue makes the scattering more
understandable. The numerical analysis of scattered power by conducting
cylinders leads to the radar cross-sections quite different from those in free
space, under the condition that the radar cross-section of the random medium is
negligibly small. The causes of the difference are explained on the basis of
above separation of the scattering, and it is emphasized that the spatial
coherence length of incident wave is one of key parameters for estimating the
cross sections.

Tateiba
[2004] reviews the activity in his laboratory, which are categorized as: (A)
electromagnetic (EM) wave theory with application to sensing, imaging and
material estimate, and (B) high data rate satellite communications systems.
Each research has five subjects and the pa-per addresses four subjects, which
are (A-1) Effective parameters of a medium containing many particles, (A-2)
Radar characteristics of a body surrounded by a random medium, (A-3)
Statistical methods for measuring ocean waves in satellite altimetry, and (B-4)
Atmospheric turbulence effects on high data rate satellite communications. Here
A and B in parentheses indicate above two researches, respectively. To solve
these subjects the author has proposed fundamental and original methods and
thereby obtained many interesting results to scientists and engineers.

Electromagnetic
wave scattering by many particles is treated in Tateiba and Matsuoka [2005]
based on the method of analysis (DUR method) proposed by one of the authors and
compared with conventional methods. It is explained that electromagnetic wave
scattering can be treated systematically by the DUR method for the cases
ranging from a periodic distribution of particles to a random distribution, and
that the condition can be given when the particle distributions are random from
a coherent field point of view. Next, two application examples of the DUR
method are presented. One is the calculation of the effective permittivity of a
random medium consisting of many dielectric spheres. In contrast to the
calculation by conventional three multiple scattering analysis methods, the
present calculation results can be applied to particles with higher
permittivity and hence the method is the best one at this time. The other
example involves microwave active sensing of the moisture content of soil. It
is shown that the polarization ratio of the incoherent scattered power is
useful for estimation of moisture content in the cases where the moisture
content is more than 5% in the surface layer and where the surface is dry in
the deep layer. Finally, it is pointed out that accurate analysis of
electromagnetic wave scattering in random media is becoming increasingly
important in the development of new materials and new technologies for
high-speed, high-reliability communications and high-precision sensing.

Meng
and Tateiba [2005a] discussed the scattering characteristic of a conducting
circular cylinder embedded in a random medium by changing the scale-size of the
medium. The numerical results of bistatic radar cross-section (RCS) show that
sometimes the scattering enhancement phenomenon may not occur in the backward
direction but in the other directions, where a scattering depression region may
exist in the neighborhood of backward direction and scattering enhancement may
be observed outside the depression region. The region of the enhancement may be
much wider than that of the well known backscattering enhancement, although the
enhancement peak is not so high. The complicated oscillation of bistatic RCS is
considered to be caused by statistical interference of incident and scattered
waves. For all numerical results, the intergral value of the bistatic RCS with
respect to is almost equal
to that in free space, which fact shows that the results agree with the law of
energy conservation.

A new phenomenon of scattering enhancement in a
random medium is discussed by analyzing numerically a bistatic RCS of a
conducting circular cylinder [Meng and Tateiba, 2005b, c]. The results show
that sometimes the scattering enhancement phenomenon may not occur in backward
direction but in the other directions, where a scattering depression region may
exist in the neighborhood of backward direction and scattering enhancement may
be observed outside the depression region. It is found that a radar
cross-section (RCS) of a body embedded in a random medium may be nearly twice
as large as that in free space, under the condition that the body size is smaller
than the spatial coherence length of incident wave [Meng and Tateiba, 2006a,
b]. If the condition does not hold, the RCS may oscillate with the size of the
body and becomes much larger than that in free space in some cases. The paper
shows numerical results of bistatic RCS of a larger size circular cylinder in a
random medium. Complicated oscillation of the RCS is seeen, i.e., enhancement
and depression, in different directions, and discuss the new scattering
characteristics with change in the size of the body in a fixed random medium
for E-wave incidence.

Meng and Tateiba [2007] discussed the scattering
characteristics of a conducting circular cylinder embedded in a random medium
by changing the fluctuation intensity and thickness of the medium. The
numerical results of bistatic radar cross-section show that sometimes the RCS
in the neighborhood of backward direction plays a violent oscillation and
becomes much larger than that in free space. The complicated oscillation of the
RCS is considered to be caused by statistical interference between incident and
scattered waves.

(M. Tateiba
and Z. Q. Meng)

**6.2 Chiral media **

The dispersion relation for a chiral slab
waveguide consisted of the chiral media in the film and cladding has been
examined [Yokota and Yamanaka, 2006]. It has been shown that the cutoff
frequency depends on the chiral parameter and for higher frequency, the
eigenvalue approaches to the different values from the achiral waveguide.

(M. Yokota)

**B7. Guided Waves **

Recent progress on numerical modeling
methods for photonic crystal fibers has been reviewed [Saitoh, K. and M.
Koshiba, 2005d]. Koshiba, M. *et al. *have deeply investigated
characteristics of several types of photonic crystal fibers: holey fibers
[Florous, N.J. and M. Koshiba, 2005a, Florous, N.J. *et al.*, 2006a,
Fujisawa T. *et al.*, 2006, Koshiba, M. and Saitoh, K., 2005, Saitoh, K.
and M. Koshiba, 2005a, Saitoh, K.. *et al.*, 2005b, 2005c, 2005f, 2006a,
2006b, 2006d, 2007c, Tsuchida, Y. *et al.*, 2005, 2007, Varshney, S.K. *et
al.*, 2007c], photonic bandgap fibers [Alam, M.S. *et al.*, 2005,
Murao, T. *et al.*, 2006a, 2006b, 2007, Saitoh, K. *et al.*, 2006c,
2007a], and Bragg fibers [Skorobogatiy, M. *et al.*, 2004]. Various
photonic devices based on photonic crystal fibers [Florous, N.J., 2005b, 2006f,
2006g, 2006h, 2006i, 2007a, 2007b, Morikawa,K. *et al.*, 2006, Saitoh, K. *et
al.*, 2005e, 2007b, Skorobogatiy, M. *et al.*, 2005, 2006a, 2006b,
Varshney, S.K. *et al.*, 2006a], photonic crystal waveguides [Florous, *et
al.*, 2005c, 2005d, 2005e, 2006b, 2006c, 2006d, 2006e, Rodriguez-Esquerre,
V.F. *et al.*, 2005, Yasuda, T. *et al.*, 2005, Yokoi, N. *et al.*,
2006], high index contrast waveguides [Kakihara, K. *et al.*, 2006b], slot
waveguides [Fujisawa, T. and M. Koshiba, 2006d, 2006e, 2006f], magneto-photonic
crystal waveguides [Kono, N. and M. Koshiba, 2007a, Kono, N. *et al.*,
2007b], and metallic nanostructured particles [Florous, N.J. *et al.*,
2007c] have been proposed. Design methods for photonic crystal fiber Raman
amplifiers have been developed [Sasaki, K. *et al.*, 2007, Varshney, S.K. *et
al.*, 2005a, 2005b, 2006b, 2006c, 2007a, 2007b]. Fundamental characteristics
of localized acoustic modes in photonic crystal fibers have been invesrigated
[Enomori, I. *et al.*, 2005].

(M. Koshiba)

**B8. Antennas **

**8.1 Antenna Elements **

Takano and Thumvichit [2004], and
Thumvichit *et al.*[2006] developed ULPD (Ultra Low Pro-file Dipole
Antenna) with a simplified feeding structure and a parasitic element. The
con-cerns of ULPD antenna are the feeding method and the impedance matching,
because the input impedance usually tends to be lowered by the existence of a
metallic structure in its proximity. The proposed antenna has an excellent
impedance matching and a coaxial feed built within the antenna structure so
that the external matching and a balun are not required. They also ver-ified
its characteristics via experiment and numerical computations [Thumvichit *et
al.*, 2004, Thumvichit *et al.*, 2007]. Imura *et al. *[2006]
examined excitation of dipole mode in asymmet-rical ULPD antenna.

**8.2 Arrays and Phased Arrays **

A gigantic antenna aboard a Space Solar
Power System (SSPS) satellite, or a space-tenna is one of the most challenging
devices to build. Takano [2006, 2007] describes the two kinds of huge antennas
used in this system: An antenna aboard a satellite or a spacetenna, and an
antenna on the ground or a rectenna. Takano [2004], Takano *et al. *[2004b],
and Takano *et al. *[2006a] examine the requirements for a space-tenna
from a SSPS, and system considerations for the configuration of space-tennas.
Three kinds of configurations are presented and compared from the viewpoint of
their realization. Sugawara *et al. *[2005] discussed construction method
and analyzed radiation characteristics of an ultra-large array antenna for
microwave power trans-mission. Takano *et al. *[2006a, b, c] consider
constitution of ultra-large power transmission antennas with positive
application of coupling between elements.

Takano
*et al. *[2004a, 2005a], Okumura *et al. *[2006], and Radenamad *et
al. *[2006] proposed the design to reduce the number of the fed elements
using parasitic elements in an array antenna. They also studied gain
enhancement of an array antenna using coupling optimization between elements
[Takano *et al.*, 2005b].

In *et al. *[2007a, b]
describes the objectives, technical problems, organizations and schedule of the
project, and propose cost reduction and usage convenience.

**8.3 Reflector and Lens Antennas **

Takano *et al. *[2004c] describes a large
deployable antenna which is used at L-, C-, and Ka-bands on an artificial
satellite in space. The main reflector with 10-m maximum diameter is formed
using the tensioned truss concept which was proposed by one of the authors.
Hanayama *et al. *[2004] examines characteristics of the antenna on HALCA
satellite in orbit.

DECi-hertz
Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory (DECIGO) is the future Japanese
space gravitational wave antenna [Kawamura *et al.*, 2006]. It aims at
detecting various kinds of gravitational waves between 1 mHz and 100 Hz
frequently enough to open a new window of observation for gravitational wave
astronomy. The preconceptual design of DECIGO consists of three drag-free
satellites, 1000 km apart from each other, whose relative displacements are
measured by a Fabry-Perot Michelson interferometer.

The
high performance antenna at light wave frequency requires optimal curved
surfaces and high mechanical precision to acquire high aperture efficiency.
Munemasa *et al. *[2005, 2006a, b, 2007a, b], and Takano *et al. *[2006d]
developed a novel micro lightwave antenna by applying MEMS (Micro Electro
Mechanical Systems) technology. The papers describe the antenna of transparent
type which has a multi-level step structure with diameter of 4 mm.

In
the Journal of the Japan Society of Infrared Science and Technologies which has
strong activities in science, the special issue has been organized concerning
information communications which is quite an engineering topic aiming at systems
and services. Takano [2004] explains photonic technologies to support the
lightwave wireless communications.

(T. Takano)

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3764-3767,

Kawano T., K. Goto,
and T. Ishihara [2007c], gGround Wave Propagation on Mixed-Paths through Urban
Areas,h Proc. the 2007 International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation
(ISAP2007), 2D1-3, pp. 450-453,

Kidera, S., T.
Sakamoto, and T. Sato [2005], gA High-resolution Imaging Algorithm Based on
Scattered Waveform Estimation for UWB Pulse Radar Systems,h Proc. 2005 IEEE
International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, pp.1725-1728

Kidera, S., T.
Sakamoto, and T. Sato [2006a], gA Robust and Fast Imaging Algorithm with an
Envelope of Circles for UWB Pulse Radars,h Progress in Electromagnetics
Research Symposium (PIERS)

Kidera, S., T.
Sakamoto,

Kidera, S., T.
Sakamoto, and T. Sato [2006c], gA High-resolution 3-D Imaging Algorithm with
Linear Array Antennas for UWB Pulse Radar Systems,h IEEE AP-S International
Symposium, USNC/URSI National Radio Science Meeting, AMEREM Meeting,
pp.1057-1060

Kidera, S., T.
Sakamoto, and T. Sato [2007a], gA robust and fast imaging algorithm with an
envelope of circles for UWB pulse radars,h IEICE Trans. on Commun., vol.E90-B,
no.7, pp.1801-1809

Kidera, S., T.
Sakamoto, and T. Sato [2007b], gA Robust and Fast Imaging Algorithm without
derivative operations for UWB Pulse Radars,h European Conference on Antennas
& Propagation (EuCAP) 2006, paper no.314368

Kidera, S., T.
Sakamoto, and T. Sato [2007c], gA robust and fast 3-Dimaging algorithm without
derivative operations for UWB radars,h URSI EMTS International URSI Commission
B Electromagnetic Theory Symposium, paper no. EMTS084

Kidera, S., T.
Sakamoto, and T. Sato [2007d], gA High-resolution Imaging Algorithm without
Derivatives based on Waveform Estimation for UWB Pulse Radars,h IEEE AP-S
International Symposium

Kidera, S., T.
Sakamoto, and T. Sato [2007e], gA high-resolution imaging algorithm with-out
derivatives based on waveform estimation for UWB radars,h IEICE Trans. on
Commun., vol.E90-B, no.6, pp.1487-1494

Kidera, S., T.
Sakamoto, and T. Sato [2007f], gFast and high-resolution 3-Dimaging algorithm
with spectrum shift for UWB pulse radars,h European Conference on Antennas
& Propagation (EuCAP)

Kidera, S., Y.
Kani, T. Sakamoto, and T. Sato [2007g], gAn experimental study for a
high-resolution 3-Dimaging algorithm with linear array for UWB radars,h 2007
IEEE International Conference on Ultra-Wide Band (ICUWB2007)

Kobayashi, D.
[2006], gAn Effect on Pulse Propagation Characteristics of a Via Struntures in
Multilayer Printed Circuit,h IEEJ Trans. FM, vol. 126, no. 10, pp. 990-996

Kobayashi, D.,
S. Furukawa, and T. Hinata [2004], gPulse Propagation Characteristics of a
Multi-layered Printed Circuit Board with a Via and a Bump,h IEEJ Trans. FM,
vol. 124, no. 12, pp. 1154-1158

Kobayashi, K.,
and S. Koshikawa [2006], gWiener-Hopf analysis of the radar cross section of
two canonical, parallel-plate waveguide cavities with material loading,h Proc.
IVth International Workshop on Electromagnetic Wave Scattering (EWS 2006), pp.
2.25-2.30 (invited paper)

Kono N., and M.
Koshiba [2005a], gGeneral finite-element modeling of 2-D magnetophotonic
crystal waveguides,h IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 17, 7, pp.
1432-1434

Kono N. and M. Koshiba [2005b],
gThree-dimensional finite element analysis of nonreciprocal phase shifts in
magneto-photonic crystal waveguides,h Optics Express, vol. 13, 23, pp.
9155-9166

Kono N. and M. Koshiba [2007a],
gMagneto-photonic crystal slab waveguides with lower-refractive-index-silica
claddings,h IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 19, 5, pp. 258-260

Kono N., K. Kakihara, K. Saitoh, and M.
Koshiba [2007b], gNonreciprocal microresonators for the miniaturization of
optical waveguide isolators,h Optics Express, vol. 15, 12, pp. 7737-7751

Koshiba M. and
Saitoh, K. [2005], gSimple evaluation of confinement losses in holey fibers,h
Optics Communications, vol. 253, 1-3, pp. 95-98

Kuryliak, D. B.,
K. Kobayashi, S. Koshikawa, and Z. T. Nazarchuk [2005], gWiener-Hopf analysis
of the diffraction by a circular waveguide cavity,h Journal of the

Lertsirisopon,
N., M. Ghoraishi, G. S. Ching, and J. Takada,[2006], gA Study of Scattering
Characteristics using Polygon Meshed PO,h 2006 Progress in Electromagnetics
Research Symposium (PIERS 2006), p.142, (Tokyo, Japan).

Meng, Z. Q. and
M. Tateiba [2005a], gA New Scattering Enhancement in a Random Medium for H-wave
Incidence,h Proc. 2005 Progress in Electromagnetic Research Symposium, Vo. 2,
pp. 773-776

Meng, Z. Q. and
M. Tateiba [2005b], gInvestigation of Backscattering Enhancement Phenomenon,h
Proc. 2005 International Symposium on Microwave and Optical Technology, pp.
79-82

Meng, Z. Q. and
M. Tateiba [2005c], gBistatic Scattering Enhancement Phenomenon in a Random
Medium,h Proc. 2005 Progress in Electromagnetic Research Symposium, pp. 615-619

Meng, Z. Q. and
M. Tateiba [2006a], gThe Bistatic Radar Cross-section of a Large Size Body
Embedded in a Random Medium,h Proc. 2006 Progress in Electromagnetic Research
Symposium

Meng, Z. Q. and
M. Tateiba [2006b], gBistatic cross-sections of conductive body in random
media,h Proc. the 6th Asia-Pacific Engineering Research Forum on Microwaves and
Electromagnetic Theory pp.183-186

Meng, Z. Q. and
M. Tateiba [2007], gAViolent Oscillation of Bistatic Radar Cross-section in a
Random Medium,h Proc. URSI2007 CNC/USNC

Morikawa, K., T.
Fujisawa, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba [2006], gTransmission characteristics of
laterally illuminated photonic crystal fibers,h IEICE Electronics Express, vol.
3, 4, pp. 70-73

Munemasa, Y., M.
Mita, and T. Takano [2005], gStudy of Micro Lightwave Antenna Manufactured by
MEMS Technology,h ISAP05, WD2-3,

Munemasa, Y., M.
Mita, M. Sano, and T. Takano [2006a], gApplication of MEMS Technology to a
Lightwave Antenna for Communication in Space and Aeronautics,h CANEUS 2006,
Poster Session 11069,

Munemasa, Y., M.
Mita, M. Sano and T. Takano [2006b], gCharacteristics of a Transparent
Lightwave Antenna for Trial-fabrication in MEMS Technology,h C-23, pp. 121-124,
AP-MWP06,

Munemasa, Y., M.
Mita, T. Takano, and M. Sano [2007a], gLight-Wave Antenna with a Small Aperture
Manufactured Using MEMS processing Technology,h IEEE Trans. on Antenna
Propagation, vol. 55, no. 11, pp. 3040-3045, Nov.

Munemasa, Y., T. Takano, M. Mita, and M. Sano [2007b], gMeasurement of
Light-wave Antennas: Difficulties and Peculiarities in Comparison with
Radio-Wave Antennas,h IEEE Trans. on Antenna Propagation, vol. 55, no. 11, pp.
3046-3051, Nov.

Murao, T., K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba [2006a], gDesign of air-guiding
modified honeycomb photonic band-gap fibers for effectively single-mode
operation,h Optics Express, vol. 14, 6, pp. 2404-2412

Murao, T., K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba [2006b], gRealization of
single-moded broadband air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers,h IEEE Photonics
Technology Letters, vol. 18, 15, pp. 1666-1668

Murao, T., K. Saitoh, N.J. Florous, and M. Koshiba [2007], gDesign of
effectively single-mode air-core photonic bandgap fiber with improved
transmission characteristics for the realization of ultimate low loss
waveguides,h Optics Express, vol. 15, 7, pp. 4268-4280

Nakashima, N. and M. Tateiba [2005], gComputational and Memory
Complexities of Greengard-Rokhlinfs Fast Multipole Algorithm,h IEICE Trans.
Electron., Vo. E88-C, no. 7, pp. 1516-1520

Nakashima, N. and M. Tateiba [2006], gComputation of Scattering from
Randomly Distributed Dielectirc Circular Cylinders,h Proc. 2006 Progress in
Electromagnetic Research Symposium

Nakashima, N. and M. Tateiba [2007], gThe application of a fast
multipole algorithm to the computation of scattering from many objects,h Proc.
International Conference on Computa-tional Method

Nazarchuk, Z. T., and K. Kobayashi [2005], gMathematical modeling of
electromagnetic scattering from a thin penetrable target,h Progress In
Electromagnetic Research (PIER), vol. 55, pp. 95-116

Ohnuki, S., and W. C. Chew [2005], gError Minimization for Multipole
Expansion,h

Ohnuki, S., and T. Hinata [2005a], gElectromagnetic Scattering from
Conducting Polygons,h Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, vol. 46, no. 6,
pp. 532-536

Ohnuki, S., and T. Hinata [2005b], gTransient Scattering from Parallel
Plate Waveguide Cavities,h IEICE Trans. Electron., vol. E88-C, no. 1,
pp.112-118

Ohnuki, S., W. C. Chew, and T. Hinata [2005], g

Ohnuki, S.,

Okumura, M., Y.
Kamata, T. Imura, K. Kumamaru and T. Takano [2006], gExperimental Study on a
Partially Driven Array with Simplified Dipole Elements,h a234-r142, ISAP06,
November,

Otoi, K., H.
Wakabayashi, T. Ohno, A. Yamamoto, H. Shirai, and K. Ogawa [2006], g EM Wave
Indoor Propagation Analysis by 3-D Adaptive SBR Method,h Proc. of 2006
Korea-Japan AP/EMCJ/EMT Joint Conference (KJJC-AP/EMCJ/EMTf06), pp.273-276,
(Kanazawa, Japan).

Ozaki, R.,
T.Yamasaki and T.Hinata [2007], gScattering of Electromagnetic Waves by
Multilayered Inhomogeneous Columnar Dielectric Gratings Loaded Rectangular
Dielectric Constant,h IEICE Trans. Electron., vol.E90-C, no.2, pp. 1676-1681

Radenamad, D., T.
Isono and T. Takano [2006], gSimulation Study of Partly Excited Parasitic
Elements for an Aperture Array,h a179-r146, ISAP06, November, Singapore.

Rodriguez, L., K.
Sakina, and M. Ando [2005], gDirect and Analytical Derivation of the Vectorial
Geometrical Optics from the Modified Edge Representation Line Integrals for the
Physical Optics,h IEICE Trans. Electron., vol.E88-C, no.12, pp.2243-2249.

Rodriguez, L., K.
Yukimasa, T. Shijo, and M. Ando [2007], gInner stationary phase point
contribution of physical optic in terms of the modified edge representation
line integrals (curved surfaces),h Radio Sci., doi:10.1029/2007RS003684.

Rodriguez, L.,
and M. Ando [2007], gFar Field Radiation Pattern Calculation of the Parabolic
Reflector Antenna in Terms of Line Integrals by the Modified Edge
Representation,h IEICE Trans. Electronics, vol.E90-C, no.2, pp.235-242.

Rodriguez-Esquerre,
V.F., M. Koshiba, H.E. Hernandez-Figueroa, and C.E. Rubio-Mercedes[2005],
gPower splitters for waveguides composed by ultralow refractive index metallic
nanostructures,h Applied Physics Letters, vol. 87, 091101

Rodriguez-Esquerre,
V.F., M. Koshiba, and H.E. Hernandez-Figueroa [2005a], gFrequency-dependent
envelope finite-element time-domain analysis of dispersion materials,h
Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, vol. 44, 1, pp. 13-16

Rodriguez-Esquerre,
V.F., M. Koshiba, and H.E. Hernandez-Figueroa [2005b], gFinite-element analysis
of photonic crystal cavities: time and frequency domains,h IEEE/OSA Journal of
Light-wave Technology, vol. 23, 3, pp. 1514-1521

Saitoh, K. and M.
Koshiba [2005a], gEmpirical relation for simple design of photonic crystal
fibers,h Optics Express, vol. 13, 1, pp. 267-274

Saitoh, K., Y.
Tsuchida, and M. Koshiba [2005b], gBending-insensitive single-mode
hole-assisted fibers with reduced splice loss,h Optics Letters, vol. 30, 14,
pp. 1779-1781

Saitoh, K., N.J.
Florous, and M. Koshiba [2005c], gUltra-flattened chromatic dispersion
controllability using a defect-core photonic crystal fiber with low confinement
losses,h Optics Ex-press, vol. 13, 21, pp. 8365-8371

Saitoh, K. and M. Koshiba [2005d],
gNumerical modeling of photonic crystal fibers,h IEEE/OSA Journal of Lightwave
Technology, vol. 23, 11, pp. 3580-3590

2 4

Saitoh, K., N.J.
Florous, M. Koshiba, and M. Skorobogatiy [2005e], gDesign of narrow band-pass
filters based on the resonant-tunneling phenomenon in multi-core photonic
crystal fibers,hOptics Express, vol. 13, 25, pp. 10327-10335

Saitoh, K., Y.
Tsuchida, M. Koshiba, and N.A. Mortensen [2005f], gEndlessly single-mode holey
fibers: the influence of core design,h Optics Express, vol. 13, 26, pp.
10833-10839

Saitoh, K., N.J.
Florous, and M. Koshiba[2006a], gTheoretical realization of holey fiber with
flat chromatic dispersion and large mode area: An intriguing defected
approach,h Optics Letters, vol. 31, 1, pp. 26-28

Saitoh, K., T.
Fujisawa, T. Kirihara, and M. Koshiba [2006b], gApproximate empirical relations
for nonlinear photonic crystal fibers,h Optics Express, vol. 14, 14, pp.
6572-6582

Saitoh, K., N.J.
Florous, T. Murao, and M. Koshiba [2006c], gDesign of photonic band gap fibers
with suppressed higher-order modes: Towards the development of effectively
single mode large hollow-core fiber platforms,h Optics Express, vol. 14, 16,
pp. 7342-7352

Saitoh, K., M.
Koshiba, and N.A. Mortensen [2006d], gNonlinear photonic crystal fibers:
Pushing the zero-dispersion towards the visible,h New Journal of Physics, vol.
8, 207

Saitoh, K., N.J.
Florous, T. Murao, and M. Koshiba [2007a], gRealistic design of
large-hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers with suppressed higher order modes
and surface modes,h IEEE/OSA Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 25, 9, pp.
2440-2447

Saitoh, K., N.J.
Florous, T. Murao, S.K. Varshney, and M. Koshiba [2007b], gPhotonic bandgap
fiber filter design based on nonproximity resonant coupling mechanism,h IEEE
Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 19, 19, pp. 1647-1549

Saitoh, K., S.K.
Varshney, and M. Koshiba [2007c], gDispersion, birefringence, and amplification
characteristics of newly designed dispersion compensating hole-assisted
fibers,h Optics Express, vol. 15, 26, pp. 17724-17735.

Sakamoto, T., S.
Kidera, T. Sato, T. Mitani, and

Sakamoto, T., S.
Kidera, T. Sato, T. Mitani, and S. Sugino [2005b], gAn Experimental Study on a
Fast and Accurate 3-D Imaging Algorithm for UWB Pulse Radar Systems,h XXVIIIth
General Assembly of International

Sakamoto, T., and
T. Sato [2006a], gAn Image Stabilization Algorithm for UWB Pulse Radars with
Fractional Boundary Scattering Transform,h IEEE AP-S International Symposium,
USNC/URSI National Radio Science Meeting, AMEREM Meeting, pp.1399-1402

Sakamoto, T.,
and T. Sato [2006b], gA Stable and Fast 3-DImaging Algorithm for UWB Pulse Radars
with Fractional Boundary Scattering Transform,h Progress in Electromagnetics
Research Symposium (PIERS)

Sakamoto, T., S.
Kidera, T. Sato, and S. Sugino [2006], gAn Edge-Preserving Stabilization for a
Fast 3-D Imaging Algorithm with a UWB Pulse Radar,h European Conference on
Antennas & Propagation (EuCAP) 2006, paper no. 306687

Sakamoto, T.
[2007a], gA fast algorithm for 3-dimensional imaging with UWB pulse radar
systems,h IEICE Trans. on Commun., vol.E90-B, no.3, pp.636-644

Sakamoto, T.
[2007b], gA 2-D image stabilization algorithm for UWB pulse radars with
fractional boundary scattering transform,h IEICE Trans. on Commun. vol.E90-B,
no.1, pp.131-139

Sakamoto, T.,
and T. Sato [2007a], gMultiple Transmission for High-Speed UWB Radar Imaging
with an Antenna Array,h IEEE AP-S International Symposium 2007

Sakamoto, T.,
and T. Sato [2007b], gReal-time imaging of human bodies with UWB radars using
walking motion,h 2007 IEEE International Conference on Ultra-Wide Band
(ICUWB2007)

Sasaki, K., S.K.
Varshney, K. Wada, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba [2007], gOptimization of pump
spectra for gain-flattened photonic crystal fiber Raman amplifiers operating in
C-band,h Optics Express, vol. 15, 5, pp. 2654-2668

Sato, M., T.
Hirose, H. Kobayashi, H. Sato, K. Sawaya and K. Mizuno, [2007], gTapered Slot
Antennas with MMIC for 94 GHz Band Passive Millimeter-wave Imager,h
International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation (ISAP 2007), POS1-42,
pp.1023-1026, (Niigata, Japan).

Sato, R., H.
Sato, and H. Shirai, [2005a], gASBR Algorithm for Simple Indoor Propagation
Estimation,h Proc. of the 2005 IEEE/ACES International Conference on Wireless
Communications and Applied Computational Electromagnetics, pp.810-813,
(CD-ROM).

Sato, R., H.
Sato, and H. Shirai, [2005b], gASBR Estimation for Indoor Wave Propagation
Through Dielectric Walls,h 2005 IEEE AP-S International Symposium Digest,
vol.2B, pp.719-722, (CD-ROM), (

Sato, R.,
H.Sato, and H.Shirai [2006a], gAccuracy Improvement of Ray-launching Approach
for Indoor Wave Propagation Through High Lossy Walls,h 2006 IEEE Antennas and
Propagation Society International Symposium Digest, pp.2157-2160(CD-ROM).

Sato, R.,
H.Sato, and H.Shirai [2006b], gA Ray-launching Estimation For Simple Indoor
Wave Propagation Through High Lossy Walls,h Proc. of 2006 Progress in
Electromagnetics Research Symposium (PIERS 2006), p.136(CD-ROM).

Sato, R., and H.
Shirai [2007a], gAccurate Ray-Launching Analysis for Indoor Propagation Through
a High Lossy Wall,h 2007 IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International
Symposium Digest, pp.3009-3012(CD-ROM).

Sato, R., and H.
Shirai [2007b], gAccuracy Estimation of Simplified Ray-launching Analysis for
Indoor Propagation Through High Lossy Wall,h Proc. of the 2007 International
Symposium on Antennas and Propagation (ISAP 2007), pp.217-220(CD-ROM).

Sesay, M., and
M. Yokota, [2007a] gScattering From a Periodic Array of Elliptical Cylinders
With a Coated Body of Arbitrary Shape Using Moment Methodh, Proceedings of 2007
International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation, pp.832-835

Shang, E. H. and
K. Kobayashi [2006], gPlane wave Diffraction by a finite parallel-plate
waveguide with four-layer material loading: part II -the case of H
polarization,h Proc. IVth International Workshop on Electromagnetic Wave
Scattering (EWS 2006), pp. 2.49-2.53

Shang, E. H., and K. Kobayashi [2007],
gDiffraction by a terminated, semi-infinite parallel-plate waveguide with
four-layer material loading,h Proc. 2007 URSI International Symposium on
Electromagnetic theory (EMTS 2007), O11-32-2

Shijo, T., T.
Itoh, and M. Ando [2004], gVisualization of High Frequency Diffraction Based on
Physical Optics,h IEICE Trans. Electron., vol.E87-C, no.9, pp.1607-1614.

Shijo, T., T.
Hirano, and M. Ando [2005], gLarge-Size Local-Domain Basis Functions with Phase
Detour and Fresnel Zone Threshold for Sparse Reaction Matrix in the Method of
Moments,h IEICE Trans. Electron., vol.E88-C, no.12, pp.2208-2215.

Shijo, T., and
M. Ando [2005], gElimination of fictitious penetrating rays from PO and
hybridization with AFIM,h Electrical Engineering in

Shirai, H., Y.
Hiramatsu, and M. Suzuki, [2005], gReconstruction of Polygonal Cylindrical
Targets with Curved Surfaces from Their Monostatic RCS,h IEICE Trans.
Electronics., vol. E88-C, no.12, pp.2289-2294.

Shirai, H., and
Y. Hiramatsu, [2005], gReconstruction of cylindrical metal targets using their
Frequency and time domain RCS values,h Proc. of XXVIII-th General Assembly of
International Union of Radio Science, CDROM, (Delhi, India).

Skorobogatiy,
M., M. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba [2004], gCoupling between two collinear air-core
Bragg fibers,h Journal of Optical Society of America B, vol. 21, 12, pp.
2095-2101

Skorobogatiy,
M., M. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba [2005], gTransverse lightwave circuits in
microstructured optical fibers: waveguides,h Optics Express, vol. 13, 19, pp.
7506-7514

Skorobogatiy,
M., M. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba [2006a], gTransverse light guides in
microstructured optical fibers,h Optics Letters, vol. 31, 3, pp. 314-316

Skorobogatiy,
M., M. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba [2006b], gTransverse lightwave circuits in
microstructured optical fibers: Resonator arrays,h Optics Express, vol. 14, 4,
pp. 1439-1450

Sugawara, A., T.
Takano, E. Hanayama, and Y. Kami, [2005], gConstruction Method and Analysis of
Radiation Characteristics of an Ultra-Large Array Antenna for Microwave Power
Trans-missionh(in Japanese), Trans. of Institute of Electronics, Information
and Communication Engineers vol.J88-B, no.2, pp.432-441

Takano, T.
[2004a], gResearch on the Space-tenna Configuration in Consideration of SPS
Systems,h AP-RASC f04,

Takano, T. [2004b], gLightwave Wireless Communications and Infrared
Technologies,h (in Japanese) Journal of the Japan Society of Infrared Science
and Technology, vol13, no.2, pp.6-11

Takano, T. [2006], gAntenna Systems for Microwave Power Transmission
from a Solar Power Satellite to the Earth,h The 3rd International Symposium on
Sustainable Energy System, Session I-II,

Takano, T. [2007], gNew Antenna Systems for Microwave Power
Transmission,h IMS2007 Workshop, WFG, Honolulu, Hawawi, June.

Takano, T., and A. Thumvichit [2004], gUltra-Low-Profile Dipole Antenna
in a Quadruple Mode,h IEEE AP-S and URSI, p.169, June.

Takano, T., N. Kamo, and A. Sugawara
[2004a], gSimplification of Microwave Transmission Antenna on Board by Reducing
the Fed Elements,h (poster), SPS f04, July.

Takano, T., A.
Sugawara and S. Sasaki [2004b], gSystem Considerations of Onboard Antennas for
SSPS,h The Radio Science Bulletin, no.311, pp.16-20, December.

Takano, T., K.
Miura, M, Natori, E. Hanayama, T. Inoue, T. Noguchi, N. Miyahara and H.
Nakaguro [2004c], gDeployable Antenna With 10-m Maximum Diameter for Space
Use,h IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol.52, no.1, pp.2-11

Takano, T., N.
Kamo and A. Sugawara [2005a], gSimplification of an Array Antenna by Reducing
the Fed Elements,h Trans. of Institute of Electronics, Information and
Communication and Communication Engineers, vol.E88-B, no.9, pp.421-424

Takano, T., N.
Kamo and A. Sugawara [2005b], gGain Enhancement of an Array Antenna Using
Coupling Optimization between Elements,h IEEE AP-S & URSI 2005, Washington
DC.

Takano, T., T.
Isono and D. Radenamad [2006a], gConstitution of Ultra-Large Power Transmission
Antennas with Positive Application of Element Coupling,h METLAB Symposium,

Takano, T., T.
Isono, D. Radenamad and T. Imura [2006b], gAn Aperture Array Antenna and A
Dipole Array Antenna for Microwave Power Transmission,h IAC06, C.3.2.5,
Valencia, October.

Takano, T., T.
Isono, T. Imura and D. Radenamad [2006c], gThe Array Antenna of Element
Apertures with Coupling Devices between Apertures,h 37743, EUCAP06, France,
November.

Takano, T., Y.
Munemasa and M. Mita [2006d], gMeasurement of a Lightwave Antenna and its
Application to a MEMS Antenna,h 2006 Symp. of AP-S& URSI, p.609,

Takano, T., S.
Kawasaki, H. Toshiyoshi, H. Ikeda and T. Suda [2007a], gJapanfs Project
for the Research and Development of Active Phased Array Antennas for Practical
Applications,h ICECom2007, Dubrovnik, Croatia.

Takano, T., S. Kawasaki, H. Toshiyoshi, H. Ikeda and Y. Kazama [2007b],
gThe R&D of Active Phased Array Antennas with Significant Cost Reduction
and Usage Convenience,h ISAP07, 4B3-3, Niigata.

Tateiba, M. [2004], gAn Activity Report on Electromagnetic Wave
Scattering in Random Media and High Data Rate Satellite Communications, Pursued
in a Research Laboratory,h IEEJ Trans. FM, vol. 124, no. 12, pp. 1165-1170

Tateiba, M. and T. Matsuoka [2005], gElectromagnetic Wave Scattering by
Many Particles and Its Applications,h Electon. and Comm. in

Tateiba, M., Z. Q. Meng and H. El-Ocla [2004], gScattering by
Conducting Bodies in Random Media (Invited),h IEEJ Trans. FM, vol. 124, no. 12,
pp. 1094-1100

Thumvichit, A., Y. Kamata, and T. Takano [2004], gOffset-Feed Impedance
Matching of a Half-Wavelength Dipole in Proximity to a PEC Planeh, ISAP04,
POS-A-26, pp.961-964, Sendai, August.

Thumvichit, A., T. Takano and Y. Kamata [2006], gUltra Low Profile
Dipole Antenna with a Simplified Feeding Structure and a Parasitic Elementh,
Trans. of Institute of Electrocnics, Information and Communication and
Communication Engineers, vol.89-B, no.2, pp. 576-580

Thumvichit,
A., T. Takano and Y. Kamata [2007], gCharacteristics Verification of a
Half-wave

Dipole Very
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