COMMISSION E: ELECTROMAGNETIC NOISE AND INTERFERE
Man Made EM Noise and EMC
E.1 2004 International Symposium on EMC,
E.2 EMC measurement technology
The studies of EMI antenna and electromagnetic field probe calibration method, electromagnetic field probe using electro-optical crystal, EMI suppression effect by ferrite core, measurement method of lightning surge, evaluation method of RF absorber reflectivity in millimeter wavelength, etc, have been performed in this period. Detail descriptions are presented below.
E2-1 Antenna factor of EMI measuring antennas
Traditionally, radio disturbances emitted from electronic equipment have been measured with an EMI antenna, where the disturbance level is expressed in terms of the electrical field strength. In practical measurements, it is given by multiplying the received voltage by the antenna factor of a measuring antenna used. However, the antenna factor may vary in magnitude with the antenna height above a ground plane due to the ground reflection. Hence, to improve the measurement uncertainty, the CISPR (International Special Committee on Radio Interference) has recently decided to use the free-space value of the antenna factor for EMI measurements.
In this connection, three antenna calibration methods have newly been developed to provide the free-space antenna factor accurately:
Antenna Impedance Method requires measurements of the input impedance of an
antenna under calibration in the frequency range from 30 MHz up to 10 GHz. It
was found that this method could yield the free-space antenna factor with an
uncertainty of about 0.5 dB or less [
(2) In addition, application of the non-linear least squares method has been investigated for the conventional EMI antenna calibration, such as Standard Antenna Method, in the frequency range from 30 MHz to 300 MHz. This method was found to determine the free-space antenna factor with an uncertainty better thaan 0.3 dB [Fujii, et al., 2003].
(3) To produce a nearly free-space environment, the theoretical and experimental investigations were made on the use of ferrite tiles placed on the metal ground plane. It was found that the ferrite absorbers could considerably suppress the ground reflection and yield the free-space antenna factor with an error less than 0.3 dB at frequencies from 30 to 300 MHz [Matsumoto, et al., 2003].
E2-2 Calibration of electromagnetic probe
In order to calibrate an electromagnetic probe up to 18 GHz, a method using open-ended waveguides has been proposed as the standard radiators in the frequency range from 500 MHz to 18 GHz [Ishigami, et al., 2002, 2003a]. A calibration facility was established with an anechoic chamber. The uncertainty of the facility was evaluated as }0.96 dB (500 MHz-8.2 GHz) and }1.14 dB (above 8.2 GHz) at the confidence coefficient of 95%, respectively. A TEM cell is also used for the calibration below 500MHz. The uncertainty of the facility was evaluated as }0.74 dB at a confidence coefficient of 95%
E2-3 Electric field probe using optical electric crystal
magnetic and electric field probe using LiNbO3 as the optical electric crystal
was presented at EMCf04
E2-4 Measurements of EMI suppression characteristics of ferrite cores
A major source of the electromagnetic interference in the frequency range below 1000 MHz is disturbance currents flowing on the cables connected to an electronic device. Hence, in order to reduce the currents, ferrite cores are usually attached to encircle the cables. However, there is no standard method for measuring the EMI suppression characteristics of the core. Hence, Prof. Sugiurafs group has studied and developed a measurement method for the insertion loss and the reflection coefficients of a ferrite core [Fujii, et al., 2004].
E2-5 Compact lightning wave recorder
Malfunctions caused by lightning surges are serious problems for telecommunications equipment used for developed information technology. Lightning surge waveform observation has been carried out to characterize the surges appearing at the telecommunication ports. However, large equipment was needed to observe the waveform. Recent developed semiconductor technology succeeds the miniaturization of waveform recorder [Honma, et al., 2004]. The size of the developed recorder is 94 mm wide, 150 mm long, and 55 mm thick, and the weight is 530 g. The dynamic range is more than 60 dB, and the recording length is 32 ms. One can operate two or more recorders simultaneously using the external trigger. It is expected to apply the study of the lightning surges inducing mechanism at AC mains and telecommunication port of the equipment.
E2-6 Evaluation of reflectivity measurement methods for millimeter wave absorber
The methods of reflectivity measurement of millimeter wave absorbers are being evaluated by round robin test with various measurement settings, to clarify preferable conditions (distance, absorber size, antenna type, etc.) and measurement procedures.
E. 3 Printed circuit board (PCB) and chip level EMC
The studies of simulation of undesired noise form PCB, EMI simulation, EMC design, EMC modeling, Design tools, etc, have been performed in this period. Detail descriptions are presented below.
E3-1 Simulation of undesired noise form PCB
In order to explain the undesired electromagnetic radiation from PCB, modeling of three-dimensional FDTD simulation and experiment are being performed in Prof. Inouefs laboratory [Kayano, et al., 2002, 2004a, 2004b, 2004c; Tanaka, et al., 2004]. It was reported that not only the common mode current dependence but also spatial radiation distribution near the tested sample should be investigated precisely. Moreover, undesired electromagnetic radiation near PCB with attached feed cable was also investigated by experiment and FDTD simulation. Structure differences of the cross section of tested PCB were found to affect the electromagnetic radiation. Comparison between 3-dimentional FDTD simulation and experiment showed good agreement. It was also reported that the special structure with guard band enables one to reduce low common mode current and EM radiation. In addition, undesired electromagnetic radiation from microstrip line on PCB with attached feed cable was studied by the experiment and FDTD simulation. It was suggested that the differential mode current should be took into account for the undesired electromagnetic radiation at higher frequencies.
E3-2 EMI Simulation and EMC design of PCB
Problems to control irelectromagnetic noise radiated from digital electronic devices have been pursued in Prof. Kogafs group. A concise electromagnetic model of the power-bus in a multi-layer PCB has been developed utilizing a cavity-mode model together with the segmentation method. Practical speed was enhanced by 400 times than traditional methods, which is useful as a powerful tool in designing PCBs in terms of turn-around time and scale of computation. Models of electric and magnetic coupling on gaped power bus structures and effects of via inductance on split power/ground planes were also investigated. A method to evaluate common-mode excitation on PCBs was demonstrated with practical PCBs having guard traces. The evaluation model is called gimbalance difference modelh. Accuracy of the models has been experimentally examined.
E3-3 Modeling of EMC characteristics of digital IC/LSI
objectives of the EMC modeling of digital circuits are extended to LSIs as
noise driving sources, and linear macro-models of LSIs, called LECCS models,
have been developed in Prof. Kogafs group. Simulation performance of a model
for core logic circuits, LECCS-core, and a model for drivers, LECCS-I/O, were
presented at gEMC Compo 2004h and gEMCf04/
E3-4 New design tool for PCBs
Problems to control irradiative electromagnetic noise from digital electronic devices have been pursued [Kasuga, et al., 2002, 2003a, 2003b]. A concise equivalent circuit models have been developed, which is useful as a powerful tool in designing printed circuit boards in terms of turn-around time and scale of computation. Practical speed was enhanced by 400 times than traditional methods. Accuracy of the models has been experimentally examined and objectives of the models are extended to LSI levels as well as PCB. Results will help designers of electronic devices who are always expedited in developing their products.
E. 4 EMC problem related telecommunication system
The studies of telecommunication system using UTP cables, evaluation method of telecommunication system using APD (Amplitude Probability Density), interference caused by microwave oven, EMC evaluation method of UWB system, EMC problems caused by PLC, interference from PCs having dithered clock systems, disturbance for the radio system in LF band, etc, have been performed in this period. Detail descriptions are presented below.
E4-1 APD analysis
Two different methods, called RMS-AVG (Root Mean Square-Average) and APD, currently discussed in CISPR as a disturbance measurement method to evaluate the degradation of the digital wireless communication systems, were compared by numerical simulations [Gotoh, et al., 2005]. Repetition pulse and Gaussian noise were added as disturbances to the DQPSK (Differential Quadrature Phase Shift Keying) coded signal at the transmission path. The disturbance effects on BER (Bit Error Rate) and on each reading by the two methods were obtained quantitatively. The comparison shows that both methods account for the disturbance effect on a digital wireless communication system.
E4-2 Interference caused by microwave oven noises
Leakage of EM waves from microwave ovens may cause unwanted interference to wireless LAN systems using the 2.4-GHz band. Hence, investigations have been carried out to develop a numerical model of the oven noise in Prof. Sugiurafs group. An FM-AM model was produced for the noise, and it has been employed to evaluate degradation in the transmission quality of the LAN systems interfered with the oven noises [Matsumoto, 2003]. Moreover, to investigate the impact of oven noises on the wireless systems, a useful numerical model of the oven noise was developed. Performance degradation of wireless systems (DS-SS WLAN and Bluetooth) caused by the oven noises was evaluated theoretically and experimentally. The use of adaptive filters was proposed for reducing the microwave oven interference in DS-SS WLAN systems [Nakatsuka, 2004].
E4-3 UWB (Ultra wide-Band) system
A waveform reconstruction method of the electric field emitted by UWB (ultra wideband) device by using the complex antenna factor and observed waveform with an oscilloscope was developed [Ishigami, et al., 2004a, 2005]. The waveform radiated by a transmitting antenna and an impulse generator was measured with an oscilloscope and was reconstructed by the method. The results showed that the reconstructed waveform using this method agreed well with the waveform evaluated from the output of the impulse generator. The peak power measurement using a resolution bandwidth of 50MHz specified in the document of Federal Communications Commission (FCC) part 15 was examined. If the impulse bandwidth of a spectrum analyzer has been measured, the peak power can be obtained using the conversion method described in FCC Part 15.
E4-4 Interference from PCs having dithered clock systems
Operating frequencies of the clock signals of personal computers (PCs) currently reach several GHz. Such devices radiate electromagnetic noise over a wide frequency range, which may cause interference to wireless systems. Measurements were carried out to investigate the characteristics of radiated PC noises in WLAN frequency bands (2.4 GHz and 5GHz). It was found that the harmonics of the base clock signal dominate the radiated noises from PCs, and that the harmonics were frequency modulated due to the intentional sweep (dithering) of the fundamental clock frequency. The impact of PC noises on an OFDM-based WLAN system was evaluated with numerical simulations [Ogata, 2004].
E4-5 EMC problem related PLC system
increase speed of power line communications may affect existing communication
system. The studies were performed about the influences to the communication
system and the characteristics of the indoor power line system. The EMC
problems of the high-speed telecommunication system using unshielded twisted
pare (UTP) cables were also studied for the emission from UTP cables and the
countermeasure method. The problem related to power line communications was
presented in EMCf04
E4-6 Transmission characteristics on AC mains line
High speed power line communication (PLC) system has been developed to use for indoor communication system. The transmission characteristics and the influences to the electromagnetic environment should be studied because PLC system uses the AC mains line system, which has not been designed to use for a high speed signal transmission. AC mains line with a ground plane was presented using four-port networks to calculate both differential and common mode impedances [Miyoshi, et al., 2005]. The radiated magnetic field was calculated from the common-mode current distribution. The results indicate that the deviation between calculated and measured value was improved to calculate the capacitances between conductors and between conductor and ground using a numerical method.
E4-7 Investigation of disturbance for LF band
40kHz and 60 kHz are used to transmit the Japan Standard Time signal. The electric field strength of the 60 kHz transmitted signal and the disturbances in the frequency range from 40kHz to 60 kHz were investigated [Nakai, et al., 2005]. The results indicated that the field strength of the transmitted signal decreases in proportion with the increase of the distance, and there are many disturbance sources in this frequency range.
E. 5 EMC test facilities
The studies of test methods using rotating electromagnetic fields, correlation between GTEM cells and anechoic chambers, evaluation methods of reverberation chamber, etc, have been performed in this period. Detail descriptions are presented below.
E5-1 Immunity/susceptibility test method
In order to clarify immunity/susceptibility characteristics against radio-frequency electromagnetic fields, a new test method of using electromagnetic fields two-dimensionally rotating at a very low rate was proposed by Prof. Kamifs group, which demonstrated the characteristics depicted in visualized three-dimensional map [Murano, 2004a, 2004b, 2004c; Kami, 2004]. They also applied the method to a four-septum TEM cell [Suganuma, et al., 2004].
E5-2 GTEM Cell
A GTEM (gigahertz transverse electromagnetic) cell is used for immunity and emission tests. The correlation between the immunity-test result in a GTEM cell and that in an anechoic chamber was examined theoretically [Ishigami, et al., 2001, 2003b]. The average electric fields of the EUT surfaces in a GTEM cell and an anechoic chamber were calculated using the FD-TD method in order to evaluate a suitable installation and size of EUT in the GTEM cell. When the size of EUT was 10%, 20%, or 30% of the septum height, the difference in both the test result of the GTEM cell and the anechoic chamber was expected to be about 1dB, 2dB, or 2-3dB, respectively. Moreover, when the EUT surface approached the septum and floor conductor, the difference increased.
E5-3 Reverberation chamber
In using a reverberation chamber for radiated immunity testing, it is important to determine the number of discrete steps through which the stirrer rotates and the number of probe locations for a given test volume in the chamber. This is because they affect the uniformity and calibration of the field in the test volume. An experimental evaluation was made for the effect of the numbers of stirrers and their steps on the field uniformity, and the effect of the number of probe locations on field calibration. It was confirmed that (1) it was possible to obtain sufficient uniformity in the field by using two stirrers; (2) uniformity was not improved greatly by using more than 100 stirrer steps; and (3) the use of a small number of probe locations increased the uncertainty in the evaluation of uniformity [Harima and Yamanaka, 2001; Harima, 2004].
E.6 ESD and system level EMC
The studies of evaluation method of system level EMC, geospace environment simulator, meta -material type RF absorber, etc, have been performed in this period. Detail descriptions are presented below.
E6-1 Equivalent circuit model for human ESD
A circuit approach for calculating the discharge current through a hand-held metal piece from a charged human body has been proposed by Prof. Fujiwarafs group. It has been demonstrated that the current waveforms can be predicted from the time variant spark resistance and measured frequency characteristics of the human body impedance [Fujiwara, et al., 2001a, 2003a].
E6-2 ESD contact ad air discharge measurement
Measurement was made by Prof. Fujiwarafs group for the discharge currents injected onto the Pellegrini target for the contact air discharge of a commercially available ESD-gun with respect to its approaching speed to the target. It was found that the fast approach of the ESD gun provides a sharp current with a steeper rise-time and a higher peak, while the slow approach gives a gentle current with the shorter rise-time but lower peak compared to the case for the contact discharge. It was also found that there exists a specific relationship between the rise-time and the peak current normalized to the charge voltage regardless of the approaching speed of the ESD gun [Fujiwara, et al., 2001b, Fujiwara, et al., 2004].
E6-3 FDTD simulation of contact discharge by an ESD-Gun
The electromagnetic noise caused by an electrostatic discharge (ESD) is a major source of malfunction to high-tech equipment. The ESD testing, therefore, is being specified in the IEC61000-4-2, which prescribes the current waveform from an ESD gun through a IEC recommended current detector (Pellegrini calibration target). This IEC current waveform, however, does not always correspond to the one injected onto an actual device for ESD testing. Prof. Fujiwarafs group simulated a contact discharge to ground plates using our previously developed FDTD model of an ESD gun. The induced voltages through a magnetic field probe were simulated when the discharge current was injected directly to the ground plate in contact with an ESD gun, whose results were confirmed with respect to the ground plate sizes experimentally [Fujiwara, et al., 2002, 2003b].
E6-4 Safety evaluation for stochastically varying electromagnetic fields
The cumulative amplitude probability distributions (APD) of leaked electric fields in fusion experimental facilities were measured and an approach to derive their time-average from the measured APD was proposed [Wang, et.al., 2004]. The statistically averaged electric field showed fair agreement with the time-averaged electric field during 6 minutes being specified in the safety guidelines. This finding suggested the usefulness of the APD measurement in lieu of the field measurement during a 6-minute period because the APD can be obtained for a time period much less than 6 minutes.
E6-5 Geospace environment simulator
In order to make quantitative evaluation of electromagnetic environment around spacecraft, three dimensional electromagnetic particle simulations are being performed using 125 nodes (2 TB Memory) of the Earth Simulator System, reporting various physical processes induced by emission of heavy ions in electric propulsion.
E6-6 Application of meta-material to EM wave absorber and shielding material
Meta-material is the material which can control the dielectric constant and the magnetic permeability. At the special condition, the real part of the dielectric constant and the magnetic permeability are negative. This phenomenon makes the flexibility of a design for EM-absorber and shielding material [Hatakeyama, et al., 2004].
Natural EM Noise
Study in Prof. Kawasakifs group
Thunderstorms observed by TRMM/PR and LIS have been investigated, and Lightning Research Group of Osaka University (LRGOU) has unveiled several interesting features.
Correlation between lightning activities and the snow depth of convective clouds may follow the power-five law. The power five law means that the flash density is a function of the snow-depth to power five. The definition of snow depth is the height of detectable cloud tops by TRMM/PR from the climatological freezing level, and it may be equivalent to the length of the portion where the solid phase precipitation particles exist. This is given by examining more than one million convective clouds, and we conclude that the power five law should be universal from the aspect of the statistic.
thunderstorm active areas are well known as gThree World Chimneysh, and those
Activity during El Nino period is another interesting subject. LRGOU studies
thunderstorm occurrences over west
Research Group of Osaka University (LRGOU) has been working for a novel
technique of VHF Broadband Digital Interferometer (BDITF) to monitor
thunderstorm activity and to image lightning channels for these ten years. The
VHF BDITF has been improved to be a quasi operating system, and LRGOU has
equipped the BDITF in
The BDITF antenna is capacitive, which bandwidth is from 25 to 100 MHz including amplifier, and its shape is circular with about 30 cm diameter. The BDITF consists of three antennas, and these antennas are deployed at three apexes of an isosceles right triangle. The length of two sides around the right angle is between 5 to 10 meters, because the antenna spacing is not necessary to be fixed to some required length. These two sides are normally set up to direct to north-to-south and east-to-west. Once we have a lightning flash, a few thousands of VHF impulses are emitted, and the BDITF can detect VHF impulses within about 50 km. The scheme to estimate source location of VHF impulses is based on the Fourier analysis. Received VHF impulses are decomposed into Fourier components by FFT (Fast Fourier Transform). Phase differences for all Fourier components between two antennas output are calculated to estimate the incident angles against the base line of two antennas. Since one unit of BDITF consists of three antennas, two dimensional source locations, azimuth and elevation, can be observed. If we install two sets of BDITF with proper spacing, we are able to have 3-D image of lightning channels.
observations during winter thunderstorm seasons have been carried out around
electric filed change and VHF/UHF radiation associated with positive
cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes during winter in
Study in Prof. Hayakawafs group:
fractal dynamics of intracloud microdischarges responsible for the formation of
a so-called drainage system of electric charge transport inside a cloud volume
has been discussed. Mesospheric optical emissions (sprites) for the winter
lightning were successfully observed in the Hokuriku area, and the associated
phenomena (ionospheric perturbations (Trimpis), ELF sferics) were also
discussed. The Schumann resonance observation was started again in 1996 at
E.8 Seismo electromagnetics
(1) The presence of ULF electromagnetic emissions before large earthquakes has been noticed by means of different signal analysis methods (including polarization, fractal methods, and principal component analysis etc.). Another important method for short-term earthquake prediction is the use of subionospheric VLF/LF propagation. A case study for the Tokachi-oki earthquake and statistical study on the correlation of the VLF anomaly with different geophysical parameters (geomagnetic activity, particle precipitation) and seismic effect have been performed. The full-wave computation has been made for explaining the shift in the terminator time due to the presence of seismo-ionospheric perturbations .
micro satellite for seismo-electromagnetics "DEMETER" has been
prediction of earthquake with ELF electromagnetic waves has been developed. New
method for detect of precursory phenomena using Schumann resonance on gKiih
peninsula earthquakes and on gChuetsuh earthquakes in
(4) The study
on the earthquake prediction using the VAN method and ULF geomagnetic, and
geopotential measurement at Izu, Iwate, Matsusiro, and
spectral observations have been conducted in the VHF band regularly in
(6) A network of seismogenic ULF emissions in the Kanto area, and a nation-wide network of VLF/LF subionospheric wave have been established in order to find the seismic effect onto the ionosphere for short-term earthquake prediction.
precursors of the earthquake related to ELF electromagnetic wave below 50Hz has
been investigated. Schumann resonance was observed at Nakatsugawa, and VLF
transmitters (NWC, 19.8kHz and JG2AS, 40kHz) wave observed at
Man Made EM Noise and EMC
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Fujiwara, O., and T. Ikawa [2001a], gNumerical calculation of human-body capacitance by surface charge method (in Japanese),h Trans. IEICE, vol.J84-B, no.10, pp.1841-1847.
Fujiwara, O., M. Funato, H. Seko [2001b], gLevel estimation of magnetic
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Fujiwara, O., H. Tanaka, Y. Yamanaka [2003a], gAn equivalent circuit
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Japanese),h Trans. IEE of
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Ishigami, S., K. Harima, and Y. Yamanaka , gTEM-mode E-field uniformity in a GTEM cellh, IEICE Transactions on Communications, Vol.E84-B, No.9, pp. 2610-2617.
Ishigami., S., H. Masuzawa, I. Nishiyama, T. Shinozuka, and Y. Yamanaka , gEM probe calibration by using open-ended waveguides, Part.1h, Technical Report of IEICE, EMCJ2002-50, pp.49-54 (In Japanese).
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Ishigami, S., K. Harima, and Y. Yamanaka [2003b], gTheoretical evaluation of condition of EUT installation on a GTEM cell on immunity testingh, IEICE Transactions on Communications, Vol.J86-B, No.7, pp. 1183-1190 (In Japanese).
Ishigami, S., and Y. Yamanaka [2004a], gReconstruction of
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factorh, 2004 International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility,
Ishigami, S., and Y. Yamanaka [2004b], gTime-domain measurement of electric field emitted from UWB device within an arbitrary bandwidth by using the complex antenna factorh, EUROEM 2004 (Euro Electromagnetics), UWB11-3, pp.166-167.
Ishigami, S., K. Gotoh, Y. Matsumoto, and Y. Yamanaka [2004c], gTime-domain measurement of UWB radiation power by using the complex antenna factorh, Technical Report of IEICE, EMCJ2004-68, pp.75-80 (In Japanese).
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Kayano, Y., M. Tanaka, J.L.Drewniak and H. Inoue [2004a], gCommon-mode current due to a trace near a PCB edge and its suppression by a guard bandh, IEEE Trans. on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Vol.46, No.1, pp.46-53.
Kayano, Y., M. Tanaka and H. Inoue [2004b], gA study on common-mode current on a feed cable attached to a PCB with different cross sectional structuresh, Proc. International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, EMC2004/Sendai, Vol.1, pp.1-4.
Kayano, Y., M. Tanaka and H. Inoue [2004c], gIdentifying the frequency response of common-mode current on a cable attached to a PCBh, IEICE Trans. Electronics, Vol.E87-C, No.8, pp.1268-1276.
Matsumoto, Y., T. Umeda, A. Nishikata, K. Fujii, Y Yamanaka, and A. Sugiura , "EMI Antenna Calibration on an Absorber-Lined Ground Plane to Determine Free-Space An-tenna Factor," IEEE Trans. on EMC, vol.45, no,4, pp656-660, 2003.
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Murano, K., F. Xiao, M. Tayarani and Y. Kami [2004c], g3D-susceptibility evaluation of actual housings of electronic equipment using rotating EM fields,h Proc. 2004 IEEE International Symposium on EMC, Santa Clara.
Nakai, R., Y. Shimoshio, H. Abe, K. Someya, A. Mikami, M. Higashi, and Y. Yamashita , gCharacteristics of low frequency signals, which are emitted from home electric appliance measured by a small loop antenna for radio wave clocks,h IEICE technical report, EMCJ2004-121, pp.25-30, (In Japanese).
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Shimoduma, Y., A. K. M. Mahbub Ar Rashid, N. Kuwabara, Y. Akiyama, and H. Yamane , gA study of PLC signal influence on VDSL system by induction between indoor power line and telecommunication line,h, IEMCf04 Sendai, 4C3-1, pp. 837-840, Sendai.
Suganuma, Y., F. Xiao, K. Murano, M. Tayarani, and Y. Kami ,
gFour-septum TEM cell for immunity/susceptibility test rotating EM field,h
Proc. International Symposium on EMC,
Suzuki, E., S. Arakawa, H. Ota, K. Arai, and R. Sato , gDouble-loaded EO magnetic field probe working above 10 GHz,h, Proc. EMCf04 Sendai, IC4-3, pp. 153-156, Sendai.
Tanaka, M., Y. Kayano, J.L. Drewniak and H. Inoue ,gCommon-mode current due to trace and slit in ground plane and effect of guard bandhCProc. International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, EMC2004/Sendai, Vol.1, pp.221-224.
Wang, J., O. Fujiwara and T. Uda , gStatistical measurement of
radio-frequency electromagnetic fields in a fusion experimental facility,h
Prof. Int. Symp. on Electrom. Compat.,
Natural EM Noise
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Ushio, T., S. J. Heckman, D. J. Boccippio, H. Christian, and Z-I. Kawasaki , gA survey of thunderstorm flash rates compared to cloud op height using TRMM satellite datah, Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol.106, pp.24089-24095.
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Alperovich, L. S., V. Zheludev, and M. Hayakawa , gWavelet study of long - period geomagnetic variations associated with the 1989 M = 7 Loma Prieta and two 1997 M = 6 Japanese earthquakesh, in gSeismo Electromagnetics (Lithosphere - Atmosphere - Ionosphere Coupling)h, Ed. by M. Hayakawa and O. A. Molchanov, TERRAPUB, pp.55-60, Tokyo.
Alperovich, L., V. Zheludev and M. Hayakawa , gUse of wavelet analysis for detection of seismogenic ULF emissionsh, Radio Sci., Vol.38, No. 6, pp.1093, doi:10.1029/2002RS002687.
Ando, Y., M. Hayakawa, and O. A. Molchanov , gTheoretical analysis on the penteration of power line harmonic radiation into the ionosphereh, Radio Sci., vol.37, No. 6, pp.1093, doi: 10.1029/2001RS002486.
Ando, A. and M. Hayakawa , g2-D finite difference analyses of Schumann resonance and identification of lightning distributionh, IEEJ Trans. Fundamentals and Materials, vol. 124, No. 12, pp.1225-1231.
Biagi, P. F. and M. Hayakawa , gPossible premonitory behaviour of LF radiowaves on the occasion of the Slovenia earthquakes (M = 5.2-6.0-5.1) occurred on March - May 1998h, in gSeismo Electromagnetics (Lithosphere - Atmosphere - Ionosphere Coupling)h, Ed. by M. Hayakawa and O. A. Molchanov, TERRAPUB, pp.249-253, Tokyo.
Biagi, P. F., R. Piccolo, L. Castellana, A. Ermini, S. Martellucci, C. Bellecci, V. Capozzi, G. Perna, O. Molchanov and M. Hayakawa [2004a], gVariations in a LF radio signal on the occasion of the recent seismic and volcanic activity in Southern Italyh, Phys. Chem. Earth, Vol.29, pp.551-557.
Biagi, P.F., R. Piccolo, L. Castellana, T. Maggipinto, A. Ermini, S. Martellucci, C. Bellecci, G. Perna, V. Capozzi, O. A. Molchanov, M. Hayakawa, and Ohta [2004b], gVLF-LF radio signals collected at Bari (South Italy): a preliminary analysis on signal anomalies associated with earthquakesh, Natural Hazards and Earth System Sci., 4, pp.685-689.
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gReception of over-horizon FM signals associated with earthquakesh, in gSeismo
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Gladychev, V., L. Baransky, A. Schekotov, E. Fedorov, O. Pokhotelov, S. Andreevsky, A. Rozhnoi, Y. Khabazin, G. Belyaev, A. Gorbatikov, E. Gordeev, V. Chebrov, V. Sinitsin, A. Lutikov, S. Yunga, G. Kosarev, V. Surkov, O. Molchanov, M. Hayakawa, S. Uyeda, T. Nagao, K. Hattori, and Y. Noda , gSome preliminary results of seismo-electromagnetc research at Complex Geophysical observatory, Kamchatkah, in eSeismo Electromagnetics (Lithosphere - Atmosphere - Ionosphere Coupling)h, Ed. by M. Hayakawa and O. A. Molchanov, TERRAPUB, pp.421-432.
Gorbatikov, A. V., O. A. Molchanov, M. Hayakawa, S. Uyeda, K. Hattori, T. Nagao, H. Tanaka, A. V. Nikolaev, and P. Maltsev , gAcoustic emission possibly related to earthquakes, abserved at Matsushiroh, Japan and its implications, in gSeismo Electromagnetics (Lithosphere - Atmosphere - Ionosphere Coupling)h, Ed. by M. Hayakawa and O. A. Molchanov, TERRAPUB, pp.1-10, Tokyo.
Gotoh, K., Y. Akinaga, M. Hayakawa, and K. Hattori , gPrincipal component analysis of ULF geomagnetic data for Izu islands earthquakes in July 2000h, J. Atmos. Electr., Vol. 22, No. 1., pp.1-12.
Gotoh, K. M. Hayakawa and N. Smirnova , gFractal analysis of the gromagnetic data obtained at Izu Peninsula, Japan in relation to the nearby earthquake swarm of June-August 2000h, Natural Hazards Earth System Sci., Vol.3, pp.229-236.
Gotoh, K., M. Hayakawa, N. A. Smirnova, and K. Hattori , gFractal analysis of seismogenic ULF emissionsh, Phys. Chem. Earth, Vol.29, pp.419-242.
Grimalsky, V. V., M. Hayakawa, S. V. Koshevaya, G. N. Burlak, and J. Sanchez-Mondragon , gMexico City as seismic resonatorh, in gSeismo Electromagnetics (Lithosphere - Atomosphere - Ionosphere Coupling)h, Ed. by M. Hayakawa and O. A. Molchanov, TERRAPUB, pp.87-89, Tokyo.
Hattori, K., Y. Akinaga, M. Hayakawa, K. Yumoto, T. Nagao, and S. Uyeda , gULF magnetic anomaly preceding the 1997 Kagoshima Earthquakes, in gSeismo Electromagnetics (Lithosophere - Atmosphere - Ionosphere Coupling)h, Ed. by M. Hayakawa and O. A. Molchanov, TERRAPUB, pp.19-28, Tokyo.
Hattori, K., A. Serita, K. Gotoh, C. Yoshino, M. Harada, N. Isezaki and M. Hayakawa [2004a], gULF geomagnetic anomaly associated with 2000 Izu Islands earthquake swarm, Japanh, Phys. Chem. Earth, Vol.29, pp.425-435.
Hattori, K., I. Takahashi, C. Yoshino, N. Isezaki, H. Iwasaki, M. Harada, K. Kawabata, E. Kopytenko, Y. Kopytenko, P. Maltsev, V. Korepanov, O. Molchanov, M. Hayakawa Y. Noda, T. Nagao, and S. Uyeda [2004b], gULF geomagnetic field measurements in Japan and some recent results associated with Iwateken Nairiku Hokubu earthquake in 1998h, Phys. Chem. Earth, Vol.29, pp.481-494.
Hayakawa, M. and A. P. Nickolaenko , gLightning effects in mesosphere and associated ELF radio signalsh, Proc. Indian Nat'l Science Academy, Vol.67, A, No.4 & 5, pp.509-529.
Hayakawa, M., O. A. Molchanov, N. Shima, A. V. Shvets, and N. Yamamoto [2002a], gWavelet analysis of disturbances in subionospheric VLF propagation correlated with earthquakesh, in gSeismo Electromagnetics (Lithosphere - Atmosphere - Ionosphere Coupling)h, Ed. by M. Hayakwa and O. A. Molchanov, TERRAPUB, pp.223-228, Tokyo.
Hayakawa, M., O. A. Molchanov, and A. P. Nickolaenko [2002b], gModel variation in atmospheric radio noise caused by pre-seismic modifications of tropospheric conductivity profileh, in gSeismo Electromagnetics (Lithosphere - Atmosphere - Ionosphere Coupling)h, Ed. by M. Hayakawa and O. A. Molchanov, TERRAPUB, pp.349-352.
Hayakawa, M. and T. Otsuyama [2002c], gFDTD analysis of ELF wave propagation in inhomogencous subionospheric waveguide modelsh, Appl. Computational Electromagnetics Soc. J., Vol.17, No.3, pp.239-244.
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Hughes, C. Ferencz and A.K. Gwalh, pp. 22-35, Narosa Pub. House,
Hayakawa, M., O. A. Molchanov [2004a], gNASDA/UEC team, Summary report of NASDAfs earthquake remote sensing frontier projecth, Phys. Chem. Earth, Vol.29, pp.617-625.
M., T. Nakamura, Y. Hobara and E. Williams [2004b], gObservation of sprites
Hayakawa, M., O. A. Molchanov, A. Y. Schekotov, and E. Fedorov [2004c], gObservation of ionospheric Alfven resonance at a middle latitude stationh, Adv. Polar Upp. Atmos. Res., No. 18, pp.65-76.
Hobara, Y., H. C. Koons, J. L. Roeder, H. Yamaguchi, and M. Hayakawa , gNew ULF/ELF observation in Seikoshi, Izu, Japan and the precursory signal in relation with large seismic events at Izu Islands in 2000h, in gSeismo Electromagnetics (Lithosphere - Atmosphere - Ionosphere Coupling)h, Ed. by M. Hayakawa and O. A. Molchanov, TERRAPUB, pp.41-44.
Hobara, Y., M. Hayakawa, K. Ohta and H. Fukunishi , gLightning discharges in association with mesospheric optical phenomena in Japan and their effect on the lower ionosphereh, Adv. Polar Upper Atmos. Res., no. 17, pp. 30-47.
Ismaguilov, V. S., Yu. Kopytenko, K. Hattori, and M. Hayakawa , gVariations of phase velocity and gradient values of ULF geomagnetic disturbances connected with the Izu strong earthquakesh, Natural Hazard Earth System Sci., Vol.3, pp.211-215.
Iudin, D. I., N. V. Korovkin, O. A. Molchanov, V. V. Surkov, and M. Hayakawa , gModel of earthquake triggering due to gas-fluid gbubbleh upward migration I. Physical rationaleh, in gSeismo Electromagnetics (Lithosphere - Atmosphere - Ionosphere Coupling)h, Ed. by M. Hayakawa and O. A. Molchanov, TERRAPUB, pp.177-185, Tokyo.
Koons, H. C., J. L. Roeder, Y. Hobara, M. Hayakawa, and A. C. Fraser-Smith , gStatistical analysis of the data from the ULF sensors at Seikoshi Stationh, in gSeismo Electromagnetics ( Lithosphere - Atmosphere - Ionosphere Coupling)h, Ed. by M. Hayakawa and O. A. Molchanov, TERRAPUB, pp.29-39, Tokyo.
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Korepanov, V., O. Molchanov, M. Hayakawa, and G. Lizunov , gCoordinated registration of seismogenic effects in the ionosphere by means of remote ground-based and local satellite measurementsh, in gSeismo Electromagnetics (Lithosphere - Atmosphere - Ionosphere Coupling)h, Ed. by M. Hayakawa and O. A. Molchanov, TERRAPUB, pp.397-403.
Kopytenko, Yu. A., V. S. Ismaguilov, K. Hattori, P. M. Voronov, M. Hayakawa, O. A. Molchanov, E. A. Kopytenko, and D. B. Zaitev [2002a], gMonitoring of the ULF electromagnetic disturbances at the station network before EQ in seismic zones of Izu and Chiba peninsulas(Japan)h, in gSeismo Electromagnetics (Lithosphere - Atmosphere - Ionosphere Coupling)h, Ed. by M. Hayakawa and O. A. Molchanov, TERRAPUB, pp.11-18, Tokyo.
Kopytenko, Y. A., V. S. Ismaguilov, O. A. Molchanov, E. A. Kopytenko, P. M. Voronov, K. Hattori, M. Hayakawa, and D. B. Zaitzev [2002b], gInvestigation of ULF magnetic disturbances in Japan during seismic active periodh, J. Atmos. Electr., Vol.22, pp.207-215.
Kulchitsky, A. V., Y. Ando and M. Hayakawa , gNumerical analysis on the propagation of ULF/ELF signals in the lithosphere with highly conductive layersh, Phys. Chem. Earth, Vol.29, pp.495-500.
Lin, Y., Q. Li, M. Hayakawa, and X. Zeng
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Miyaki, K., M. Hayakawa, and O. A. Molchanov , gThe role of gravity waves in the lithosphere - ionosphere coupling, as revealed from the subionospheric LF propagation datah, in gSeismo Electromagnetics (Lithosphere - Atmosphere - Ionosphere Coupling)h, TERRAPUB, pp.229-232, Tokyo.
Molchanov, O. A., M. Hayakawa, and K. Miyaki , gVLF/LF sounding of the lower ionosphere to study the role of atmospheric oscillations in the lithosphere-ionosphere couplingh, Adv. Polar Upper Atmos. Res., 15, pp.146-158.
Molchanov, O., A. Kulchitsky, and M. Hayakawa [2002a], gULF emission due to inductive seismo-electromagnetic effecth, in gSeismo Electromagnetics (Lithosphere - Atmosphere - Ionosphere Coupling)h, Ed. by M. Hayakawa and O. A. Molchanov, TERRAPUB, pp.153-162, Tokyo.
Molchanov, O. A., M. Hayakawa, V. V. Afonin, O. A. Akentieva, and E. A. Mareev [2002b], gPossible influence of seismicity by gravity waves on ionospheric equatrial anomaly from data of IK-24 satellite 1. Search for idea of seismo-ionosphere couplingh, in gSeismo Electromagnetics (Lithosphere - Atmosphere - Ionosphere Coupling)h, Ed. by M. Hayakwa and O. A. Molchanov, TERRAPUB, pp.275-285.
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A. Akentieva, E. A. Mareev, and V. Yu. Trakhtengerts [2002c], gPossible
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Molchanov, O., E. Fedorov, A. Schekotov, E. Gordeev, V. Chebrov, V. Surkov, A. Rozhnoi, S. Andreevsky, D. Iudin, S. Yunga, A. Lutikov, M. Hayakawa, and P. F. Biaigi [2004b], gLithosphere – atmosphere – ionosphere coupling as govering mechanism for preseismic short-term events in atmosphere and ionosphereh, Natural Hazards Earth System Sci., Vol.4, pp.757-767.
Naman, Sh., L. S. Alperovich, Sh., Wdowinski, M. Hayakawa, and E. Calais , gComparison of simultaneous variations of the ionospheric total electron content and geomagnetic field associated with strong earthquakesh, in gSeismo Electromagnetics (Lithosphere - Atmosphere - Ionosphere Coupling)h, Ed. by M. Hayakawa and O. A. Molchanov, TERRAPUB, pp.303-308.
Nagao, T., Y. Enomoto, Y. Fujinawa, M. Hata, M. Hayakawa, Q. Huang, J. Izutsu, Y. Kushida, K. Maeda, K. Oike, S. Uyeda and T. Yoshino , gElectromagnetic anomalies associated with 1995 Kobe earthquakeh, J. Geodynamics, Vol.33, pp.477-487.
Nickolaenko, A. P., L. M. Rabinowicz, and M. Hayakawa [2004a], gTime domain presentation for ELF pulses with accelerated convergenceh, Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 31, L05808, doi: 10.1029/2003GL018700.
Nickolaenko, A. P., L. M. Rabinowicz, and M. Hayakawa [2004b], gNatural ELF pulses in the time Domain : Series with accelerated convergenceh, IEEJ Trans. Fundamentals and Materials, vol. 124, No. 12, pp.1210-1215.
Nickolaenko, A. P., S. O. Nikolayenko, Yu. Schekotov, and M. Hayakawa [2004c], gAlternative interpretation of ionospheric Alfven resonanceh, J. Atmos. Electr., Vol.24, pp.17-30.
Ohta, K., K. Umeda, N. Watanabe, and M. Hayakawa [2002a], gRelationship between ELF magnetic fields and Taiwan earthquakeh, in gSeismo Electromagnetics (Lithosphere - Atmosphere - Ionosphere Coupling)h, Ed. by M. Hayakawa and O. A. Molchanov, TERRAPUB, pp.233-237, Tokyo.
K.Umeno, N.Watanabe, M.Hayakawa [2002b], gELF magnetic fields at Nakatsugawa in
Ohta, K., S.Hanai, S.Hara, M.Hayakawa , gObservation of subionospheric JG2AS signal as precursor of the earthquakesh, Journal of Atmospheric Electricity, 23, 2, pp.85-95.
Ohta, K., S.Hara, M.Hayakawa [2004a], gImprovement in detection of earthquake precursory by means of Terminal time method in subionospheric VLF propagationh, Journal of Atmospheric Electricity, 24, 1, pp.31-38, 2004.
S.Hara, N.Watanabe M.Hayakawa [2004b], gAnomalous behavior of Schumann
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Ondoh, T. and M. Hayakawa , gSeismo discharge model of anomalous sporadic E ionization before great earthquakesh, in gSeismo Electromagnetics (Lithosphere - Atmosphere - Ionosphere Coupling)h, Ed. by M. Hayakawa and O. A. Molchanov, TERRAPUB, pp.385-390.
Otsuyama, T. and M. Hayakawa , gFDTD simulation and experimental result on VLF scattering by ionospheric perturbations in Earth-ionosphere waveguide, Trans. IEE of Japan, Vol. 122-A, No. 1, pp.59-64.
T., T. Kariya and M. Hayakawa [2003a], gVLF signatures of ionospheric
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Otsuyama, T., D. Sakuma and M. Hayakawa [2003b], gFTDT analysis of ELF wave propagation and Schumann resonanace for a subionopheric waveguide modelh, Radio Sci., Vol.38, No.6, pp.1103, doi:10.1029/2002RS002752.
T., J. Manaba, M. Hayakawa, and M. Nishimura [2004a], gCharacteristics of
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Otsuyama, T. and M. Hayakawa [2004c], gFDTD analysis of ELF wave propagation for realistic subionospheric waveguideh, IEEJ Trans. Fundamentals and Materials, vol. 124, No. 12, pp.1203-1209.
Rapoport, Y., V. Grimalsky, M. Hayakawa, V. Ivchenko, D. Juarez-R, S. Koshevaya and O. Gotynyan , gChange of ionospheric plasma parameters under the influence of electric field which has lithospheric origin and due to radon emanationh, Phys. Chem. Earth, Vol.29, pp.579-587.
Rozhnoi, R., M. S. Solovieva, O. A. Molchanov and M. Hayakawa , gMiddle latitude LF (40 kHz) phase variations associated with earthquakes for quiet and disturbed geomagnetic conditionsh, Phys. Chem. Earth, Vol.29, pp.589-598.
Shvets, A. V., M. Hayakawa and O. A. Molchanov , gSubionospheric VLF monitoring for earthquake-related ionospheric perturbationsh, J. Atmos. Electr., Vol.22, pp.87-99.
Shvets, A. V., M. Hayakawa, O. A. Molchanov, and Y. Ando [2004a], gA study of ionospheric response to regional seismic activity by VLF radio soundingh, Phys. Chem. Earth, Vol.29, pp.267-237.
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Singh, B. and M. Hayakawa , Propagation modes of low- and very-low-latitude whistlers, J. Atmos. Solar-terr. Phys., Vol.63, pp.1133-1147.
B. and M. Hayakawa , gPropagation modes of low and very low latitude
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Singh, R. P., B. Singh, P. K. Mishra and M. Hayakawa [2003a], gOn the lithosphere -atmosphere coupling of seismo-electromagnetic signalsh, Radio Sci. Vol.38, No.4, pp.1065, doi:10.1029/2002RS002683.
Singh, B., M. Hayakawa, P. K. Mishra, R. P. Singh and D. R. Laskshmi [2003b], gVLF electromagnrtic noise bursts observed in a borehole and their relation with low-latitude hissh, J. Atmos. Solar-terr. Phys., Vol.65, No.269-276.
Singh, V., B. Singh, M. Hayakawa, M. Kumar, V. Kushwah, and O. P. Singh , gNighttime amplitude decrease in 19.8kHz NWC signals observed at Agra possibly caused by moderate seismic activities along the propagation pathh, J. Atmos. Electr., Vol.24, pp.1-15.
Smirnova, N., M. Hayakawa, and K. Gotoh , gPrecursory behavior of fractal characteristics of the ULF electromagnetic fields in seismic active zones before strong earthquakesh, Phys. Chem. Earth, Vol.29, pp.445-451.
Soloviev, O. V. and M. Hayakawa , gThree-dimensional subionospheric VLF field diffraction by a truncated highly conducting cylinder and its application to the Trimpi effect problemh, Radio Sci., Vol. 37, No. 5, 1079, doi:10.1029/2001RS002499.
Soloviev, O. V. and M. Hayakawa , g3D modeling method of VLF subionospheric radio wave propagation allowing for a localized ionospheric perturbationh, IEEJ Trans. Fundamentals and Materials, vol. 124, No. 12, 1216-1224.
Sorokin, V. M., E. N. Federov, A. Yu. Schekotov,
O. A. Molchanov and M. Hayakawa , gDepression of the ULF geomagnetic
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Surkov, V. V., D. I. Iudin, O. A. Molchanov, N. V. Korovkin, and M. Hayakawa [2002a], gThermofluctuational mechanism of cracks migration as a model of earthquake preparationh, in gSeismo Electromagnetics (Lithosphere - Atmosphere - Ionosphere Coupling)h, Ed. by M. Hayakawa and O. A. Molchanov, TERRAPUB, pp.195-201, Tokyo.
Surkov, V. V., S. Uyeda, H. Tanaka and M. Hayakawa [2002b], gFractal properties of medium and seismoelectric phenomenah, J. Geodynamics, Vol.33, pp.519-534.
Surkov, V. V., O. A. Molchanov and M. Hayakawa , gPre-earthquake ULF electromagnetic perturbation as a result of inductive seismomagnetic phenomena during microfracturingh, J. Atmos. Solar-terr. Phys., Vol.65, pp.31-46.
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, gThermal IR satellite data application for earthquake research in
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Uyeda, S., M. Hayakawa, T. Nagao, O. A. Molchanov, K. Hattori, Y. Orihara, K. Gotoh, Y. Akinaga and H. Tanaka [2002b], gElectric and magnetic phenomena observed before the volcano-seismo activity in 2000 in the Izu Island Regionh, Japan, Proc. US National Academy of Sci. (PNAS), Vol.99, pp.7352-7355.
Yunga, S., A. Lutikov, O. Molchanov, and M. Hayakawa , gUpward migration of earthquakes as a hint on origin of foreshock activity and other related phenomenah, in gSeismo Electromagnetics (Lithosphere - Atmosphere - Ionosphere Coupling)h, Ed. by M. Hayakawa and O. A. Molchanov, TERRAPUB, pp.167-172, Tokyo.
Zeng, X., M. Hayakawa, Y. F. Lin, and C. R. Xu , gInfrastructural analysis of geomagnetic field and earthquake predictionh, in gSeismo Electromagnetics (Lithosphere - Atmosphere - Ionosphere Coupling)h, Ed. by M. Hayakawa and O. A. Molchanov, TERRAPUB, pp.463-468.